Information

Thurston AP-77 - History


Thurston
(AP-77: dp. 13,910; 1. 459'3"; b. 63'0"; dr. 23'0"; a. 16.5 k. (tl.), epl. 456; trp. 1,306; a. 4 3", 4 40mm.;cl. Thurston, T. C2-F)

Thurston (AP-77) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 134) as SS Del Santoa on 9 December 1941 at Kearney, N.J., by the Federal Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. for the Mississippi Shipping Co., launched on 4 April 1942, sponsored by Mrs. Dorothy W. Neeht, and delivered on 11 July 1942.

The ship was acquired by the Navy from the War Shipping Administration under a bare boat charter on 13 September 1942 and was renamed Dauphin and designated AP-77 on 16 September. However, to avoid confusion with a Canadian ship named Dauphin, the ship was again renamed on 18 September, this time as Thurston. Commissioned on 19 September 1942, with Capt. Jack E. Hurff in command, Thuraton was converted into an auxiliary transport by the Atlantic Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn, N.Y., and was ready for sea on the 24th.

Following shakedown training out of Little Creek, Va., and landing exercises with Army units at Solomons Island, Md., the transport sortied on 24 October with Task Group (TG) 34.9, the Center Attack Force, for the invasion of North Africa. Her holds and decks were combat-loaded with men and equipment of the 15th Infantry Regiment. On the morning of 8 November, she arrived in the transport area off Fedhala, French Morocco. Since her troops were assigned to the reserve force, she did not begin disembarking them until late that evening. On the 13th, Thuraton entered Casablanca harbor to finish unloading supplies and equipment. She began her return voyage on the 15th and arrived at Hampton Roads 11 days later.

Two round-trip voyages across the Atlantic carrying reinforcements to North Africa were next on her agenda. She then spent March and April undergoing repairs and alterations. On 10 May, the ship sailed with convoy UGF-8A for Oran with troops to be used in the invasion of Sicily. In early June, Thurston embarked units of the 16th Infantry Regiment and headed to Algiers for landing rehearsals. On 6 July, she sortied with Task force (TF) 81 and, on the 9th, arrived in the assault area off Gela. The ship landed the troops early the next morning, completed unloading on the 12th, and returned via Algiers to Oran. On 22 July, she headed to New York for more troops and supplies and was back at Oran on 2 September. Five days later, she embarked 600 German prisoners of war and disembarked them at New York on the 22d.

On 8 October, the transport-loaded with American troops-joined Convoy UT-3 and debarked them at Gourock, Scotland, on the 17th. She then proceeded to Glaegow to pick up Canadian troops, returned to Gouroek, and joined a convoy for North Africa. The convoy arrived off Algiers on 6 November and, that evening, was subjected to an air attack in which Beatty (DD-640), SS Santa Elena, and the Dutch ship SS Mornix Van St. Aldegonde were torpedoed and sunk while Allied ships splashed six German planes. The remainder of the convoy arrived at Naples two days later, and Thurston disembarked the Canadians. She then moved to Palermo to pick up elements of the American 1st Armored Division for passage to Scotland. After a week at Gourock, the transport got underway for the United States on the last day of November and reached New York on 9 December 1943

Thurston carried troops from New York to Liverpool in January 1944, to Gourock in February, and to Cardiff, Wales, in April. When the ship finished unloading at Cardiff on 4 April, she proceeded to Loch Long for three weeks of landing exercises to prepare for the invasion of Hitler's "Fortress Europe." She anchored at Portland, England, on the 29th and sustained minor damage there on 28 May when a German bomb exploded 30 yards off her port side.

In the evening of 5 June, Thuraton began the channel crossing to Normandy with Assault Group O-3. At 0333 the next morning, she was anchored about 10 miles off the "Omaha" beaches and landed her troops on schedule at H-hour. She lost three of her boats in the initial assault wave and two in the 2d wave. That evening, the transport left the area and returned to Portland the next morning to remain "on-call" until the 19th.

On 4 July, Thurston got underway and proceeded, via Oran, to Naples with a load of lorries and M ~ tanks. After unloading on the 17th, she remained at Naples until 13 August' when-loaded with assault troops—she sortied with the Assault Group of TF 84 (Alpha Force) for the invasion of southern France. She was off Baie de Pampelonne, France, on the morning of the 15th and launched the assault wave which went ashore with little opposition. The next morning, she got underway for Oran. Late in September, the transport loaded French troops and landed them at Lardier on the 30th. She then operated in resupply convoys from North Africa and Italy to the beaches until 25 October when she joined a convoy headed to the United States.

The ship arrived at New York on 6 November and began an overhaul that lasted until 19 December. She called at Norfolk the next day and got underway for the Pacific on the 21st. She transited the Panama Canal on 27 December 1944 and arrived at San Francisco on 5 January 1945. There, the transport loaded passengers and cargo and headed for Hawaii. She reached Pearl Harbor on the 22d; debarked the passengers; embarked garrison troops; and proceeded via Eniwetok to the Marianas.

