James Heywood

James Heywood

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James Heywood, the fifth son of the Nathaniel Heywood, the Manchester banker, was born in 1810. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he married Annie Kennedy, daughter of John Kennedy, in 1853.

Heywood represented Lancashire in the House of Commons between 1831-1857. He favoured moderate extension of the vote but was against legislation on child labour. James Heywood died on 17th April, 1872.

This is a question in which the interests of a large portion of my constituents. If the provisions of this bill is enforced, and if all persons under eighteen years of age were prevented from working more than ten hours per day, great distress among the working classes would be the inevitable consequences. They are paid by the quantity of work done, and their wages would be diminished in proportion to the lessened time allowed them. I know the case of a single family - a father and eight children, all upwards of fourteen years of age - whose earnings were diminished by 13s. in the first week after the act of the last session came into operation. Now they had before worked thirteen hours and a half in the day, and were then reduced to twelve. Under the present bill, reducing the hours to ten, this same family would suffer a further reduction of 15s. a week.

My fear is, that, from mistaken notions of humanity, we may inflict upon the working classes a deeper wound than we propose to cure. We must remember that food and clothing are as essential to health as air and exercise; and take care that while we give the later we do not take away the former.

Heywood History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Heywood is part of the ancient legacy of the Anglo-Saxon tribes of Britain. The name was taken on by someone who worked as a person who was in charge of protecting an enclosed forest from damage by vandals, animals, and poachers. The name was originally derived from the Old English haye, which meant enclosure. [1] Another source notes the name as an occupational name as in " 'the hayward,' a keeper of cattle, literally 'hedge-watcher'". [2]

"The duties of the hayward were of a varied nature. His chief task seems to have been to guard the cattle at pasture but he also protected the crops from thieves, trimmed the hedges, etc. In old poems he is generally represented as carrying a horn." [3]

And to underscore the Saxon heritage, one learned source bluntly says "there is nothing Norman in this name." [4]

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Early Origins of the Heywood family

The surname Heywood was first found in Lancashire at Heywood, a town and chapelry, in the township of Heap, parish and union of Bury, hundred of Salford. "Heywood, in the Saxon, denotes the site of a wood in a field, or a wood surrounded by fields a family of the same name resided here for many generations. " [5] Heywood Hall was long the residence of the ancestors of the baronet's family. [1]

One source notes "the son of John, the eldest son of William de Wiggenshall, who took the sir-name of Heyward, Hauuard, or Howard and was the first of this Family of that Sir-name, which, as I take it, he took from the office of Heyward there." [6]

The first record of the family was found in the Domesday Book of 1086 when Hauuart, an early spelling of the family name was listed in Yorkshire. [7]

Years later, Haward de Wihton was listed in the Pipe Rolls of Norfolk in 1166 and later again, William, Stephen Haward was listed in the Subsidy Rolls for Cheshire in 1332. [7]

As an occupational name, early records were scattered as the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 list: Adam le Hayward in Devon Roger le Hayward in Buckinghamshire and Alicia le Heyward in Huntingdonshire.

The Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 list Robertus Hayward and Magota Hayward. [2]

Conceived while James Heywood was moving cross country in March 1999 to be with his family, ALS TDI became the world's first non-profit biotechnology company and pioneered a new model for accelerating translational research by directly hiring scientists to develop treatments outside of the academic and for-profit corporate architecture. [2] The institute's initial approach focused on gene therapy and stem cells and ALS TDI was the first to publish on the safety of the use of stem cells in ALS patients. [3] ALS TDI then pioneered a novel high-throughput in-vivo validation program [4] that tested more treatments in preclinical studies than all other labs combined and led to two drugs being tested in clinical trials. The culmination of this work is a paper published in the journal "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis" [5] that identified crucial errors present in many existing preclinical studies that could lead to false positive results. The results suggest that false positive results may rest with the methods used by researchers and not the models themselves. The paper has clear clinical implications, as ALS TDI was unable to replicate a number of prior animals studies from the field that led to clinical trials that ultimately failed in humans.

Stephen Heywood died in the fall of 2006 when his ventilator accidentally disconnected shortly before ALS TDI began a comprehensive program to use industrial discovery approaches to understand the disease. [6] In August 2007, after serving as ALS TDI's CEO for nine years and having raised $50m in funding, Heywood stepped down and joined the Institute's board of directors. [7] He retains the title "Alex and Brit d’Arbeloff Founding Director" in honor of their support and involvement in the creation of ALS TDI.

In 2005, Heywood joined his youngest brother Ben and longtime friend Jeff Cole to found PatientsLikeMe. PatientsLikeMe operates disease-specific communities and allows for dialogue between patients about how to improve care and accelerate research.

PatientsLikeMe is a privately funded company that aggregates its users health information and sells it to the pharmaceutical and medical device industry. PatientsLikeMe was named one of "15 companies that will change the world" by CNN Money. [8]

Currently Heywood serves as chairman of PatientsLikeMe and is focused on developing a broad patient-centered platform that improves medical care and accelerates the research process by measuring the value of treatments and interventions in the real world.

Heywood has been profiled by the Pulitzer Prize-winning author Jonathan Weiner, in the biography His Brother's Keeper: A Story from the Edge of Medicine. [9] He has been profiled in The New Yorker, [10] Wall Street Journal, New York Times Magazine, [11] 60 Minutes II, [12] New England Journal of Medicine, [13] and the Economist. In 2006, So Much So Fast, an award-winning documentary chronicling Jamie and Stephen and the ALS Therapy Development Institute, premiered at Sundance Film Festival. In October 2009, Heywood gave a talk at TEDMED on his brother's condition and how it inspired him to found PatientsLikeMe. [14]


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Origins Edit

From the beginning of the American Civil War, the state of Missouri had chosen not to secede from the Union but not to fight for it or against it either: its position, as determined by an 1861 constitutional convention, was officially neutral. Missouri, however, had been the scene of much of the agitation about slavery leading up to the outbreak of the war, and was home to dedicated partisans from both sides. In the mid-1850s, local Unionists and Secessionists had begun to battle each other throughout the state, and by the end of 1861, guerrilla warfare erupted between Confederate partisans known as "bushwhackers" and the more organized Union forces. The Missouri State Guard and the newly elected Governor of Missouri, Claiborne Fox Jackson, who maintained implicit Southern sympathies, were forced into exile as Union troops under Nathaniel Lyon and John C. Frémont took control of the state. Still, pro-Confederate guerrillas resisted by early 1862, the Unionist provisional government mobilized a state militia to fight the increasingly organized and deadly partisans. This conflict (fought largely, though not exclusively, between Missourians themselves) raged until after the fall of Richmond and the surrender of General Robert E. Lee, costing thousands of lives and devastating broad swathes of the Missouri countryside.

