Edmund Allenby - History

Edmund Allenby

1861- 1936

British General

Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby was born on April 23, 1861, in Brackenhurst UK. He was first educated at Haileybury College but then went to Sandhurst, Britain's stellar military academy. He served in the Boer War as a cavalry officer and entered World War I as a division commander and then as commander of the Third Army from 1915-1917. Allenby, however, is most famous for leading British forces in the Middle East. In December 1917, he captured Jerusalem and then went on to defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Megiddo.

Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby

Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, GCB , GCMG , GCVO (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor. He fought in the Second Boer War and also in the First World War, in which he led the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign against the Ottoman Empire in the conquest of Palestine.

The British succeeded in capturing Beersheba, Jaffa, and Jerusalem from October to December 1917. His forces occupied the Jordan Valley during the summer of 1918, then went on to capture northern Palestine and defeat the Ottoman Yildirim Army Group's Eighth Army at the Battle of Megiddo, forcing the Fourth and Seventh Army to retreat towards Damascus. Subsequently, the EEF Pursuit by Desert Mounted Corps captured Damascus and advanced into northern Syria.

During this pursuit, he commanded T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), whose campaign with Faisal's Arab Sherifial Forces assisted the EEF's capture of Ottoman Empire territory and fought the Battle of Aleppo, five days before the Armistice of Mudros ended the campaign on 30 October 1918. He continued to serve in the region as High Commissioner for Egypt and Sudan from 1919 until 1925.

A General and a Gentleman: Allenby at the Gates of Jerusalem

Toward the end of World War I, as the Ottoman Empire was crumbling in the face of Western powers, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George requested that General Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby deliver Jerusalem “as a Christmas present for the nation.”

That was in June 1917. By mid-November, Allenby’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) launched its Southern Palestine Offensive, beginning with the ANZAC Desert Mounted Corps’ successful Battle of Beersheva on October 27, followed by attacks on Gaza on October 30. With the Gaza-Beersheba line now weakened, the EEF pushed the Ottoman forces to Jaffa.

After three weeks of fighting in the Judean Hills, the British captured Jerusalem on December 9, 1917, and Allenby walked through the Jaffa Gate on December 11. Standing on the steps of the Tower of David, he proclaimed British martial law and accepted, together with Division Commander Major-General John Stuart Mackenzie Shea, the symbolic keys to Jerusalem.

In this proclamation, read to the city’s residents, Allenby recognized the importance and uniqueness of Jerusalem and called upon the city’s residents to continue living their lives as usual and to enjoy freedom of worship, religion and tradition under the patronage of the new government.

“[S]ince your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind, and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of devout people of those three religion for many centuries, I make it known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest or customary place of worship, of whatever form of the three religions, will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred.”

Church bells in London and Rome were rung in celebration of what was seen as the return of Christian rule for the first time since the fall of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

For Jews, as December 9, 1917, was also the first day of Hanukkah, the event was interpreted as a modern-day Hanukkah miracle. The Balfour Declaration had been issued only a month earlier, stating that His Majesty’s Government stated that it viewed “with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.”

Now it appeared that this promise was to be fulfilled. Moreover, Allenby’s proclamation was written in several languages, including Hebrew — the first time in modern history that the Hebrew language received international recognition.

That historic moment was recreated last week, exactly 100 years later, in the presence of Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat, Viscount Allenby of Megiddo and Felixstowe, Sara Viscountess Allenby, and John Benson, the great-grandson of General Shea, together with dignitaries and representatives of Old City Christian communities.

The proclamation was read aloud, as it was 100 years ago, in English, French, Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, Greek and Italian. This time, it was also read in Armenian in acknowledgment of that Old City community.

The reenactment of the photograph showing Allenby and Shea on the steps of the Tower of David accepting the keys to the city marked the opening of an exhibition entitled “A General and a Gentleman – Allenby at the Gates of Jerusalem” at the Tower of David Museum.

The exhibition tracks the dramatic events that unfolded in a single week that marked the beginning of a new era in the history of Jerusalem.

As described by curator Dr. Nirit Shalev-Khalifa, “The exhibition focuses in detail on the events that unfolded over three days – the ninth, tenth, and eleventh of December 1917 – when the Holy City was entrusted to its new custodians in a sequence of solemn, meticulously planned events and ceremonies that were both restrained and splendid, as well as several comic incidents and many local legends.”

The exhibition presents movies, photographs, certificates, posters, mementos and other original and rare objects, including travel journals, photo albums and personal equipment reflecting historical events from the perspective of soldiers on both sides.

“The Tower of David is the museum of the city of Jerusalem and we commemorate crucial events in the city’s history by creating compelling exhibitions that bring alive for the general public the historic moments that have shaped our city,” said Director and Chief Curator of the Tower of David Museum Eilat Lieber.

“A General and a Gentleman – Allenby at the Gates of Jerusalem” will run through September 2018 at the Tower of David Museum in Jerusalem.

The Greatest Protestant Crusader In History And How He Resembles Christ In The WAR OF ARMAGEDDON (Eye Opening Read To All Who Love Prophecy)

By Walid Shoebat (Shoebat Exclusive)

As I sit here on my Sabbath rest and contemplate why is it that I know of no one who compared the remarkable resemblance between the biblical narratives that mention Christ’s second coming and His war expeditions to defeat the Antichrist and liberate Jerusalem, how rarely if ever they were compared to how this parallels history’s greatest Protestant crusader, the British General Edmund Allenby. The study will help us unlock much as to Christ’s expedition during His second coming to defeat the Antichrist!