The transport was at Saipan from 11 to 16 February, whence she sortied with Transport Group Able of the Attack Force for the assault against Iwo Jima. Thurnton remained off the Iwo beaches from 19 to 26 February before she was finally ordered to land her troops. She finished unloading cargo the next day and headed back toward the Mariansa. She arrived at Saipan on 2 March, called at Guam the next day to off-load 33 battle casualties, and then proceeded to the Solomons. Thurston called at Tulagi on the 12th and continued to Espiritu Santo to load elements of the Army's 27th Infantry Division From there, her itinerary took her via Ulithi, to Okinawa. The ship debarked her troops at the Hagushi Beaches on 9 April and, five days later, headed for the Marianas, whence she was routed, via Ulithi and Manus, to New Caledonia. She embarked 917 homeward-bound passengers and battle casualties at Noumea on 11 May and debarked them at San Francisco on 26 May.

Thurston took on Army troops on 9 June and proceeded, via Eniwetok and Ulithi, to the Philippines. She arrived at Manila on 8 July, discharged her troops and cargo there, moved to Tacloban, and embarked homeward-bound naval personnel. The transport called at Ulithi to pick up more sailors and, as the war ended, anchored at San Francisco on 14 August. On the 25th, the ship began a voyage to the Philippines with more Army troops and arrived at Manila on 15 September. There, the ship was assigned to "MagicCarpet" duty, returning servicemen home from overseas.

Thurston was next ordered to the Solomons. On 4 October, while en route to Guadalcanal, she sighted a 28-foot dory which showed no sign of life. However, a blanket in the forward cockpit aroused suspicion of the deck officer, who sent a landing craft to see if anyone was on board. The LCVP circled the dory at very close range before moving alongside. As the boat officer stepped aboard the dory, three Japanese armed with grenades in both hands emerged from under the blanket and hurled them at the officer and the boat. The boat officer tumbled overboard and the boat crew abandoned the LCVP over the "off-side" before the grenades exploded. A second LCVP with a fully-armed crew was launched to rescue the crew of the first boat. As soon as they were picked up, Thurston opened fire with her machine guns and finally sank the dory with a 3-inch shell. The boat crew suffered no casualties, and the LCVP was recovered. The ship then called at Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, New Caledonia, and arrived at Seattle on the 30th.

The transport made three more "Magic-Carpet" voyages: to the Philippines in December 1945 and in March 1946, and to Okinawa and Japan in May. When she arrived at San Francisco on 20 June, she began preparations for inactivation. Thurston was decommissioned and returned to the War Shipping Administration on 1 August 1946 and resumed the name Del Santos. She was struck from the Navy list on 28 August 1946.

Del Santos was sold to the Waterman Steamship Co. in 1948. The following year, she was renamed Chickasaw. She remained in merchant service as Chickasaw until 7 February 1962 when she ran aground on Santa Rosa Island off the coast of California.

Thurston received seven battle stars for World War II service.


World War II - The War At Sea 1939-1945

List of 300 Ships, War and Merchant, found in the book pictured at left.

Copyright Franklyn E. Dailey Jr. 2012

The Fourth Edition (2009) of Joining the War at Sea 1939-1945, ISBN 0966625153, features a new 44-page Index by Dutch scholar, Pieter Graf .

The list of links down the left column of this page take you to draft pages for the published book, and finally to original reader experiences stimulated by the book. Purchasers of the published book are invited to download any of these pages that seem especially relevant. Here on this page, one such reader has listed all the ships that he found in the published book. It occurs to us that potential readers of the book might find inclusion of a ship's name an incentive to purchase the book or to further examine pages on this website.

Mark Henshaw's list of the ships he encountered in "Joining the War at Sea 1939-1945," begins here: It will be followed by Pieter Graf's update with some spelling corrections which were introduced by the author in his original edition of the book.

Alphabetically down , and in the following order, across : Ship's Name, then (ship's number & registry if not obvious) and page number. Page numbers are accurate only for the 3rd and 4th Editions. Pieter Graf's 44-page Index to the 4th Edition changed some ship spellings and in a very few instances the identity of a ship. So, for best accuracy, the 4th Edition and its Index should be used.

HMS Abercrombie (F 109, monitor) 162, 220, 233

HMS Ajax (22, light cruiser) 311

Albatros (French destroyer leader) 123, 125, 128-130

Alcyon (French destroyer) 25, 129

HMCS Algoma (K 127 corvette) 27

Amazone (French submarine) 127, 131

S.S. Amelia Earhart (American Liberty ship) 287

USS Ancon (AP-66/AGC-4) 132, 205, 209-211

USS Anne Arundel (AP-76) 148

Antiope (French submarine) 131

S.S. Aquitania (British troopship) 57

Argento (Italian submarine) 66, 67, 182, 183

HMS Argonaut (61, light cruiser) 304

USS Arkansas (BB-33) 8, 43, 301, 304

S.S. Arlyn (American freighter) 59

HMS Atherstone (L 05, destroyer escort) 349, 350

USS Augusta (CA-31) 21, 73, 88, 98, 99, 103, 104, 109, 118, 119, 124, 126, 127, 129, 130, 133, 139, 162, 301, 303, 310, 393