The conflict rapidly escalated into a succession of atrocities committed by both sides. Union troops often executed or tortured suspects without trial and burned the homes of suspected guerrillas and those suspected of aiding or harboring them. Where credentials were suspect, the accused guerrilla was often executed, as in the case of Lt. Col. Frisby McCullough after the Battle of Kirksville. Bushwhackers, meanwhile, frequently went house to house, executing Unionist farmers.

The James and Younger brothers belonged to slave-owning families from an area known as "Little Dixie" in western Missouri with strong ties to the South. Zerelda Samuel, the mother of Frank and Jesse James, was an outspoken partisan of the South, though the Youngers' father, Henry Washington Younger, was believed to be a Unionist. Cole Younger's initial decision to fight as a bushwhacker is usually attributed to the death of his father at the hands of Union forces in July 1862. He and Frank James fought under one of the most famous Confederate bushwhackers, William Clarke Quantrill, though Cole eventually joined the regular Confederate Army. Jesse James began his guerrilla career in 1864, at the age of sixteen, fighting alongside Frank under the leadership of Archie Clement and "Bloody Bill" Anderson.

At the war's end, Frank James surrendered in Kentucky Jesse James attempted to surrender to Union militia but was shot through the lung outside of Lexington, Missouri. [2] He was nursed back to health by his cousin, Zerelda "Zee" Mimms, whom he eventually married. When Cole Younger returned from a mission to California, he learned that Quantrill and Anderson had both been killed. The James brothers, however, continued to associate with their old guerrilla comrades, who remained together under the leadership of Archie Clement. It was likely Clement who, amid the tumult of Reconstruction in Missouri, turned the guerrillas into outlaws.

Early years: 1866 to 1870 Edit

On February 12, 1866, a group of gunmen carried out one of the first daylight, peacetime, armed bank robberies in U.S. history when they held up the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri. The outlaws stole some $60,000 in cash and bonds and killed a bystander named George Wymore on the street outside the bank. [3] State authorities suspected Archie Clement of leading the raid, and promptly issued a reward for his capture. In later years, the list of suspects grew to include Jesse [4] and Frank James, Cole Younger, John Jarrett, Oliver Shepherd, Bud and Donny Pence, Frank Greg, Bill and James Wilkerson, Joab Perry, Ben Cooper, Red Mankus, and Allen Parmer (who later married Susan James, Frank and Jesse's sister).

Four months later, on June 13, 1866, two members of Quantrill's Raiders were freed from prison in Independence, Missouri the jailer, Henry Bugler, was killed. The James brothers are believed to have been involved. [5] The crime began a string of robberies, many of which were linked to Clement's group of bushwhackers. The hold-up most clearly linked to the group was of Alexander Mitchell and Company in Lexington, Missouri, on October 30, 1866, which netted $2,011.50. Clement was also linked to violence and intimidation against officials of the Republican government that now held power in the state. On election day, Clement led his men into Lexington, where they drove Republican voters away from the polls, thereby securing a Republican defeat. A detachment of state militiamen was dispatched to the town. They convinced the bushwhackers to disperse, then attempted to capture Clement, who still had a price on his head. Clement refused to surrender and was shot down in a wild gunfight on the streets of Lexington.

Despite the death of Clement, his old followers remained together, and robbed a bank across the Missouri River from Lexington in Richmond, Missouri, on May 22, 1867, in which the town mayor John B. Shaw and two lawmen [Barry and George Griffin] were killed. [6] This was followed on March 20, 1868, by a raid on the Nimrod Long bank in Russellville, Kentucky. In the aftermath of the two raids, however, the more senior bushwhackers were killed, captured or simply left the group. This set the stage for the emergence of the James and Younger brothers, and the transformation of the old crew into the James–Younger Gang. John Jarrett and Arthur McCoy were mentioned in numerous newspaper accounts, so they were likely active in gang activities up to 1875. [ citation needed ]

On December 7, 1869, Frank and Jesse James are believed to have robbed the Daviess County Savings Association in Gallatin, Missouri. [7] Jesse is suspected of having shot down the cashier, John W. Sheets, [8] in the mistaken belief that he was Samuel P. Cox, the Union militia officer who had ambushed and killed "Bloody Bill" Anderson during the Civil War. The James brothers were unknown up to this point this may have been their first robbery. [ citation needed ] Their names were later added to previous robberies as an afterthought.

1871 to 1873 Edit

John Younger was almost arrested in Dallas County, Texas in January 1871. He killed two lawmen [Nichols and Mcmahan] during the attempt and escaped. [9] [10] On June 3, 1871, the gang robbed a bank in Corydon, Iowa the James and Younger brothers were suspects. The bank contacted the Pinkerton National Detective Agency in Chicago, the first involvement of the famous agency in the pursuit of the James–Younger Gang. Agency founder Allan Pinkerton dispatched his son, Robert Pinkerton, who joined a county sheriff in tracking the gang to a farm in Civil Bend, Missouri. A short gunfight ended indecisively as the gang escaped. On June 24, Jesse James wrote a letter to the Kansas City Times, claiming Republicans were persecuting him for his Confederate loyalties by accusing him and Frank of carrying out the robberies. "But I don't care what the degraded Radical party thinks about me," he wrote, "I would just as soon they would think I was a robber as not."

On April 29, 1872, the gang robbed a bank in Columbia, Kentucky. One of the outlaws shot the cashier, R.A.C. Martin, who had refused to open the safe. On September 23, 1872, three men (identified by former bushwhacker Jim Chiles as Jesse James and Cole and John Younger) robbed a ticket booth of the Second Annual Kansas City Industrial Exposition, amid thousands of people. They took some $900, and accidentally shot a little girl in the ensuing struggle with the ticket-seller. Apart from Chiles' testimony, there is no other evidence this crime was committed by the James or Younger brothers, and Jesse later wrote a letter denying his or the Youngers' involvement. Cole was furious over this, because neither he nor brother John had been linked to the crime before the letter. The crime was praised by Kansas City Times editor John Newman Edwards in a famous editorial entitled, "The Chivalry of Crime." Edwards soon published an anonymous letter from one of the outlaws (believed to be Jesse) that referred to the approaching presidential election: "Just let a party of men commit a bold robbery, and the cry is hang them. But [President Ulysses S.] Grant and his party can steal millions and it is all right," the outlaw wrote. "They rob the poor and rich, and we rob the rich and give to the poor."