It was Allenby, a Protestant, not a Catholic who conquered Jerusalem taking it from the Muslim Ottoman Turks.

It is quite remarkable how God chose a militant Protestant to carry out the mission to liberate Jerusalem and I know of no one in the Prophecy arena who even examines Scripture to see, that Christ’s military campaigns when He returns are very Crusader-like paralleling Allenby’s military expeditions:

1) both wars, Christ and Allenby is to repulse the Ottoman Turkish invasion of Jerusalem and Egypt.
2) both conquer Egypt (see Isaiah 19).
3) both conquer Bozra.
4) both defeat an Antichrist at Armageddon.

Allenby was a Christian militant and his victory against the Muslims later paved the way for the creation of a Jewish state despite British errors that was made against the Jews with the White Paper which was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which, among several key provisions, the idea of partitioning Palestine was abandoned. Just as with Catholics, not all Protestants are equal. We all know who Neville Chamberlain was, he was anti-war with Hitler and is why we say, that if one is always anti-war, that person is also anti-ridding the world from evil tyrannies which is evil in itself.

Neville Chamberlain standing with Adolph Hitler

The story begins when the Ottoman Empire called for a military jihad against France, Russia and Great Britain in November 1914. While we know that Muslims say “first Constantinople then Rome” and while we expect the Antichrist to even attempt an invasion against Europe (which sadly the naïve paint Europe as Antichrist) and all of christendom. Daniel also tells us that Antichrist gets bad news from the north, which declares war against him in which he will ultimately be defeated. North of the Ottoman Empire’s headquarters, Turkey, is Russia (which is sadly painted by the naïve as Gog). There is no question as to why God ordained Russia to be converted to Christianity and despite what all dislike about Putin, Russia will be an intricate role in defeating Antichrist. Many believe that Christ defeats Antichrist on His own, but this interpretation excludes what Ezekiel declared (see Ezekiel 28:7-8, Ezekiel 30-32). God has always partnered with man in all the acts of redemption in which God does what God does and man through his obedience to God acts as God’s earthly vessel in whom He desires to mold and eventually perfect.

Many today while they see the threat of Islam and since they are unwilling to let Russia go from there decades old theme of being Gog, they combine a Russian-Turkic-Iranian coalition in reference to Ezekiel 38 unaware they are a-historic: the enmity between Russia and the Ottoman Turks never ended from time immemorial.

Map depicting the Russo-Turkish Wars.

Today Putin is pro-Bashar who is anti-Turkey and Russia taking over Crimea which sits north of Turkey removing the protective buffer zone for Turkey sets the Ukraine as the stage for a future invasion by Russia against Turkey to regain Hagia-Sophia, Christianity’s most remarkable temple and monument which a Turkish Antichrist will surely sit in as it is being reconverted to a mosque by Erdogan. It is perhaps why the Russian Cross is always mounted on Russian churches with the Cross stepping over the Crescent which is reminiscent to Russia will be the main nation that fulfills the end of Antichrist as Russia has finally become a sheep nation when Christ divides the nations sheep from goats.

It is perhaps why when the Christian League, an ad-hoc coalition of Catholic monarchies ships deployed in the shape of the cross which crushed the Ottomans at Lepanto in which their ships where in the shape of the crescent.

Finally the beginning end of this Islamic beast, the major threat to christendom, came in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire, the world’s greatest independent Islamic power, which is currently reviving again, abandoned its ambivalent neutrality towards the warring parties (as we see today Turkey’s face is neutral towards the west but this is changing) and became belligerent in the conflict, with the sultan declaring a military jihad (holy war) against France, Russia and Great Britain. Antichrist whom we explained for decades to come from the Ottoman Turkey also “declares war against the strongest fortresses” in Daniel 11 and similar to 1914, the strongest military-might today would be the U.S., Europe and Russia.

The Ottoman Empire had recently been humiliated by setbacks in Libya (which Daniel 11 tells us Antichrist also enters) and the Balkans. Participation in what had begun as a European war by the Ottomans to have been suicidal, but key elements in the Turkish government, impressed by German industrial and military power and motivated by dreams of imperial Ottoman glory, just as we see the Turks today, was then greeted by the expanding war as an opportunity to regain Ottoman lost territories and incorporate new lands and nationalities into the Ottoman empire. We already see Turkey interested in Syria and aiding the Muslim Brotherhood to re-invade Egypt.