S.S. Awatea (New Zealand troopship) 43, 48, 49, 51, 52, 283

USS Barnett (AP-11/APA-5 ex-S.S. Santa Maria) 148, 178

USS Beatty (DD-640) 112, 343, 344

MV Benedick (British tanker) 332

USS Benson (DD-421) 177, 183, 245, 260, 283, 335, 398

USS Bernadou (DD-153) 27-29, 87, 92, 111-113

USS Birmingham (CL-62) 161, 167

USS Biscayne (AVP-11) 162, 254, 274

Bismarck (German battleship) 12

HMS Blankney (L 30, destroyer escort) 240

HMS Blencathra (L 24, destroyer escort) 61

USS Boise (CL-47) 111, 161, 176, 177, 183, 187, 201-203, 213, 230, 237

S.S. Booker T. Washington (American troopship) 331

Le Boulonnais (French destroyer) 123, 125, 128

USS Boyle (DD-600) 89, 117, 119, 133, 304

Le Brestois (French destroyer) 123, 125, 129

USS Bristol (DD-453) 20, 44, 51, 53, 55, 56, 89, 95, 117, 119, 127, 132, 135, 143, 162, 167, 168, 209, 225, 228, 230, 239, 240, 242, 335, 344

HMS Broadwater (H 81 ex-USS Mason DD-191) 23

USS Brooklyn (CL-40) 79, 88, 92, 98, 118, 119, 126-130, 135, 161, 167, 168, 219, 228, 229, 243, 250, 251, 253, 258, 262, 267, 301, 304-306, 311

USS Buck (DD-420) 37, 44, 45, 48-53, 55, 56, 66, 67, 162, 166-168, 182, 183, 238-240, 283, 357, 393, 398

USS Charles Carroll (AP-58 ex-S.S. Del Uruguay) 104, 105

USS Charles F. Hughes (DD-428) 20, 255, 393

USS Chemung (AO-30 ex-Esso Annapolis) 43, 45, 46, 49, 51, 53-56, 88

USS Chenango (CVE-28, ex-Esso New Orleans) 88, 135

USS Chicopee (AO-34, ex-Esso Trenton II) 242, 263

S.S. Clan Campbell (British cargo vessel) 349, 350

HMS Cleveland (L 46, destroyer escort) 330

USS Cleveland (CL-55) 88, 118, 121, 133

USS Cole (DD-155) 87, 92, 111, 112, 113

HMS Colombo (D 89, light AA cruiser) 252, 342, 346

HMCS Columbia, (I 49 ex-USS Haraden DD-183) 23

USCGC Comanche (WPG-76) 60, 61

Le Conquérant, (French submarine) 131

S.S. Contessa (chartered Honduran banana boat) 102

USS Corry (DD-463) 13, 117, 121, 298

HMS Coventry (D 43, light AA cruiser) 346 (scuttled September 14, 1942)