On May 27, 1873, the James–Younger Gang robbed the Ste. Genevieve Savings Association in Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. As they rode off they fired in the air and shouted, "Hurrah for Hildebrand!" Samuel S. Hildebrand was a famous Confederate bushwhacker from the area who had recently been shot dead in Illinois. Arthur McCoy had lived in this area and knew it quite well he was likely involved and may have been the planner and leader. [ citation needed ]

On July 21, 1873, the gang carried out what was arguably the first train robbery west of the Mississippi River, derailing a locomotive of the Rock Island Railroad near Adair, Iowa. Engineer John Rafferty died in the crash. The outlaws took $2,337 from the express safe in the baggage car, having narrowly missed a transcontinental express shipment of a large amount of cash.

On November 24, John Newman Edwards published a lengthy glorification of the James brothers, Cole and John Younger, and Arthur McCoy, in a twenty-page special supplement to his newspaper the St. Louis Dispatch (Edwards had moved from the Kansas City Times to the Dispatch in 1873). Most of the supplement, entitled "A Terrible Quintet," was devoted to Jesse James, the gang's public face, and the article stressed their Confederate loyalties.

1874 to 1876 Edit

In January 1874, the outlaws were suspected of holding up a stagecoach in Bienville Parish, Louisiana. Later another suspected stage robbery took place between Malvern and Hot Springs, Arkansas. There, the gang returned a pocket watch to a Confederate veteran, saying that Northern men had driven them to outlawry and that they intended to make them pay for it. On January 31, the gang robbed a southbound train on the Iron Mountain Railway at Gads Hill, Missouri. For the first of two times in all their train robberies, the outlaws robbed the passengers. In both train robberies, their usual target, the safe in the baggage car belonging to an express company, held an unusually small amount of money. On this occasion, the outlaws reportedly examined the hands of the passengers to ensure that they did not rob any working men. Many newspapers reported this was actually done by the "Arthur McCoy" gang. To correct errors, the gang telegraphed a report of the Gads Hill robbery to the St. Louis Dispatch newspaper for publication. [11]

The Adams Express Company, which owned the safe robbed at Gads Hill, hired the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. On March 11, 1874, John W. Whicher, the agent who was sent to investigate the James brothers, was found shot to death alongside a rural road in Jackson County, Missouri. [12] Two other agents, John Boyle and Louis J. Lull, accompanied by Deputy Sheriff Edwin B. Daniels to track the Youngers, posed as cattle buyers. On March 17, 1874, the trio was stopped and attacked by John and Jim Younger on a rural stretch of road near Monegaw Springs, Missouri. Daniels was killed instantly, [13] Lull and John Younger shot and killed each other, while Boyle and Jim Younger escaped. [14] Lull lived long enough to testify before a coroner's inquest before succumbing to his wounds a few days later. [15]

The Pinkerton deaths added to the growing embarrassment suffered by Missouri's first post-war Democratic governor, Silas Woodson. He issued a $2,000 reward offer for the Iron Mountain robbers (the reward usually offered for criminals was $300). He also persuaded the state legislature to provide $10,000 for a secret fund to track down the famous outlaws. The first agent, J.W. Ragsdale, was hired on April 9, 1874. On August 30, three of the gang held up a stagecoach across the Missouri River from Lexington, Missouri, in view of hundreds of onlookers on the bluffs of the town. A passenger identified two of the robbers as Frank and Jesse James. The acting governor, Charles P. Johnson, dispatched an agent selected from the St. Louis police department to investigate.

The gang next robbed a train on the Kansas Pacific Railroad near Muncie, Kansas, on December 8, 1874. It was one of the outlaws' most successful robberies, gaining them $30,000. William "Bud" McDaniel was captured by a Kansas City police officer after the robbery, and later was shot during an escape attempt.

On the night of January 25, 1875, Pinkerton agents surrounded the James farm in Kearney, Missouri. Frank and Jesse James had been there earlier but had already left. When the Pinkertons threw an iron incendiary device into the house, it exploded when it rolled into a blazing fireplace. The blast nearly severed the right arm of Zerelda Samuel, the James boys' mother (the arm had to be amputated at the elbow that night), and killed their 9-year-old half-brother, Archie Samuel. On April 12, 1875, an unknown gunman shot dead Daniel Askew, a neighbor and former Union militiaman who may have been suspected of providing the Pinkertons with a base for their raid. Allan Pinkerton then abandoned the chase for the James–Younger Gang.

By September 1875, at least part of the gang had ventured east to Huntington, West Virginia, where they robbed a bank on September 7. Two new members participated: Tom McDaniel (brother of Bud) and Tom Webb (a Confederate veteran who had been at Lawrence with Frank and Cole). McDaniel was killed by a posse and Webb was caught. The other two robbers, Frank and Cole, escaped.

Also in 1875, the two James brothers moved to the outskirts of Nashville, Tennessee, probably to save their mother from further raids by detectives. Once there, Jesse James began to write letters to the local press, asserting his place as a Confederate hero and a martyr to Radical Republican vindictiveness.

On July 7, 1876, Frank and Jesse James, Cole and Bob Younger, Clell Miller, Charlie Pitts, Bill Chadwell and Hobbs Kerry robbed the Missouri Pacific Railroad at the "Rocky Cut" near Otterville, Missouri. The new man, Kerry, was arrested soon after and he readily identified his accomplices.

Northfield, Minnesota Raid Edit

The Rocky Cut raid set the stage for the final act of the James–Younger Gang: the famous Northfield, Minnesota raid on September 7, 1876. The target was the First National Bank of Northfield, which was far outside of the gang's usual territory. The idea for the raid came from Jesse and Bob Younger. Cole tried to talk his brother out of the plan, but Bob refused to back down. Reluctantly, Cole agreed to go, writing to his brother Jim in California to come home. Jim Younger had never wanted anything to do with Cole's outlaw activities, but he agreed to go out of family loyalty. The Northfield bank was not unusually rich. According to public reports, it was a perfectly ordinary rural bank, though rumors persisted that General Adelbert Ames, son of the owner of the Ames Mill in Northfield, had deposited $50,000 there. Shortly after the robbery, Bob Younger declared that they had selected it because of its connection to two Union generals and Radical Republican politicians: Benjamin Butler and his son-in-law Adelbert Ames. General Ames had just stepped down as Governor of Mississippi, where he had been strongly identified with civil rights for freedmen. He had recently moved to Northfield, where his father owned the mill on the Cannon River and had a large amount of stock in the bank. One of the outlaws "had a spite" against Ames, Bob said. Cole Younger said much the same thing years later and recalled greeting "General Ames" on the street in Northfield just before the robbery.