With Germany as an ally, the Ottoman Empire represented a serious threat to the British Empire, so in a pre-emptive strike, London immediately landed an Anglo-Indian force at Basra (biblical Bosra), near the estuary of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. This was done to protect the Anglo-Persian oil pipeline, which was vital to the British navy, and to show the Union Jack in this strategically important area in the Persian Gulf. Christ also comes out victorious from Bosra: “Who is this coming from Edom, from Bozrah, with his garments stained crimson? Who is this, robed in splendor, striding forward in the greatness of his strength? “It is I, proclaiming victory, mighty to save.”” (Isaiah 63:1)

Within weeks the Central Powers struck back with a surprise attack against Britain’s ‘jugular vein’, the Suez Canal. This attempt, in early February 1915, to breach British defenses on the Suez Canal and raise an Islamic revolt in Egypt, failed however, and resulted in heavy losses for the Muslim attackers. Convinced that neither side had the means to achieve victory in France in 1918, Prime Minister David Lloyd George sought to make Allenby’s theatre the focus of his country’s military effort. Germany’s massive offensives closer to home during the first half of 1918, however, forced the government to recall most of Allenby’s British soldiers to France. Allenby, who retained his cavalry, received replacements for his infantry in Egypt from many sources, predominately from India but also from many other diverse nations ranging from Burma to the West Indies. In Egypt, too, British forces gained a new commander, General Sir Archibald Murray, and additional resources.

Similarly, Christ in Isaiah 19, goes to war in Egypt: “See, Jehovah rides on a swift cloud and is coming to Egypt. The idols of Egypt tremble before him, and the hearts of the Egyptians melt within them” (Isaiah 19:1).

We all know that Zechariah 14 is about rescuing the Jews and converting them to Him, but Isaiah 19 should shock some folks and get us to ask, who and why is Christ coming for in Egypt: “And it will be for a sign and for a witness to the LORD of Hosts in the land of Egypt for they will cry to the LORD because of the oppressors, and He will send them a Savior and a Mighty One, and He will deliver them.” (Isaiah 19:20)

Here we have the “Mighty One” is the Messiah who fights on the day of the Lord to fight “the oppressors”. Here, Christ comes to rescue the Copts of Egypt from Muslim persecution, our brothers and sisters in Egypt who are currently suffering from the oppressors and calling for Jesus to come down and save them. This will intensify when Turkey invades Egypt under Antichrist (see Daniel 11).

Continuing with the Protestant crusaders, the British, unwilling to commit all of its emerging military resources in 1915 to the Western Front, where trench warfare prevailed, the British leadership embraced a naval offensive against Istanbul to force the Ottoman Empire out of the war. When the Royal Navy in February and March was unable to fight its way through the Dardanelles to place the Ottoman capital under its big guns, the military authorities hastily assembled an expeditionary force to land on the Gallipoli peninsula.

Christ also directly goes and fights Turkey in Zechariah 9: “I will rouse your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Yavan.” In this passage, Israel is seen fighting against Ionia or Yavan led by Christ Himself after their conversion. This in itself debunks the claim that Antichrist is the European Union. In several Bibles, this word is correctly translated as “Greece” but this is ancient Greece (Asia Minor) and “Ionia” or “Yavan” in Hebrew was a province that was located on the western coast of modern Turkey. This is crucial because the clear context of this battle is the return of Christ: “Then Jehovah will appear over them (Israel)” and fight on their behalf “going with the whirlwinds of the South”. He is heading to Ionia (Turkey) and Pergamum which is the seat of Satan (see Revelation 2:13).

So in the End-Times, at the time when Jesus returns, the Jews (Zion) which at the time becomes Christian will unite with other Christian nations to engage in the defining battle in all history, the Battle of Armageddon which also includes Christ’s expedition against Turkey itself (Yavan) after their armies are destroyed at Armageddon in Israel.

By stages the mission of the British forces evolved from a defense of Egypt to an invasion of Jerusalem.

After the British expeditions in Egypt, first, they had to cross the Sinai Desert, with its sand storms and searing temperatures, had to be crossed, a test of endurance heading towards Israel to liberate Jerusalem.

Allenby heeded good biblical advice when he faced the Turks at the biblical village of Michmash mentioned in 1 Samuel 13 ‘And Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were present with them, abode in Gibeah of Benjamin, but the Philistines encamped in Michmash.’

Major Vivian Gilbert of the British army relates the story of an unnamed brigade major who was reading his Bible while contemplating the situation against the Ottoman forces. The brigade major remembered a town by the name of Michmash mentioned somewhere in the Bible. He found the verses, and discovered that there was a secret path around the town. He woke the brigadier general, and they found that the path still existed and was very lightly guarded. The British forces used this path to outmanoeuver the Ottomans, and so took the town.

Christ as we all know, similar to Allenby, crusades against the Turks and takes Jerusalem from the Antichrist and marching into Jerusalem captured from the Turks in 1917, the British general, Sir Edmund Allenby, proudly declared “today the wars of the Crusaders are completed,” and the British press celebrated his victory with cartoons of Richard the Lion-Hearted looking down at Jerusalem above the caption “At last my dream come true.”

The golden rule is that God is no respecter of persons, be it someone who grew up Catholic or grew up Protestant, it is the theology that counts and the Catholic crusading spirit was godly and righteous. We will always find an Abel and we will always find a Cain, regardless that even both were “believers” one of the two “Cain” will end up in hell. Its the same in christendom, it is not who say “its all about Jesus,” but “its all what Jesus is all about” and who obey Him with action wins in the end. Always reverse the mottos of the fool and you will find the nugget of the wise.

In the days of Great Britain, they did not all hate the crusaders as we see today which this will be healed in the coming future and is why we support militancy. When Protestants supported the Muslim Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 that amongst the Ottoman forces were to be found Lutheran and Calvinist allies from Holland and England who were defeated by the Catholic Alliance, to later the Protestants rejoiced only when they realized that the Ottomans threatened them as well. It took wars to heal and learn that not everything militant was wrong.