USS Dallas (DD-199) 87, 92, 113-115

USS Decatur (DD-341) 10, 23, 24

USS DeHaven (DD-469) 175, 176

HMS Delhi (D 47, light AA cruiser) 252, 351

USS Denebola (AD-12, destroyer tender) 20, 292-294, 296, 323

HMS Dido (37, light cruiser) 310

USAT Dorchester (passenger/cargo vessel) 60-62

USS Doyen (AP-2/APA-1) 157, 410

S.S. Duchess of Bedford (Canadian troopship) 43

Duguay-Trouin (French light cruiser) 304

HMS Duke of York (17, battleship) 25, 26

HMS Eagle (94, aircraft carrier) 244

USS Eberle (DD-430) 22, 23, 114, 375

USS Edward Rutledge (AP-52) 134, 136, 137

USS Electra (AKA-21, re-designated AKA-4 in 1943) 16, 101, 137

USS Elizabeth C. Stanton (AP-69) 132, 148

USS Ellyson (DD-454) 117, 121, 134, 239

Emile Bertin (French light minelaying cruiser) 304, 305

S.S. Empress of Scotland (Canadian troopship) 58

USS Ericsson (DD-440) 22, 114, 377, 397, 398, 400

USCGC Escanaba (WPG-77) 60, 61

USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70) 372

USS Forster (DE-334) 351, 352

Le Fougueux (French destroyer) 123, 125, 127

USS Frederick C. Davis (DE-136) 237, 254, 272, 298, 342, 346

Le Frondeur (French destroyer) 123, 125, 129

USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) 372, 373

Geniere (Italian destroyer) 171

USS Gleaves (DD-423) 23, 237-239, 245, 254, 258, 262

Gneisenau (German battleship) 12

Graf Spee (German pocket battleship) 12

La Grandière (aviso colonial = sloop) 130

HMS Hambledon (L 37, destroyer escort) 61

USS Hambleton (DD-455) 99, 135-137, 139, 239, 358

USS Harold J. Ellison, (DD-864) 286

USS Harry Lee (AP-17/APA-10, ex-S.S. Exochorda) 148

HNMS Heemskerck (Dutch light AA cruiser) 352, 353

USS Heermann (DD-532) 373, 374

S.S. Henry R. Mallory (American troop/cargo ship) 61, 62

USS Herbert C. Jones (DE-137) 237, 254, 272, 273, 298, 342, 346

USS Hilary P. Jones (DD-427) 255

HMS Holcombe (L 65, destroyer escort) 350

HMS Hood (51, battlecruiser) 12

HMS Howe (32, battleship) 202

USS Hugh L. Scott (AP-43) 134, 136, 137

USS Ingraham (DD-444) 44, 48-51, 54, 56, 224, 283, 284

USS Iowa (BB-61) 244, 289, 401

USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) 57, 175

USS Jacob Jones (DD-130) 175

Jean Bart (French battleship) 100, 101, 117, 122-125, 133

USS Jeffers (DD-621) 176, 177

USS Jenkins (DD-447) 118, 122

S.S. John S. Copley (American freighter) 244-246

USS Joseph E. Campbell (DE-70) 240

USS Joseph Hewes (AP-50) 99, 134, 135, 137

USS Joseph T. Dickman (AP-26) 104, 105, 119

USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68) 372

USS Kearny (DD-432) 23-25 114, 358

USS Kendrick (DD-612) 228, 304

HMS King George V (41, battleship) 202

ORP Krakowiak (L 115, Polish destroyer escort) 330

HMS Laforey (G 99, destroyer) 61

USS Lakehurst (APV-3, ex-Seatrain New Jersey) 112, 113

USS Lansdale (DD-426) 23, 255, 296, 335, 351-354

USS Leonard Wood (AP-25) 104, 105-109

S.S. Letitia, (British troopship) 43-45, 48

USS Livermore (DD-429) 23, 24, 32, 398

Lobélia (J 1068 Free French corvette) 23

Lorraine (French battleship) 301

USS Lowe (DE-325 Coast Guard-manned) 353

USS Ludlow (DD-438) 20, 44, 104, 117-119, 126, 162, 187, 229, 230, 242, 254, 258, 262-265, 276, 277, 304, 325, 326, 335, 363, 378

USS Maddox (DD-622) 173, 174, 228, 333

USS Marblehead (CL-12) 54, 304

S.S. Mariposa (American troopship) 58

MV Marnix van Sint Aldegonde (Dutch troopship) 343, 344

USS Massachusetts (BB-59) 38, 88, 92, 122-125, 127-130

USS Mayo (DD-422) 183, 245, 246, 254, 258, 260-262, 266, 335, 358, 367, 398

USS Mayrant (DD-402) 118, 122, 171, 181, 228, 357

USS McLanahan (DD-615) 177, 304

Méduse (French submarine) 131

USS Menemsha (AG-39 Coast Guard-manned) 45, 48

USS Menges (DE-320, Coast Guard-manned) 354

USS Miantonomah (CM-10, ex-S.S. Quaker) 120, 135

Milan, (French destroyer leader) 123, 125, 126, 128-130

HMS Mindful (W 135 rescue tug, ex-USS ATR-48) 349, 350, 352

USS Missouri (BB-63) 375-377, 386

S.S. Monterey (American troopship) 343

USS Mount Baker (AE-4, ex-USS Kilauea) 185

USS Murphy (DD-603) 104, 117-119, 135, 177

Musashi (Japanese super battleship) 370

Nagato (Japanese battleship) 370

USS New York (BB-34) 7, 8, 42-45, 72, 88, 111-113, 132, 133, 162

USS Newell (DE-322, Coast Guard-manned) 354

USS Niblack (DD-424) 177, 245, 246, 251, 253, 254, 258

USS Nicholson (DD-442) 27, 29, 44, 162, 163, 182, 184, 209

S.S. Nigaristan (British freighter) 22, 23

USS North Carolina (BB-55) 20

USS Ordronaux (DD-617) 304, 312, 318

HMS Orion (85, light cruiser) 267

S.S. Ormonde (British troopship) 44

Orphée (French submarine) 131

HMS Palomares (aircraft detection/direction ship) 209

S.S. Pasteur (French troopship) 58

S.S. Paul Hamilton (American troopship) 354

HMS Penelope (97, light cruiser) 237, 258, 267, 274-276

USS Philadelphia (CL-41) 42, 43, 45, 48, 88, 111-113, 131, 161, 183, 187, 192, 201, 209, 213-215, 219, 220, 230, 231, 233, 236, 237, 242, 274, 301, 303-305, 311, 327, 328