Cole, Jim and Bob Younger, Frank and Jesse James, Charlie Pitts, Clell Miller and Bill Chadwell took the train to St. Paul, Minnesota in early September 1876. After a layover in St. Paul they divided into two groups, one going to Mankato, the other to Red Wing, on either side of Northfield. They purchased expensive horses and scouted the terrain around the towns, agreeing to meet south of Northfield along the Cannon River near Dundas on the morning of September 7, 1876. The gang attempted to rob the bank about 2:00 PM on September 7. Northfield residents had seen the gang leave a local restaurant near the mill shortly after noon, where they dined on fried eggs. They testified at the Younger brothers' trial that the group smelled of alcohol and that the gang was obviously under the influence when they greeted General Ames.

Three of the outlaws (Bob Younger, Frank James and Charlie Pitts) crossed the bridge by the Ames Mill and entered the bank the other five (Jesse James, Cole and Jim Younger, Bill Stiles and Clell Miller) stood guard outside. Two were standing outside the bank’s front door and the other three were waiting in Mills Square to guard the gang's escape route. According to some reports, J. S. Allen shouted to the townspeople, “Get your guns, boys, they’re robbing the bank!” Once local citizens realized a robbery was in progress, several took up arms from local hardware stores. Shooting from behind cover, they poured deadly fire on the outlaws. During the gun battle, medical student Henry Wheeler killed Miller, shooting from a third-floor window of the Dampier House Hotel, across the street from the bank. Another civilian named A.R. Manning, who took cover at the corner of the Sciver building down the street, killed Stiles. Other civilians wounded the Younger brothers (Cole was shot in his left hip, Bob suffered a shattered elbow, and Jim was shot in the jaw). The only civilian fatality on the street was 30-year-old Nicholas Gustafson, an unarmed recent Swedish immigrant, who was killed by Cole Younger at the corner of 5th Street and Division.

Thirteen Swedish families lived west of Northfield in the Millersburg area in 1876, including Peter Gustafson, who had recently been joined by his brother Nicolaus and nephew Ernst from Sweden. West of Millersburg that morning, Peter Youngquist harnessed his mules and headed for Northfield to sell farm produce, accompanied by Gustafson and three others. The Swedes arrived in Northfield about 1:00 PM and set up their vegetable wagon along the Cannon River near 5th Street. About 2:00 PM, they heard gunshots. Nicolaus Gustafson ran to the intersection of Division and 5th a block away, where he was shot in the head as the bank was being robbed. Gustafson died four days later. Another Swede named John Olson was an eyewitness to the Gustafson shooting and later testified against Cole Younger.

Inside the bank, the assistant cashier Joseph Lee Heywood refused to open the safe and was murdered for resisting. The two other employees in the bank were teller Alonzo Bunker and assistant bookkeeper Frank Wilcox. Bunker escaped from the bank by running out the back door despite being wounded in the right shoulder by Pitts as he ran. The three robbers then ran out of the bank after hearing the shooting outside and mounted their horses to make a run for it, having taken only several bags of nickels from the bank. Every year in September, Northfield hosts "Defeat of Jesse James Days", a celebration of the town's victory over the James–Younger Gang.

In addition to the death of Miller and Stiles, every one of the rest of the gang was wounded, including Frank James and Pitts, both shot in their right legs. Jesse James was the last one to be shot, taking a bullet in the thigh as the gang escaped. The six surviving outlaws rode out of town on the Dundas Road toward Millersburg where four of them had spent the night before.

Aftermath Edit

Minnesotans joined posses and set up picket lines by the hundreds. After several days the gang had only reached the western outskirts of Mankato when they decided to split up (despite persistent stories to the contrary, Cole Younger told interviewers that they all agreed to the decision). The Youngers and Pitts remained on foot, moving west, until finally they were cornered in a swamp called Hanska Slough, just south of La Salle, Minnesota, on September 21, two weeks after the Northfield raid. In the gunfight that followed, Pitts was killed and the Youngers were again wounded. The Youngers surrendered and pleaded guilty to murder in order to avoid execution. Frank and Jesse secured horses and fled west across southern Minnesota, turning south just inside the border of the Dakota Territory. In the face of hundreds of pursuers and a nationwide alarm, Frank and Jesse escaped, but the infamous James–Younger Gang was no more.

On September 23, 1876, the Younger brothers were taken to the Rice County jail in Faribault. On November 16, a grand jury issued four indictments — one each for the first-degree murders of Joseph Heywood and Nicolaus Gustafson, one for bank robbery, and one for assault with deadly weapons on the wounded bank clerk, Bunker. The three brothers pleaded guilty on November 20, 1876 and were sentenced to life terms in the state penitentiary at Stillwater.

Nicolaus Gustafson was buried in Northfield because the Millersburg Swedes had no cemetery in 1876. After his death, the Millersburg Swedes determined to establish their own church and burial ground. Peter Youngquist and Carl Hirdler donated an acre of land adjacent to their homes overlooking Circle Lake and in 1877 John Olson was hired to build the Christdala Evangelical Swedish Lutheran Church 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Millersburg. Today the church is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and historical markers in front of the church tell the story of Nicolaus Gustafson and the founding of Christdala.

Having successfully escaped, Frank James joined Jesse in Nashville, Tennessee, where they spent the next three years living peacefully. Frank in particular seems to have thrived in his new life farming in the Whites Creek area. Jesse, however, did not adapt well to peace. Accordingly, he gathered up new recruits, formed a new gang and returned to a life of crime. On October 8, 1879, Jesse and his gang robbed the Chicago and Alton Railroad near Glendale, Missouri. Unfortunately for Jesse, one of the men, Tucker Basham, was captured by a posse. He told authorities he had been recruited by Bill Ryan. [ citation needed ]

On September 3, 1880, Jesse James and Bill Ryan robbed a stagecoach near Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. On October 5, 1880, they robbed the store of John Dovey in Mercer, Kentucky. On March 11, 1881, Jesse, Ryan, and Jesse's cousin Wood Hite robbed a federal paymaster at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, taking $5,240. [16] Shortly afterward, a drunk and boastful Ryan was arrested in Whites Creek, near Nashville, and both Frank and Jesse James fled back to Missouri. [ citation needed ]

On July 15, 1881, Frank and Jesse James, Wood and Clarence Hite, and Dick Liddil robbed the Rock Island Railroad near Winston, Missouri of $900. Train conductor William Westfall [17] and passenger John McCullough [18] were killed. On September 7, 1881, Jesse James carried out his last train robbery, holding up the Chicago and Alton Railroad. The gang held up the passengers when the express safe proved to be nearly empty.