The colonial powers glorified the Crusaders as their ideological forebears when during December, 1917 Allenby had moved upwards from Egypt and captured Jerusalem. As the first Christian conqueror of the Holy City since the Crusades, Allenby ordered his troops to dismount as a mark of respect when they entered the city. The difference between Allenby and Christ is that Allenby refused to ride an entourage with a Rolls-Royce or even a horse since Christ is known to have rode an ass and will be the One coming victorious riding on a white horse. So Allenby chose to walk on foot as Christ’s humble servant.

General Edmund Allenby victory march against the Muslim Ottoman Empire in Jerusalem

The following year Allenby defeated the remaining Turkish Army in Israel. A final and conclusive strike at the Battle of Megiddo where Armageddon will take place when Christ returns. Allenby also returned to the offensive at the Battle of Megiddo, on 19 September 1918. With a decided advantage in manpower, artillery, air power and morale, he quickly destroyed the Ottoman/Turkish armies facing him. The victory at Megiddo happened in September 1918 which left the road to the invasion of Damascus open for the crusading British empire. Once the enemy front was broken, the British cavalry dominated the campaign. Damascus fell on 1 October, Aleppo, the last city to fall in the campaign, on 26 October. Five days later an armistice with the Ottoman Empire came into effect. Since 19 September Allenby’s forces had advanced hundreds of miles and netted over 75,000 prisoners.

And likewise, Christ destroys Damascus as has been written Damascus will become a “heap of ruins. The cities of Aroer will be deserted and left to flocks” (Isaiah 17:1–2). Christ also is spoken of in the Psalms: “Gird Your sword upon Your thigh, O Mighty One,” (Psalm 45:3) and that “Lebanon will fall before the Mighty One” in Isaiah 10:34 will be Christ’s expedition to remove all of Islam from Syria and Lebanon and destroy this revived beast empire of the Ottomans.

So what should we learn? It is crucial to understand always, that Prophecy has multiple layers and the story of Allenby is a hint of what is to come, a war with the Ottomans. We must never seclude Prophecy for only the end-times: does Christ not care about the past flock to warn them as well?

For example, the prophecy of Isaiah 17 may date from 735 BC when Damascus and Israel were allied against Judah. Tiglath-Pileser took Damascus in 732. Indeed, while this prophecy had a type of fulfillment, this campaign never reduced the city of Damascus to rubble and there is an ultimate future fulfillment, but God wrote these prophecies so the scoffers can scoff that the Bible is only a historic manuscript. The depiction of Damascus as a “heap of ruins” has not been fulfilled. This is why one needs to beware of scoffers who make the Bible only a historic reference. We need to also beware of all the hype that always make prophecy about the study of end-times only.Alone” and “only” are words which are usually used as a method to isolate and deceive. The rule of thumb is that The Bible is a study for all times.

Likewise, when Daniel spoke of the King of the North invading Egypt, we can find in history a layer, when the Ottoman Sultan Selim I invaded Syria then marched into Egypt depicting a similar invasion by Antichrist which today we see ISIS are attempting to do at Dabiq. History and Prophecy intertwine in the most amazing ways and the sooner we learn from history the better we are prepared to face the future.


Crusaders who all departed from different countries were supposed to meet in Constantinople and then head to the Holy Land together as one massive army. However, contrary to what the pope commanded, two small bloodthirsty brigands, spearheaded by Walter the Penniless and Peter the Hermit, left early of their own initiative. They led their rebellious armies down the Rhineland to kill the Jews there.

But the charge that the Crusades produced widespread anti-Judaism or were by their nature anti-Jewish has little basis in historical fact. Furthermore, the claim that the Crusades were a rehearsal for the anti-Semitic genocide of the Holocaust is completely without foundation. Those who promote such a view do so to further their agendas, ideologies, and book sales.

To assess the claims of these popular works, a closer examination of the Jewish pogroms during the First Crusade is in order. At the Council of Clermont in 1095, Urban II called for an armed expedition to the East to aid fellow Christians and liberate Jerusalem. The pogroms of 1096 were perversions of crusading zeal they were definitely not the normal response. Emicho’s contingent and the other anti-Jewish crusading bands did not comprise the major armies, which advanced east in the summer of that year. The anti-Jewish crusaders either dissolved after perpetrating these heinous acts or were destroyed during their march through Hungary. Robert Chazan, one of the foremost scholars on the medieval Jewish experience –particularly the massacres of 1096–believes that “the combination of radical thinking and weak discipline accounts for both the eventual failures of these bands and their anti-Jewish excesses.” (1)

The noted Crusades historian Jonathan Riley-Smith has recently said, “We know it to be a myth that the crusaders targeted the Jewish community in Jerusalem.” The Hebrew populations of Acre, Hebron, and Haifa met with a fate similar to the community in Jerusalem. Again, the brutality was the result of the resistance by these cities to the crusader forces–not because there were Jews in these places. Such tactics were brutal, but typical of both Muslim and Christian armies in the region. The Jewish communities in Tyre and Ascalon, on the other hand, were not harmed when these cities were taken since the leaders chose surrender instead of resistance. (2)

Ironically, the success of the First Crusade actually facilitated wide scale Jewish migration from Europe to the East. Most importantly, there were no anti-Jewish pogroms in the Levant during almost two hundred years of crusader rule. While life in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was certainly no utopia for the Jews, these examples contradict the notion that the Crusades were inherently anti-Semitic. The evidence indicates that the Latin rulers in the Levant were more lenient than their European counterparts, and in some instances, than the previous Muslim rulers (who were well known for their tolerance).