USS Pioneer (AM-105) 254, 273, 298, 344, 346, 347, 349, 350, 364

USS Plunkett (DD-431) 23, 24, 177, 187, 229, 238, 245, 254, 258, 264, 266

USS Polaris (AF-11, reefer) 44

Primauguet (French light cruiser) 126-130

HMS Prince of Wales (53, battleship) 21, 393

HMS Princess Josephine Charlotte (LSI(S) 232

Prinz Eugen (German heavy cruiser) 12

HMS Prosperous (W 96, rescue tug) 261

S.S. Queen Elizabeth (British troop transport) 17, 58

S.S. Queen Mary (British troop transport) 17, 58

HMS Ramillies (07, battleship) 301, 310

USS Ranger (CV-4) 88, 117, 121, 129, 132-135

S.S Rathlin (British convoy rescue ship) 28

USS Raven (AM-55) 74, 137, 364

S.S. Reina del Pacifico (British troopship) 44

USS Rhind (DD-404) 118, 122, 129, 357

S.S. Robert Rowan (ammunition ship) 177, 191

HMS Roberts (F 40, monitor) 233

USS Roe (DD-418) 113-115, 162, 163, 167, 168, 228, 357

S.S. Rohna (British troopship) 345-350, 365

USS Rowan (DD-405) 89, 117, 133, 191, 224-225, 228, 357

S.S. Royal Star (British reefer) 354

MV Ruys (Dutch troopship) 343

HMS Safari (P 211, submarine) 167

HMHS Saint Andrew (hospital ship) 263

HMHS Saint David (hospital ship) 263

USS Salt Lake City, (CA-25) 110

S.S. Samite (British Liberty ship) 354

USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413) 373

USS Samuel Chase (AP-56/APA-26) 148, 204

S.S. Samuel Huntington (American Liberty ship) 270

USS San Francisco (CA-35) 110

USS Sangamon (ACV-26/CVE-26) 88, 115

S.S. Santa Elena (American troopship) 343, 344

USS Santee (CVE-29, ex-tanker Seakay) 88, 111-113

USS Savannah (CL-42) 88, 115, 161, 165, 183, 187, 188, 209, 213, 215, 219, 220, 230, 235, 236, 243, 267, 301, 305, 345, 358, 366

Scharnhorst (German battleship) 12

USS Seattle (IX 39 receiving ship) 381

Le Sénégalais (French destroyer escort) 240

USS Shubrick (DD-639) 176, 181, 228

Sidi-Ferruch (French submarine) 131

Simoun (French destroyer) 130

HMS Spartan (95, light cruiser) 267, 270, 277

S.S. Stratford (possibly a U.S. Army Transport) 43

USS Susan B. Anthony (AP-72) 114, 148

USS Suwannee (CVE-27, ex-tanker Markay) 88, 117, 121, 122, 134, 135

USS Swanson (DD-443) 44, 48, 104, 108, 117-119, 126, 127, 137, 162, 163, 166-168, 228

Sybille (French submarine) 131

USCGC Taney (WPG-37, ex-CGC-68) 352

USS Tasker H. Bliss (AP-42) 134, 136, 137

Tempête (French destroyer) 130

USS Texas (BB-35) 8, 43, 88, 162, 285, 301

USS Thomas Jefferson (AP-60) 104, 105, 107-109

USS Tillman (DD-641) 89, 117, 133, 343

Tirpitz (German battleship) 12

Le Tonnant (French submarine) 131

S.S. Toward (British convoy rescue ship) 27-29, 284

HMCS Trail (K 174, corvette) 59

USS Trippe (DD-403) 16, 224, 227, 241, 244, 246, 247, 251, 254, 258, 262, 381

HMS Tumult (R 11, destroyer) 61

USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37) 88, 122-125, 127, 129, 162, 301, 303, 304, 309, 314, 323

U-73 16, 244, 247, 249-251, 361

MV Vigrid (Norwegian general cargo ship) 393

USS Vulcan (AR-5, repair ship/destroyer tender) 15, 24, 148, 184-185, 327, 360

USS Wainwright (DD-419) 118, 122, 243, 254, 381

USS White Plains (CVE-66) 372

USS Wichita, (CA-45) 88, 122-125, 129, 162

USS Wilkes (DD-441) 44, 104, 107, 117-119, 126, 127, 130, 162

USS William D. Porter (DD-579) 401

S.S. Windsor Castle (British troopship) 44

MV Winchester Castle (British troopship) 44

USS Winooski (AO-38) 88, 99, 135-137

USS Woolsey (DD-437) 16, 20, 44, 89, 117, 137, 138, 162, 163, 229, 244, 246, 247, 249-251, 254, 258, 304, 326, 335, 363, 377, 400

X No, no ship with a name like Xerxes is found in the book

Below, find Pieter Graf's Ship's Index, which was created from the Fourth Edition, updated by Pieter when he created the Index for the entire 4th Edition of "Joining the War at Sea 1939-1945," which added 44-pages to the book, and in which scholar Graf corrected or updated the names and spellings of ships and places related to the Mediterranean war as I saw it 1942-44. Readers can use either Index. The ship's names used by Mark in the Index above used my names and spellings from the Third Edition so Pieter's Ship's Index is really an update and edit.