With this new outbreak of train robberies, the new Governor of Missouri, Thomas T. Crittenden, convinced the state's railroad and express executives to put up the money for a large reward for the capture of the James brothers. Creed Chapman and John Bugler were arrested for participating in the robbery on September 7, 1881. Though they were confirmed as having participated in the robbery by convicted members of the gang, neither was ever convicted.

In December 1881, Wood Hite was killed by Liddil in an argument over Martha Bolton, the sister of the Fords. [19] Bob Ford, not yet a member of the gang, assisted Liddil in his gunfight. Ford and Liddil, with Bolton as an intermediary, made deals with Governor Crittenden. On February 11, 1882, James Timberlake arrested Wood Hite's brother Clarence, who made a confession but died of tuberculosis in prison. Ford, on the other hand, agreed to bring down Jesse James in return for the reward. [ citation needed ]

On April 3, 1882, Ford fatally shot Jesse James behind the ear at James' rented apartment in St. Joseph, Missouri. [20] [21] Bob and his brother Charley surrendered to the authorities, pleaded guilty, and were promptly pardoned by Crittenden. On October 4, 1882, Frank James surrendered to Crittenden. Accounts say that Frank surrendered with the understanding that he would not be extradited to Northfield, Minnesota. [22] Only two cases ever came to trial – one in Gallatin, Missouri for the July 15, 1881 robbery of the Rock Island Line train at Winston, Missouri in which a train crewman and a passenger were killed, and one in Huntsville, Alabama for the March 11, 1881 robbery of a United States Army Corps of Engineers payroll at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Frank James was found not guilty by juries in both cases (July 1883 at Gallatin and April 1884 at Huntsville). Missouri kept jurisdiction over him with other charges but they never came to trial and they kept him from being extradited to Minnesota. Frank James died on February 8, 1915, at the age of 72. [23]

The Youngers remained loyal to the Jameses when they were in prison and never informed on them. They ended up being model prisoners and in one incident helped keep other prisoners from escaping during a fire at the prison. Cole Younger also founded the longest-running prison newspaper in the United States during his stay in Stillwater State Prison. [ citation needed ] Bob Younger died in prison of tuberculosis on September 15, 1889, at the age of 36. After much legal dispute, Cole and Jim Younger were paroled in 1901 on the condition they remain in Minnesota. Jim committed suicide on October 19, 1902 while on parole in St. Paul, at the age of 54. Cole Younger received a pardon in 1903 on the condition that he leave Minnesota and never return. He traveled to Missouri where he joined a "Wild West" show with Frank James and died there on March 21, 1916, at the age of 72. [ citation needed ]

Bill Ayers and Diana Oughton headed a splinter group of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) that called itself the "Jesse James Gang" and evolved into the Weather Underground. [24]

What Heywood family records will you find?

There are 97,000 census records available for the last name Heywood. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Heywood census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 14,000 immigration records available for the last name Heywood. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 9,000 military records available for the last name Heywood. For the veterans among your Heywood ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 97,000 census records available for the last name Heywood. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Heywood census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 14,000 immigration records available for the last name Heywood. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 9,000 military records available for the last name Heywood. For the veterans among your Heywood ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Monkey Town: The History of Heywood

River Street, Hooley Brow
1848: Not present on OS map
1871 directory: Brocklehurst William & Co. (manufacturers), River street mill Hooley brow.
1890: Marked on OS map as unnamed cotton mill.
1922 directory: Operated by Kershaw, A.
1928: Named on OS map as Park Mill (cotton).
1937: Marked on OS map as ‘disused’.
1957: Marked on OS map as Park Mill (cotton).
2018: Building still present and in use.

Park Mill, OS map, 1930.

Park Street Mill
Cotton spinning
Park Street, Hopwood
1847: Not present on OS map.
1875 directory: Hoyle John, Park street mill, Heywood.
1888 directory: Park Street Cotton Spinning Co. Limited, Park Street Mill, Hopwood.
1891 directory: Park Street Cotton Spinning Co, Limited (and doublers), Park street 41,000 spindles, 408/801, weft, 608 twist.
1922 directory: Park Street Spinning Co.
1937: Marked on OS map as Cotton Mill.
1947: Not present on OS map.

Park Street Mill, OS map, 1907.

Paved Brow New Mill
Cotton spinning
South Street, Wham Bar
1847: Marked on OS map as Paved Brow New Mill (cotton). Paved Brow Old Mill is across the street.
1850 directory: Chadwick & Diggle, Paved Brow Mills, and 12 Hodson's court, Manchester.
1850 directory: Chadwick Hugh & Jacob, Paved brow Mills, and 12 Hodson's court, Manchester.
1871 directory: Lund John and Sons, Paved-brow mills (cotton spinners).
1880: Petty & Stott, cotton doublers and manufacturers, Mills Street Mill. It is likely that 'Mills Street Mill' refers to either Paved Brow Old Mill or Paved Brow New Mill, as they are the only mills on that street at this time.
1880 directory: Barker William & David, cotton manufacturers, Paved Brow Mill.
1880 directory: Lund John & Sons, cotton spinners, Paved Brow Mill.
1888 directory: Stott Joseph, Paved Brow Mills.
1891 directory: Thomas Sheppard, 16,000 spindles, sewing, knitting and mending cottons, and grandrelle tie and selvage yarns.
1907: Marked on OS map as ‘wallpaper’ works.
1928: Marked on OS map as ‘disused’.
1937: Building not present on OS map.

Paved Brow New Mill, OS map, 1928.

Paved Brow Old Mill - see Excel Mill

Peel Street Mills
Cotton spinning
Peel Street
1841 directory: Kay Richard, cotton spinner, Peel St h. Vale cottage.
1851: Marked on OS map as Peel Street Mill (cotton).
1871 directory: Kay Richard and Brother, Peel street mills (cotton spinners).
1880 directory: Kay Richard & Bros., cotton spinners, Peel Street Mills.
1891 directory: Richard Kay and Brother, 41,000 spindles, 41/501, mule twist, hosiery, &c.
1922 directory: Kay, R & Bro.
1928: Marked on OS map as Cotton Mill.
1937: Not present on OS map.