Finally, the late Israeli scholar Joshua Prawer did the most thorough examination in his The History of the Jews that when Jews were on the receiving end of crusader brutality–as at Jerusalem in 1099 or Acre in 1104–it was within the context of total warfare directed at the resisting population as a whole, of which the Jews were a minor element. (3)

The negative arguments against the Crusades is as if one speaks of how the United States came to be. While there was the Trails of Tears, regarding the mass expulsion of native Indians, there will also be someone who will denounce the United States from its right to exist harping about the Trails of Tears!

Hilaire belloc said regarding such criticism of the Crsaders that he will not waste his time refuting these. One can find all sorts of bad on anything good to denounce it. So here is the question to all Christians who hate the Crusaders: do we condemn King David for what he did to Uriah and say that everything King David did was evil? To answer “yes” would make one a heretic and to answer “no”, in itself refutes the argument including exposing the foolishness of the one who makes it.

Obviously, killing Jews was not part of the Crusades intent and was never authorized, a thing which all the critics will always fail to obtain from original sources. Even when it comes to Peter the Hermit and others, the Catholic Bishops of those provinces in fact tried to protect the Jews by hiding them, even at the risk of their own lives. This line alone has tremendous history which will take pages to fill. Those acts by certain brigands were rightly condemned by the pope. Yet the critics usually fail to mention this because the issue is always an agenda.

But the critics abound in their slander against the Crusaders. In each post we make, in our comment section, we find the lazy, the uneducated, the unwise and the outright slanderer. When Theodore Shoebat wrote an article praising the Crusaders, I had one object on the comment line saying “…Jesus said Jerusalem would be trampled underfoot until the times of the Gentiles were complete. That trampling definitely includes your beloved crusaders …”

To this Protestant, the Crusaders, and just because it was carried out by Catholic was “bad” makes Allenby the Protestant bad as well.

The fools are the ones who can and always post short comments that are void of research and it takes libraries to refute them. It is as we say in the Middle East: “it takes one fool to throw a rock in the well but it takes ten wise men to pull it out”.

Fools always say that “God will always answer prayers” and that “it is not all about knowledge”, yet God clearly says of such simpletons, these fail to read the first instructions in Proverbs chapter 1: “Then they will call to me but I will not answer they will look for me but will not find me, since they hated knowledge and did not choose to fear the Lord.” God was clear and here it is in full context:

“Out in the open Wisdom calls aloud, she raises her voice in the public square on top of the wall she cries out, at the city gate she makes her speech: “How long will you who are simple love your simple ways? How long will mockers delight in mockery and fools hate knowledge?”

God sent Wisdom and here is what He says to these folks that are simpletons and do not acquire knowledge:

“I in turn will laugh when disaster strikes you I will mock when calamity overtakes you—when calamity overtakes you like a storm, when disaster sweeps over you like a whirlwind, when distress and trouble overwhelm you. “Then they will call to me but I will not answer they will look for me but will not find me, since they hated knowledge and did not choose to fear the Lord.” (See Proverbs chapter 1).

“They will look to Me” seems to be speaking about “believers” who seek God and believe but are foolish and God will not respond to fools. Today we live in a culture that when someone speaks of militarism, they say “its all Old Testament”. It is as if the Old Testament is now obsolete altogether. If so, is the proverb then reversed and God all of the sudden loves also the fools? Even all this talk of the “power of prayer,” will be rendered obsolete to the fool, yet many today argue by even using Scripture to say that all gentiles going to Jerusalem as liberators as “bad”, since the Crusaders were Catholic, so they try to fit any biblical verses to point fingers forgetting that not all Protestants were as naïve as some of the comments I usually get on my blog from anti-Catholic diehards which historians will usually dismiss these arguments outright–and often rightfully so, for these histories are regularly riddled with errors. An even bigger problem, however, is the widespread effect that these deceptive popular narratives have on the historical consciousness of the reading public. That besides working on trying to Rescue Christians from physical danger, we need to also Rescue Christians from all these mental disorders in which Theodore asked “Dad, at times I feel that we are running a mental asylum” in which I responded with “Indeed, but I am by brother’s keeper”. While he knows history, I as a father have to teach him ancient holy-land wisdom.

Were the Crusades Anti-Semitic by Vince Ryan
(1) Robert Chazan, In the Year 1096: the First Crusade and the Jews (Philadelphia: Jerusalem Publication Society, 1996), p. 55.v

(2) Jonathan Riley-Smith, “Rethinking the Crusades,” First Things (March 2000), pp. 20-23.

(3) Details concerning the Jewish experience under crusader rule can be found in many of the works by the late Israeli scholar Joshua Prawer. For the most thorough examination see his The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988).