HMS Abercrombie (F 109, monitor) 162, 220, 233

HMS Ajax (22, light cruiser) 311

Albatros (French destroyer leader) 123, 125, 128-130

Alcyon (French destroyer) 25, 129

HMCS Algoma (K 127 corvette) 27

Amazone (French submarine) 127, 131

S.S. Amelia Earhart (American Liberty ship) 287

USS Ancon (AP-66/AGC-4) 132, 205, 209-211

USS Anne Arundel (AP-76) 148

Antiope (French submarine) 131

HMS Aquitania (British troopship) 57

Argento (Italian submarine) 66, 67, 182, 183

HMS Argonaut (61, light cruiser) 304

USS Arkansas (BB-33) 8, 43, 301, 304

S.S. Arlyn (American freighter) 59

HMS Atherstone (L 05, destroyer escort) 349, 350

USS Augusta (CA-31) 21, 73, 88, 98, 99, 103, 104, 109, 118, 119, 124, 126, 127, 129, 130, 133, 139, 162, 301, 303, 310, 393

S.S. Awatea (New Zealand troopship) 43, 48, 49, 51, 52, 283

USS Barnett (AP-11/APA-5 ex-S.S. Santa Maria) 148, 178

USS Beatty (DD-640) 112, 343, 344

MV Benedick (British tanker) 332

USS Benson (DD-421) 177, 183, 245, 260, 283, 335, 398

USS Bernadou (DD-153) 27-29, 87, 92, 111-113

USS Birmingham (CL-62) 161, 167

USS Biscayne (AVP-11) 162, 254, 274

Bismarck (German battleship) 12

HMS Blankney (L 30, destroyer escort) 240

HMS Blencathra (L 24, destroyer escort) 61

USS Boise (CL-47) 111, 161, 176, 177, 183, 187, 201-203, 213, 230, 237

S.S. Booker T. Washington (American troopship) 331

Le Boulonnais (French destroyer) 123, 125, 128

USS Boyle (DD-600) 89, 117, 119, 133, 304

Le Brestois (French destroyer) 123, 125, 129

USS Bristol (DD-453) 20, 44, 51, 53, 55, 56, 89, 95, 117, 119, 127, 132, 135, 143, 162, 167, 168, 209, 225, 228, 230, 239, 240, 242, 335, 344

HMS Broadwater (H 81 ex-USS Mason DD-191) 23

USS Brooklyn (CL-40) 79, 88, 92, 98, 118, 119, 126-130, 135, 161, 167, 168, 219, 228, 229, 243, 250, 251, 253, 258, 262, 267, 301, 304-306, 311

USS Buck (DD-420) 37, 44, 45, 48-53, 55, 56, 66, 67, 162, 166-168, 182, 183, 238-240, 283, 357, 393, 398

USS Charles Carroll (AP-58 ex-S.S. Del Uruguay) 104, 105

USS Charles F. Hughes (DD-428) 20, 255, 393

USS Chemung (AO-30 ex-Esso Annapolis) 43, 45, 46, 49, 51, 53-56, 88

USS Chenango (CVE-28, ex-Esso New Orleans) 88, 135

USS Chicopee (AO-34, ex-Esso Trenton II) 242, 263

S.S. Clan Campbell (British cargo vessel) 349, 350

HMS Cleveland (L 46, destroyer escort) 330

USS Cleveland (CL-55) 88, 118, 121, 133

USS Cole (DD-155) 87, 92, 111, 112, 113

HMS Colombo (D 89, light AA cruiser) 252, 342, 346

HMCS Columbia, (I 49 ex-USS Haraden DD-183) 23

USCGC Comanche (WPG-76) 60, 61

Le Conquérant, (French submarine) 131

S.S. Contessa (chartered Honduran banana boat) 102

USS Corry (DD-463) 13, 117, 121, 298

HMS Coventry (D 43, light AA cruiser) 346 (scuttled September 14, 1942)