Peel Street Mills, OS map, 1929.

Perseverance Iron Works
Iron works
Bank Street
1848: Building not present on OS map. Mount Pleasant Chapel on this site.
1880 directory: Whittaker J. & G., engineers and millwrights, Perseverance Iron Works, Bank Street.
1891: Building marked on OS map as Flannellette Works.
1907: Building still present on OS map.
1928: Building not present on OS map.

Perseverance Mill
Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Cross Street
1860s: Established by Co-op as spinning and weaving mill.
1880 directory: Heywood Spinning Co., Limited, cotton spinners, Perseverance Mill James Haworth, manager F. Greaves, secretary.
1891 directory: Heywood Cotton Spinning and Manufacturing Co, Limited, 20,352 ring spindles, 128/408.
1922 directory: Heywood and Roe Acre.
1937: Marked on OS map as Cotton Mill.
1986: Building present on OS map.
2018: Building no longer present.

Perseverance Mill, OS map, 1929.

Phoenix Brewery
Green Lane
1848: No buildings here, but part of this site is marked on an OS map as a brickfield.
1890: Marked on OS as Phoenix Brewery.
1956: Marked on OS map as Phoenix Brewery (disused).
1991: Micro-brewery opened at the site.
2018: Building still present and in use as brewery.

Phoenix Mill Cotton spinning and manufacturing
John Street/Clarke Street
1848: Not present on OS map.
1871 directory: Smith James (maker of Grandrelle yarns, and dealer in coloured tie yarns for bundles) Phoenix mill. John street (cotton spinner and manufacturer).
1880 directory: Smith James, dyer and maker of grandrelle yarns, Phoenix mill, John Street h. Starkey Street.
1891 directory: James Smith and Sons, Limited (grandrelle doublers, dyers, winders and warpers), John street 12,000 spindles, 68/1208 two fold Dye Works, Marland, near Rochdale. Phoenix Mills, Tattersall James and Sons, Limited, Victoria and Gregge Street Mills 38,000 spindles, 169/448 weft, 128/288 warp and at Pitfield Mills, Bamford Manchester office-14, Brown street.
1922 directory: Smith, James & Son.
1927: Marked on OS map as Cotton Mill.
1937: Building not present on OS map.

Pilsworth Bleach Works
Brightley Brook, Pilsworth, Bury
1847: Morris's Mill (fustian) is at this site.
1880 directory: Buckley W. E. & Co., bleachers and finishers, Pilsworth Bleach works.
1893: Marked on OS map as Pilsworth Bleach Works. This is a new building.
1956: Marked on OS map as Pilsworth Bleach Works.
Buildings demolished by 2000.

Pilsworth Bleach Works, OS map, 1939.

Pilsworth Clough Mill
Woollen, later bleach works
Brightley Brook, Pilsworth Clough, Bury
1893: Marked on OS map as Pilsworth Clough Mill (woollen).
1928: Marked on OS map as Pilsworth Clough Mill (woollen finishing).
1939: Marked on OS map as Pilsworth Clough Mill (disused).
1956: Marked on OS map as Bleach Works.
Buildings demolished by 2000.

Pilsworth Clough Mill, OS map, 1957.

Pitfield Mill
Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Wheelbarrow Lane, Birtle-cum-Bamford
1847: Marked on OS map as Pit Field Mill (cotton).
1871 directory: Tattersall James, Victoria and Gregge street mills, Pitfield mills, Bamford, and 27a, Fountain street, Manchester (cotton spinners).
1890: Marked on OS map as Pitfield Mills.
1891 directory: Phoenix Mills, Tattersall James and Sons, Limited, Victoria and Gregge Street Mills 38,000 spindles, 169/448 weft, 128/288 warp and at Pitfield Mills, Bamford Manchester office-14, Brown street.
1908: Marked on OS map as Pitfield Mill (cotton).
1938: Still marked on OS map.
1956: Buildings not present on OS map.

Pitfield Mill, OS map, 1890.

Plantation Mill (aka Carr Parker)
Cotton waste spinning
Killgate Brook, Ashworth Moor
1853: Built near Cheesden Lumb Mill for George Parker. Traded in later years as Carr, Parker and Company.
1891: Closed during this year. Marked on OS map as Plantation Mill (disused).
1908: Buildings not present on OS map.

Plantation Mill, OS map, 1891.

Plum Mill
Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Broadfield1906: Opened as Plum Tickle Mill.
1922 directory: Plum Mill Ltd.
1959: Ceased production as a result of reorganisation of the cotton industry.
1978: Demolished.

Plum Mill, OS map, 1928.

Poor Peg Mill - see Woodfield Mill

Princess Mills
Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Gregge Street, Hopwood
1888 directory: Gleave John & Co. Spring Mill, Bury Old rd. & Princess Mill, Gregge St.
1888 directory: Hopwood (The) Manufacturing Co. Princess Mill, Gregg St. Hopwood.
1891 directory: Hopwood Manufacturing Co, Hopwood 450 looms, calicoes, twills, long cloths and sheetings.
1891: John Gleave and Co, Princess and Hooley Bridge Mills 654 looms, sheetings, twills, T cloths and mexicans.
1922 directory: Brookfield Manufacturing.
1957: Marked on OS map as cotton mill.
1970: Still present on OS map.
1986: Not present on OS map.

Princess Mill, OS map, 1907.

RAF No.35 Maintenance Unit
Pilsworth Road, Broadfield
1938: Established on 167 acres with its own railway sidings.
1967: Closed.

At one point this was the biggest employer in Heywood, with 3,000 workers. It was never marked on Ordnance Survey maps, for security reasons. After the Maintenance Unit was closed, Pilsworth Industrial Estate was built on this site.

Railway Street Mill
Cotton spinning
Railway Street/Cross Street
1871 directory: Diggle, Hoyle & Wood, Railway street mill (cotton spinners).
1880 directory: Diggle, Hoyle, & Wood, cotton spinners, Railway Street Mill.
1891 directory: Thomas Isherwood, Foundry Street and Railway Street Mills 17,000 spindles, 68/248.
1891: Marked on OS map as Cotton Mill.
1922: Still in operation.
1938: Building not present on OS map.

Railway Street Mill, OS map, 1928.

Railway Wagon Building Works
Green Lane
1863: Established by Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, shortly after the opening of rail lines through Heywood. It later became the Standard Railway Wagon Company.
1992: Closed, making 60 workers redundant.