Further Reading

The standard biography is Gen. Sir Archibald Wavell, Allenby: A Study in Greatness (2 vols., 1940-1943), a balanced account by a World War II commander. Brian Gardner, Allenby of Arabia: Lawrence's General (1966 British ed. entitled Allenby, 1965), is valuable because the author was the first to make use of the Allenby family correspondence. Other sources are Raymond Savage, Allenby of Armageddon: A Record of the Career and Campaigns of Field-Marshal Viscount Allenby (1925), and the pertinent chapter in B. H. Liddell Hart, Reputations, Ten Years After (1928 repr. in Barrett Parker, ed., Famous British Generals, 1951).

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Nicknamed the "Bloody Bull," but known as an intelligent and moral soldier, General Edmund Allenby brought an end to the Ottoman rule of Jerusalem, when he helped capture Palestine (and Syria) for the British Mandate during the First World War. Ironically, in Jerusalem, the city that served as Allenby's hub of operations for conquering the northern Middle East, no street bears his name today.

The darling of Britain's World War I Middle East campaign, Allenby's professional life was marked by ironic twists of fate. After twice failing the test to enter Britain's Indian Civil Service, Allenby turned to the military, ultimately placing fifth out of 110 applicants at the Royal Military College Exam. The military, it turns out, was a natural fit for Allenby, who gained experience and an impressive reputation in Africa during the Second Boer War.

After defeating the Boer Republics (now South Africa), Allenby returned to England where in October 1915 he was put in charge of the British Third Army. Once again, a pitfall fatefully pushed Allenby forward, when his shortcomings in lackluster victory against the Germans at the Battle of Arras led to his "demotion." Allenby was transferred to Egypt, where he was put in charge of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, quickly earning the respect of his troops by visiting them on the front lines and moving his own headquarters from Gaza to Rafah. After capturing Gaza, Allenby moved north, eventually defeating the Ottomans and capturing Jerusalem on the first day of Chanuka, December 9, 1917.

Although he had made his name as a cavalry soldier, it was on foot that Allenby first entered Jerusalem, dismounting his horse and walking through Jaffa Gate out of respect for the Holy City. Allenby's official report on entering the city recalls that "The procession was all afoot, and at Jaffa Gate I was received by the guards representing England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, India, France and Italy. The population received me well."

He went on to deliver a landmark speech from the Tower of David, and to declare martial law in efforts to preserve Jerusalem's commerce and pilgrimage activities, stating, "since your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people of these three religions for many centuries, therefore, do I make it known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest, or customary place of prayer of whatsoever form of the three religions will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred."

From Jerusalem, Allenby defeated the Ottomans at the famous Battle of Megiddo in September 1918, eventually capturing Damascus on the first of October. Aleppo fell to Allenby's troops on October 25, and by the end of the month, the Turks had admitted defeat.

Allenby's relationship with Jerusalem outlived the War, and on May 7, 1927, the general was invited to lay the cornerstone of St. Andrew's Church in honor of the Scottish soldiers who fought under him in World War I.

Ironically, while today both Tel-Aviv and Haifa have major thoroughfares named after General Allenby, whose name also graces one of the major passages into Jordan, in Jerusalem, Allenby's name is virtually unused. A former British army camp, known as "Allenby Camp" throughout the mandate period, is now the proposed site of a possible Jerusalem-based US Embassy in Talpiot, but like the promised high-speed train connecting Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, the embassy does not seem likely to be built anytime soon.

Allenby, survivor of multiple wars, died suddenly, of an aneurysm, in London in May 1936.


At Megiddo, on 19 September 1918, Allenby launched a co-ordinated attack using cavalry, infantry, artillery, armoured vehicles and aircraft to annihilate the Turks in one fell swoop. As the infantry and artillery closed on their positions, his mounted units encircled the enemy, preventing escape.

This victory secured the decisive breakthrough. The EEF quickly advanced, taking Damascus and Aleppo, before the Turks sued for peace in October 1918.

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Indian cavalry march through Damascus, 1918

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Sword carried by Allenby into Aleppo in December 1918

Edmund Henry H. Allenby (1861-1936) – Brief Profile & History

Nicknamed &ldquothe Bull&rdquo for his massive size and his frequent out-bursts of anger, Edmund Allenby was the most accomplished and respected British general of World War I. He planned and executed the offensive that forced the surrender of Turkey and achieved the last large-scale victory by horse-mounted cavalry in the history of warfare.

Born to a relatively affluent East Anglican country family on April 23, 1861, Allenby graduated from the Royal Military College at Sandhurst in 1881. As a cavalry lieutenant in the Sixth Inniskilling Dragoons, Allenby joined his regiment in Africa, where he seFved for six years in Bechuanaland and Zululand. After a brief break back in England to attend the Staff College at Camberley, Allenby returned to South Africa in time to participate in the Boef War (1899-1902). At war&rsquos end, Allenby, promoted to colonel, assumed command of the Fifth Lancers in Great Britain.

Allenby&rsquos competence as a commander and trainer led to a series of positions of increasingly greater responsibility. By 1910 he was a major general and inspector general of cavalry.

As the senior cavalry officer on active duty in the British army at the outbreak of World War I, Allenby deployed to France as the Expeditionary Force Cavalry Division commander in 1914. Horse cavalry soon proved to have no role in the machine-gun- dominated trench warfare, but while Allenby&rsquos talents as a leader of horsemen had become outdated, his ability to develop tactics and lead men in combat had not. In 1915 he distinguished himself as a corps commander in the Batde of Ypres and two years later commanded the Third Army in* the Batde of Arras.