USS Dallas (DD-199) 87, 92, 113-115

USS Decatur (DD-341) 10, 23, 24

USS DeHaven (DD-469) 175, 176

HMS Delhi (D 47, light AA cruiser) 252, 351

USS Denebola (AD-12, destroyer tender) 20, 292-294, 296, 323

HMS Dido (37, light cruiser) 310

USAT Dorchester (passenger/cargo vessel) 60-62

USS Doyen (AP-2/APA-1) 157, 410

S.S. Duchess of Bedford (Canadian troopship) 43

Duguay-Trouin (French light cruiser) 304

HMS Duke of York (17, battleship) 25, 26

HMS Eagle (94, aircraft carrier) 244

USS Eberle (DD-430) 22, 23, 114, 375

USS Edward Rutledge (AP-52) 134, 136, 137

USS Electra (AKA-21, re-designated AKA-4 in 1943) 16, 101, 137

USS Elizabeth C. Stanton (AP-69) 132, 148

USS Ellyson (DD-454) 117, 121, 134, 239

Emile Bertin (French light minelaying cruiser) 304, 305

S.S. Empress of Scotland (Canadian troopship) 58

USS Ericsson (DD-440) 22, 114, 377, 397, 398, 400

USCGC Escanaba (WPG-77) 60, 61

USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70) 372

USS Forster (DE-334) 351, 352

Le Fougueux (French destroyer) 123, 125, 127

USS Frederick C. Davis (DE-136) 237, 254, 272, 298, 342, 346

Le Frondeur (French destroyer) 123, 125, 129

USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) 372, 373

Geniere (Italian destroyer) 171

USS Gleaves (DD-423) 23, 237-239, 245, 254, 258, 262

Gneisenau (German battleship) 12

Graf Spee (German pocket battleship) 12

La Grandière (aviso colonial = sloop) 130

HMS Hambledon (L 37, destroyer escort) 61

USS Hambleton (DD-455) 99, 135-137, 139, 239, 358

USS Harold J. Ellison, (DD-864) 286

USS Harry Lee (AP-17/APA-10, ex-S.S. Exochorda) 148

HNMS Heemskerck (Dutch light AA cruiser) 352, 353

USS Heermann (DD-532) 373, 374

S.S. Henry R. Mallory (American troop/cargo ship) 61, 62

USS Herbert C. Jones (DE-137) 237, 254, 272, 273, 298, 342, 346

USS Hilary P. Jones (DD-427) 255

HMS Holcombe (L 65, destroyer escort) 350

HMS Hood (51, battlecruiser) 12

HMS Howe (32, battleship) 202

USS Hugh L. Scott (AP-43) 134, 136, 137

USS Ingraham (DD-444) 44, 48-51, 54, 56, 224, 283, 284

USS Iowa (BB-61) 244, 289, 401

USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) 57, 175

USS Jacob Jones (DD-130) 175

Jean Bart (French battleship) 100, 101, 117, 122-125, 133

USS Jeffers (DD-621) 176, 177

USS Jenkins (DD-447) 118, 122

S.S. John S. Copley (American freighter) 244-246

USS Joseph E. Campbell (DE-70) 240

USS Joseph Hewes (AP-50) 99, 134, 135, 137

USS Joseph T. Dickman (AP-26) 104, 105, 119

USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68) 372

USS Kearny (DD-432) 23-25 114, 358

USS Kendrick (DD-612) 228, 304

HMS King George V (41, battleship) 202

ORP Krakowiak (L 115, Polish destroyer escort) 330

HMS Laforey (G 99, destroyer) 61

USS Lakehurst (APV-3, ex-Seatrain New Jersey) 112, 113

USS Lansdale (DD-426) 23, 255, 296, 335, 351-354

USS Leonard Wood (AP-25) 104, 105-109

S.S. Letitia, (British troopship) 43-45, 48

USS Livermore (DD-429) 23, 24, 32, 398

Lobélia (J 1068 Free French corvette) 23

Lorraine (French battleship) 301

USS Lowe (DE-325 Coast Guard-manned) 353

USS Ludlow (DD-438) 20, 44, 104, 117-119, 126, 162, 187, 229, 230, 242, 254, 258, 262-265, 276, 277, 304, 325, 326, 335, 363, 378