Rainshore Lower Mill
1848: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Mills (fulling).
1890: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Lower Mill (fulling).
1891 directory: William and Robert Lord, Rainshore Low Mill.
1908: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Lower Mill (disused).
1923: Building not marked on OS map, possibly gone.
1938: Building not present on OS map.

Rainshore mills, OS map, 1890.

Rainshore Upper Mill
Dyeing and bleaching, originally woollen
1848: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Mills (fulling).
1890: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Upper Mill (fulling).
1891 directory: James and Samuel Lord, Rainshore Higher Mill.
1908: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Upper Mill (bleaching).
1923: Marked on OS map as Rainshore Bleach and Dye Works. Buildings have been expanded.
1961: Marked on OS map as Works.
The mill was demolished after 2005.

Red Lumb Mill
Boyd’s Brook, Red Lumb
1848: Marked on OS map as Red Lumb Mill (cotton).
1928: Marked on OS map as Red Lumb Mill (cotton).
1938: Marked on OS map as Red Lumb Mill.
1963: Marked on OS map as Mill.
1969: Marked on OS mill as Warehouse.
1988: Marked on OS mill as Mill.
2005: Converted into luxury flats by this time.
2018: Building still present.

Red Lumb Mill, OS map, 1848.

Rhodes Mill
Miller Street
1890: Building not present on OS map.
1907: Present on OS map.
In later years, both this mill and the adjacent Woodfield (Poor Peg) Mill were run by Tedson & Thornley, manufacturers of industrial gloves. The gloves were made and sewn in Rhodes Mill, and then transferred to Woodfield Mill for ‘dipping’ in the rubber solution. Tedley & Thornley were a Rochdale-based company who made a range of 'Andy' gloves in other mills.
2018: Building still present and in use for building and plumbing supplies business.

River Street Mill - see Park Mill

Roach Mill (aka Makin Mill)
Cotton spinning, originally woollen
River Roch, Back o’th’ Moss
1637: Corn mill on this site by this time, owned by Roger Makon.
1762: Fulling taking place here, tenters close by.
1780: Converted for cotton by Peel, Yates and Co.
1829 directory: Edmund Peel, Makeant Mill.
1841 directory: Edmund Peel, cotton spinner, Makent Mills.
1860s: Mill rebuilt.
1871 directory: Jameson Joseph (fustians), Roach Mill (cotton spinner and manufacturer).
1880 directory: Roach Mill Spinning and Manufacturing Co., Limited, Peel Lane Frederick B. Jameson, secretary and manager.
1891 directory: Roach Mill Spinning and Manufacturing Co, Limited, Roach Mill 43,000 spindles.
1957: Marked on OS map as Roach Mill (cotton).
1970s: Mill largely derelict but some parts being used by small businesses.
1983: Demolished.

Roach Mill, OS map, 1929.

Roe Acre Dye Works
Rochdale Road East
1907: Not present on OS map.
1928: Named on OS map.
1980s: Building present.
2018: Building not present.

Roeacre mills, OS map, 1929.

Roe Acre Mill (cotton)
Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Green Lane
1821 directory: Founded by Silvester Litton.
1841 directory: Hartley Wm. cotton spinner & fustian manfr. New York & Roe Acre mills.
1848: Marked on OS map as Roe-acre (cotton).
1871 directory: Hartley William and Sons (fustians), Roe-Acre mills, and 23 New Cannon street, Manchester (cotton spinners).
1880 directory: Hartley William & Sons, cotton spinners and manufacturers, Roe Acre Mill.
1880 directory: Holt Thomas, waste dealer, Roe Acre Mill h. Green Lane, Hopwood,
1888 directory: Hartley William & Sons, cotton spinners and manufacturers, Roe Acre Mill.
1891 directory: Roe Acre Mill Co, Limited, 30,000 spindles, 68/328. Pay day third Wednesday.
1997: Building demolished.

Rose Hill Mill (aka Victory Mill)
Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Bury Street
1850s: Built for Charles Welsh, cotton spinner and manufacturer.
By 1861: John Coupe had taken over operations at the mill, and by 1882 he had formed a limited company ‘John Coupe & Co Ltd’.
1891:John Coupe and Co., 9,996 spindles, 208/508 573 looms, twills, satins, velvets, &c.
1922: Coupe, J.
1928: Marked on OS map as Cotton Mill.
1937: Marked on OS map as ‘disused’.
1957: Marked on OS map as Cotton Waste Mill. Part of mill expanded as ‘Victory Works’.
2009: Mill destroyed by fire.
2018: Building no longer present.

Heywood, Lancashire

Heywood, a town and a municipal borough, mostly in Heap township, Bury parish, Lancashire. The town stands on the Rochdale Canal, and on the L. & Y.R., near the river Roache, 3 miles E of Bury, and 9 N from Manchester, was toward the close of the 18th century a mere village inhabited chiefly by hand-loom fustian weavers, has acquired importance from the working of coal in the adjoining townships of Barn-ford and Hopwood, and from the enterprise and skill of local capitalists, and is now a populous, busy, thriving seat of various manufactures. It was incorporated in 1881, and is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors, who are also the urban sanitary authority. The borough is divided into three wards and has a separate commission of the peace It is well supplied with good water. It has a head post office, two railway stations, several good inns, a police station, a market-place, three churches, three Free and two Primitive Methodist, Wesleyan, Baptist, Congregational, and Unitarian chapels, a New Jerusalem and a Roman Catholic church is a seat of petty sessions, publishes two weekly newspapers, and carries on the manufacture of power-looms, railway waggons, and chemicals, iron and brass founding, boiler-making, and all departments of cotton-spinning and cotton-weaving, and there are also steam sawing and moulding mills. The market-place was erected in 1853. The market-day is Friday, and there are three annual fairs. The Eeform Club, built in 1850, is neat and commodious and has an excellent library, a large hall capable of holding 1000 persons, and reading and billiard rooms. There are also Conservative and working-men's clubs, and a park of twenty acres presented by Her Majesty the Queen, called the Queen's Park, was opened in 1879 by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster it has been laid out and enclosed, and contains a a gymnasium and playgrounds. The Free Libraries Act was adopted by the town in 1873. The Corporation Swimming Baths, opened in 1891, is a commodious building, and was presented to the town by the late Mr Alfred Grnndy. St Luke's Church, on the site of the old chapel of Heywood which existed in 1640, was built in 1863, at a cost of upwards of, £10, 000, is in the Decorated English style, comprises a nave of 80 feet by 24, with aisles, and a chancel of 42 feet by 22 includes a private mortuary chapel, erected at great cost additional to that of the church is ornamented with coloured marble and alabaster, and has a detached tower, with a spire 185 feet high. The church is one of the finest in Lancashire. It is specially noted for its stained glass windows, magnificent organ, and grand peal of eight bells. St James' Church, erected in 1838, is a building in the Gothic style, consisting of nave, aisles, chancel, and a belfry tower. The population of the ecclesiastical parish of St Luke's is 8267 of St James', 7239. Area of the municipal borough, 3507 acres population, 23, 185. The living of St Luke's is a rectory in the diocese of Manchester gross value, £400 with residence. The living of St James' is a vicarage gross value, £300 with residence. Patron, the Bishop of Manchester. Heywood was the birthplace of Peter Heywood, the Lancashire magistrate who aided the discovery of the gunpowder treason, and Heywood Hall was the seat of that gentleman's family.