In the summer of 1917, Allenby was presented the opportunity that would make his reputation as Britain&rsquos top general of the war. Several offensives by the British command in Palestine against the Turks had been unsuccessful, and on April 17, Allenby left his command in France to report to Egypt, with the order to &ldquotake Jerusalem before Christmas.&rdquo

Allenby immediately moved his headquarters and staff from their comfortable Cairo hotel rooms to tents near the front, gain¬ing the admiration of the enlisted men and junior officers. While flooding the communications system to London with requests for more troops and heavy guns, Allenby reorganized his army. Unlike the trenches of France, the sands of Palestine provided excellent terrain for cavalry, and Allenby increased his mobility by organizing native camel detachments and integrating them with his horse¬men to form the Desert Mounted Corps.

In October, Allenby began his offensive. Leaving three divisions to feign an attack at Gaza, he committed his infantry to an assault against surprised Turkish defenses at Beersheba. Once the infantry breached the defenses, he sent his horse and camel cav¬alry through the opening to capture the city&rsquos water supply.

Allenby did not slow his offensive after the capture of Beer-sheba. Instead, he committed his horse-and-camel cavalry in the pursuit of the withdrawing Turks to prevent their establishing extensive defenses. Although often short of supplies, Allenby&rsquos troops quickly pushed the Turks out of Gaza and on December 9, 1917, nearly three weeks ahead of schedule, occupied Jerusalem.

Developments in Europe forced Allenby to transfer many of his infantry forces to France for the campaigns of 1918 and to halt his offensive for nine months in the ancient city while raw re¬placements arrived from Great Britain. By the time he was pre¬pared to resume fighting, the Turks had established an in-depth defensive line composed of forty thousand men and 350 artillery pieces, reaching from the shores of the Mediterranean inland to the Jordan River valley north of Jaffa.

Allenby employed elaborate deceptive measures of huge dummy tent camps and horse units along his western flank. When he felt he had convinced the Turks his attack would focus there, he began a devastating artillery barrage at the opposite end of the line on September 19, 1918. Once his infantry breached the enemy front, Allenby ordered his Desert Mounted Corps forward, with the support of artillery and Royal Air Force bombers.

On the twentieth, Allenby&rsquos cavalry entered Megiddo and then turned east to cut off large portions of the retreating Turk¬ish army. Allenby continued his pursuit and occupied Damascus on October 1 and Aleppo on October 25, 1918, forcing the Turks to sue for peace. An armistice, signed on October 30, ended Turkey&rsquos participation in the war. In thirty-eight days of nearly constant combat, Allenby&rsquos forces advanced 360 miles and captured or killed more than eighty thousand Turks and their German and Austrian allies his loss was 853 killed and 4,480 wounded.

Allenby&rsquos reward included promotion to field marshal and later viscount. From the end of the war until his retirement in 1925, Allenby served as high commissioner in Egypt. He then re¬turned to England to spend his last days in pursuit of his hobbies of ornithology and botany and to briefly serve as the lord rector of the University of Edinburgh. He died at age seventy-five on May 14, 1936, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

When he captured Jerusalem, Allenby modesdy insisted on walking into the city rather than riding on horseback or in a staff car. Most often, however, Allenby &ldquothe Bull&rdquo bullied his officers and intimidated his men. Although not particularly well liked, Allenby had the respect of all. While he easily gains his place on this list as the leading British general of World War I, Allenby is also well de-serving of a place in history as the last commander to achieve a major victory through the classic use of massed horse cavalry.

100 years later, Allenby returns to Jerusalem

Renee Ghert-Zand is a reporter and feature writer for The Times of Israel.

Viscount Henry J. H. Allenby of Megiddo and Felixstowe and John Benson are not typical Jerusalem tourists.

The great-great nephew of Field Marshal Edmund Allenby and the great-grandson of Major General John Shea, respectively, Allenby and Benson are currently in Israel to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the capture of the Holy City from the Ottoman Turks by British forces led by their military leader ancestors.

Benson and Lord Allenby, along with Lord Allenby’s mother Sara Viscountess Allenby, are in the capital at the invitation of The Tower of David Museum, which on Monday will stage a public reenactment of General Allenby’s proclamation delivered from the front of the ancient citadel inside the Old City’s Jaffa Gate on December 11, 1917.

The special guests received a preview on Sunday of the museum’s new exhibition, “A General and A Gentleman: Allenby at the Gates of Jerusalem,” which officially opens on Monday. The exhibition focuses on the events of three pivotal days in December 1917, from the the moment the Ottomans surrendered to Britain’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force on December 9 to Allenby’s proclamation of martial law on December 11.

The proclamation, issued in seven languages (English, French, Italian, Hebrew, Arabic, Russian, and Greek), promised protection for the holy places and assured freedom of religious practice for all the city’s inhabitants:

However, lest any of you should be alarmed by reason of your experiences at the hands of the enemy who has retired, I hereby inform you that it is my desire that every person should pursue his lawful business without fear of interruption…Therefore do I make known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest of customary place of prayer, of whatsoever form of the three religions, will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faiths they are sacred.

Constituting the first official, quasi-governmental use of Hebrew in Palestine, Allenby’s proclamation was welcomed by all of Jerusalem’s communities, which had suffered great hardship under Ottoman rule.

The British conquest, coming as it did in December and a month after the Balfour Declaration, was interpreted by the Jews as a Hanukkah miracle and the beginning of the fulfillment of revived Jewish sovereignty. The Christian world regarded it as a Christmas gift, the return of Christian rule to Jerusalem for the first time since the fall of the Crusader Kingdom.

“The populace was apparently glad to see us,” wrote General Allenby to his mother in a letter dated December 7, 1917.

The exhibition showcases rare artifacts, returning them to exactly where they were a century ago. Curator Dr. Nirit Shalev-Khalifa and her team tracked down some items locally, such as a remnant of the white flag of surrender improvised from torn bedsheets in The Tower of David’s own collection.

Others, like the keys to the city of Jerusalem and its post office handed over by the Turkish governor to the British, and a sword and walking stick gifted to 60th Division commander General Shea by grateful residents, are on loan from London’s Imperial War Museum and other institutions and collectors in the UK and New Zealand.

Lady Allenby, widow of Michael Jaffray Hynman Allenby, 3rd Viscount Allenby, was an honorary member of the curatorial team. She sourced and loaned several items to the show.

“Not long ago, I finally got around to cleaning the loft in our home, and I found a trunk. I almost threw it away. Fortunately I opened it first and discovered letters written by the 1st Viscount Allenby to his wife and mother,” she said.

She also found a commemorative sash presented to General Allenby by a grateful Ashkenazi Jewish community of Jerusalem in a ceremony held in May 1918.

Wearing an engraved gold Jerusalem Cross on a chain originally given by General Allenby to his wife and passed down through the generations to each Lady Allenby, the viscountess admitted to having mixed emotions about travelling to Jerusalem to mark the centennial.

“I wanted to come to represent my late husband, whom I accompanied to Israel when he came for the 75th anniversary. I am delighted my son has come with me this time,” said Lady Allenby.

This is Lord Allenby’s first visit to Israel. The owner of a woodlands and hedgerows management company, Allenby, 49, has a new found interest in his great-great uncle’s experiences in Palestine during World War I.

“To understand about Field Marshall Allenby you had to go to a museum. There were no movies made about him, as there were about Lawrence of Arabia,” he said.

According to Allenby, the British public has a strong awareness of the Great War battles on the Western Front in France and Belgium, but little knowledge of other campaigns fought by British forces.

“I’m so glad I got to come here to absorb it all. There is a lot of passion here and it comes in a crescendo for me,” Allenby said.

“I hope to develop a rapport and understanding. There’s a lot to learn,” he said.

Benson, 56, said he had always known about his great-grandfather Shea, nicknamed “Jimmy of Jerusalem,” and his family history.

“But it’s not part of our everyday life,” said Benson, managing director of a digital medial company.

Visiting Israel for the first time has proven more emotional than Benson expected.

“I’m very impressed and daunted by the history of Jerusalem, I’m proud of the role my ancestor played in it,” Benson said.

The proximity of the centennial to President Donald Trump’s recent announcement of the United State’s recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, as well as ensuing violent reaction by some Palestinians, could not be ignored.

But these visitors to Jerusalem are focused on the past, not the present.

“We are here to honor our families, who were military men. It’s all about the 100th anniversary, and not what is happening now,” Lord Allenby said.

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1917-48: British Mandate

“It was for the British that Jerusalem was so important — they are the ones who established Jerusalem as a capital,” said Prof. Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, a historical geographer at Hebrew University. “Before, it was not anyone’s capital since the times of the First and Second Temples.”

The three decades of British rule that followed Allenby’s march on Jerusalem saw an influx of Jewish settlers drawn by the Zionist vision of a Jewish homeland, while the local Arab population adjusted to the reality of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled the city since 1517.

“Paradoxically, Zionism recoiled from Jerusalem, particularly the Old City,” said Amnon Ramon, senior researcher at the Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research. “First because Jerusalem was regarded as a symbol of the diaspora, and second because the holy sites to Christianity and Islam were seen as complications that would not enable the creation of a Jewish state with Jerusalem as its capital.”

Many early Zionists were secular European socialists, motivated more by concerns about nationalism, self-determination and escape from persecution than by religious visions.

“Jerusalem was something of a backwater, a regression to a conservative culture that they were trying to move away from,” according to Michael Dumper, professor in Middle East politics at the University of Exeter in England. “Tel Aviv was the bright new city on a hill, the encapsulation of modernity.”

For Arabs, he said: “There was still something of the shock at not being in the Ottoman Empire. There was a reordering of their society. The local Palestinian aristocracy, the big families of Jerusalem, emerged as leaders of the Palestinian national movement, which was suddenly being confronted by Jewish migration.”

Opposition to that migration fueled several deadly riots by Palestinians, while Jews chafed at British rule and at immigration restrictions imposed in 1939 — restrictions that blocked many Jews fleeing the Holocaust from entering. After the war, in 1947, the United Nations approved a partition plan that provided for two states — one Jewish, one Arab — with Jerusalem governed by a “special international regime” owing to its unique status.