Heywood Parliamentary Division of South-East Lancashire was formed under the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, and returns one member to the House of Commons. Population, 56, 799. The division includes the following:- Bury (part of)-Ainsworth, Ashworth, Birtle-cnm-Bamford, Bury, Eiton, Heap, Pilsworth, Tottington (Higher End), Tottington (Lower End), Walmersley-cum-Shuttleworth Middleton (part of)-such part of the parish of Spotland as is not included in the Local Government District of Whitworth, the municipal borough of Bacup, or the municipal borough of Rochdale Bury, municipal borough Heywood, municipal borough.


The following is a list of the administrative units in which this place was either wholly or partly included.

Ancient CountyLancashire
Civil parishBury
Poor Law unionBury

Any dates in this table should be used as a guide only.

Church Records, in association with Lancashire Archives, have images of the Parish Registers for Lancashire online.

Directories & Gazetteers

Land and Property

The Return of Owners of Land in 1873 for Lancashire is available to browse.

Monkey Town: The History of Heywood

The first cotton mills (Wrigley Brook Mill and Makin Mill) had been established in the 1780s, and by 1820 there were about ten mills around the area. That figure more than tripled over the next two decades. The population of Heywood in 1780 had been about 2,000 but by 1820 it was around 10,000. To put this in perspective, if this massive increase was repeated over the next four decades Heywood (current population about 28,500) would be home to over 142,000 people. This population increase was not the result of a baby boom, as James Butterworth noted in 1829 when he wrote that the town had '. very much increased in later years the cotton mills built in the village and neighbourhood have caused an influx of strangers, and congregated together a very dense population'. Many of the new arrivals were pauper children from southern workhouses, brought north under new legislation to supply cheap labour in the cotton mills.

Place names of 1820s Heywood
In 1818 the cartographer brothers William and John Greenwood produced a map of Lancashire. Such maps were something of a rarity in those days, and their plan to create a series of county maps of the whole of Britain was never realised, largely because of competition from the newly-formed Ordnance Survey. The maps that the Greenwoods did produce, however, were finely crafted and give us a fairly detailed depiction of the area around Heywood. Here it is:

The map is full of familiar names although some of the spelling might be a bit suspect. For example, Gooden House at the Manchester/Middleton Road junction is named here as Rooden House. Naden Head is Naddin Head, and Knowl Hill was spelt here as Knoll Hill, although it had been spelt as Knowl earlier in the 18th century. The word Knoll or Knowl is derived from the Olde English pre-7th century byname 'Cnoll', meaning a summit or a rounded hill.

To the south, the area of Collop Yate is remembered in the modern name of Collop Drive, Hopwood. A 'yate' is a gateway to a wooded area, and comes from the Old English word 'gete'. Further south again is 'Two Stoods', later becoming Two Studs and the site of a Heywood and Middleton Water Board reservoir.

Also very noticeable to the west of Heywood centre on this map is Wrigley Brook, which is now practically invisible as it runs through pipes and culverts beneath streets and fields to empty into the Roch at Bottom o'th' Brow. This brook once ran under the road at Bridge Street and helped to power Heywood's first cotton mill in the 1780s.

People of 1820s Heywood
A Lancashire directory listed about 120 people who were living in Heywood. It was far from being a complete list as it featured mainly farmers, smiths, and shop and factory owners.

Monkey Town: The History of Heywood

Cotton spinning and manufacturing
Vale Street
1841 directory: Clegg Jas & Co., cotton spinners and manufacturers, Vale mill.
1848: Named on OS map as Vale Mill (cotton).
1880 directory: Clegg James & Co., Vale mill, and 14 New Brown St., Manchester.
1880 directory: Wood Richard, Esq., J.P., cotton manufacturer, Vale Mill and John Street and High Street Mills h. Plumpton Hall.
1888 directory: Vale Mill Manufacturing Co. Vale St.
1907: Marked on OS map as Vale Mill (cotton).
1922 directory: Operated by Dahby Towels Parkinson, J.
1928: Merged on OS map with Roeacre Leather Works.

Vale Mill, OS map, 1907.

Victoria Boiler Works
Iron and machine works
Cowburn Street
1848: Possibly no building here on OS map - markings are unclear.
1851: Small building marked on OS map as Victoria Boiler Works.
1875 directory: Hill Thomas and Sons, Victoria Boiler works, Heywood.
1890: Named as Victoria Boiler Works on OS map.
1907: Marked on OS map.
1927: Building present but unnamed on SP map.
1937: Building not present on OS map.
Victoria Iron Works, OS map, 1907.

Victoria Mill
Cotton spinning, later cotton waste processing
Gregge Street, Hopwood
1847: Not present on OS map.
1871 directory: Tattersall James, Victoria and Gregge street mills, Pitfield mills, Bamford, and 27a, Fountain street, Manchester.
1891 directory: Phoenix Mills, Tattersall James and Sons, Limited, Victoria and Gregge Street Mills 38,000 spindles, 169/448 weft, 128/288 warp and at Pitfield Mills, Bamford Manchester office-14, Brown street.
1917: Healey Bros. were operating here.
1937: Marked on OS map as ‘cotton waste’ works.
1947: Still present on OS map.
1957: Building not present on OS map.

Victoria Mill, OS map, 1907.

Reed and heald manufacturers
Wilton Street
1924: Built for Robert Barker Limited (est. 1919), manufacturers of reeds and healds.
1928: Marked on OS map as Reed and Heald Works.
1957: Marked on OS map as Wilton Works (Reeds and Healds).
1980: Saville Whittle took over building.
1991: Closed.
2018: Building still present.

Note: The Heald is part of the weaving loom which moves the thread up and down. The Reed is a comb-like device which controls the separation of the warp threads.

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