USS Maddox (DD-622) 173, 174, 228, 333

USS Marblehead (CL-12) 54, 304

S.S. Mariposa (American troopship) 58

MV Marnix van Sint Aldegonde (Dutch troopship) 343, 344

USS Massachusetts (BB-59) 38, 88, 92, 122-125, 127-130

USS Mayo (DD-422) 183, 245, 246, 254, 258, 260-262, 266, 335, 358, 367, 398

USS Mayrant (DD-402) 118, 122, 171, 181, 228, 357

USS McLanahan (DD-615) 177, 304

Méduse (French submarine) 131

USS Menemsha (AG-39 Coast Guard-manned) 45, 48

USS Menges (DE-320, Coast Guard-manned) 354

USS Miantonomah (CM-10, ex-S.S. Quaker) 120, 135

Milan, (French destroyer leader) 123, 125, 126, 128-130

HMS Mindful (W 135 rescue tug, ex-USS ATR-48) 349, 350, 352

USS Missouri (BB-63) 375-377, 386

S.S. Monterey (American troopship) 343

USS Mount Baker (AE-4, ex-USS Kilauea) 185

USS Murphy (DD-603) 104, 117-119, 135, 177

Musashi (Japanese super battleship) 370

Nagato (Japanese battleship) 370

USS New York (BB-34) 7, 8, 42-45, 72, 88, 111-113, 132, 133, 162

USS Newell (DE-322, Coast Guard-manned) 354

USS Niblack (DD-424) 177, 245, 246, 251, 253, 254, 258

USS Nicholson (DD-442) 27, 29, 44, 162, 163, 182, 184, 209

S.S. Nigaristan (British freighter) 22, 23

USS North Carolina (BB-55) 20

USS Ordronaux (DD-617) 304, 312, 318

HMS Orion (85, light cruiser) 267

S.S. Ormonde (British troopship) 44

Orphée (French submarine) 131

HMS Palomares (aircraft detection/direction ship) 209

S.S. Pasteur (French troopship) 58

S.S. Paul Hamilton (American troopship) 354

HMS Penelope (97, light cruiser) 237, 258, 267, 274-276

USS Philadelphia (CL-41) 42, 43, 45, 48, 88, 111-113, 131, 161, 183, 187, 192, 201, 209, 213-215, 219, 220, 230, 231, 233, 236, 237, 242, 274, 301, 303-305, 311, 327, 328

USS Pioneer (AM-105) 254, 273, 298, 344, 346, 347, 349, 350, 364

USS Plunkett (DD-431) 23, 24, 177, 187, 229, 238, 245, 254, 258, 264, 266

USS Polaris (AF-11, reefer) 44

Primauguet (French light cruiser) 126-130

HMS Prince of Wales (53, battleship) 21, 393

HMS Princess Josephine Charlotte (LSI(S) 232

Prinz Eugen (German heavy cruiser) 12

HMS Prosperous (W 96, rescue tug) 261

S.S. Queen Elizabeth (British troop transport) 17, 58

S.S. Queen Mary (British troop transport) 17, 58

HMS Ramillies (07, battleship) 301, 310

USS Ranger (CV-4) 88, 117, 121, 129, 132-135

S.S Rathlin (British convoy rescue ship) 28

USS Raven (AM-55) 74, 137, 364

S.S. Reina del Pacifico (British troopship) 44

USS Rhind (DD-404) 118, 122, 129, 357

S.S. Robert Rowan (ammunition ship) 177, 191

HMS Roberts (F 40, monitor) 233

USS Roe (DD-418) 113-115, 162, 163, 167, 168, 228, 357

S.S. Rohna (British troopship) 345-350, 365

USS Rowan (DD-405) 89, 117, 133, 191, 224-225, 228, 357

S.S. Royal Star (British reefer) 354

MV Ruys (Dutch troopship) 343

HMS Safari (P 211, submarine) 167

HMHS Saint Andrew (hospital ship) 263

HMHS Saint David (hospital ship) 263

USS Salt Lake City, (CA-25) 110

S.S. Samite (British Liberty ship) 354

USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413) 373

USS Samuel Chase (AP-56/APA-26) 148, 204

S.S. Samuel Huntington (American Liberty ship) 270

USS San Francisco (CA-35) 110

USS Sangamon (ACV-26/CVE-26) 88, 115

S.S. Santa Elena (American troopship) 343, 344

USS Santee (CVE-29, ex-tanker Seakay) 88, 111-113

USS Savannah (CL-42) 88, 115, 161, 165, 183, 187, 188, 209, 213, 215, 219, 220, 230, 235, 236, 243, 267, 301, 305, 345, 358, 366

Scharnhorst (German battleship) 12

USS Seattle (IX 39 receiving ship) 381

Le Sénégalais (French destroyer escort) 240

USS Shubrick (DD-639) 176, 181, 228

Sidi-Ferruch (French submarine) 131

Simoun (French destroyer) 130

HMS Spartan (95, light cruiser) 267, 270, 277

S.S. Stratford (possibly a U.S. Army Transport) 43

USS Susan B. Anthony (AP-72) 114, 148

USS Suwannee (CVE-27, ex-tanker Markay) 88, 117, 121, 122, 134, 135

USS Swanson (DD-443) 44, 48, 104, 108, 117-119, 126, 127, 137, 162, 163, 166-168, 228

Sybille (French submarine) 131

USCGC Taney (WPG-37, ex-CGC-68) 352

USS Tasker H. Bliss (AP-42) 134, 136, 137

Tempête (French destroyer) 130

USS Texas (BB-35) 8, 43, 88, 162, 285, 301

USS Thomas Jefferson (AP-60) 104, 105, 107-109

USS Tillman (DD-641) 89, 117, 133, 343

Tirpitz (German battleship) 12

Le Tonnant (French submarine) 131

S.S. Toward (British convoy rescue ship) 27-29, 284

HMCS Trail (K 174, corvette) 59

USS Trippe (DD-403) 16, 224, 227, 241, 244, 246, 247, 251, 254, 258, 262, 381

HMS Tumult (R 11, destroyer) 61

USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37) 88, 122-125, 127, 129, 162, 301, 303, 304, 309, 314, 323

U-73 16, 244, 247, 249-251, 361

MV Vigrid (Norwegian general cargo ship) 393

USS Vulcan (AR-5, repair ship/destroyer tender) 15, 24, 148, 184-185, 327, 360

USS Wainwright (DD-419) 118, 122, 243, 254, 381

USS White Plains (CVE-66) 372

USS Wichita, (CA-45) 88, 122-125, 129, 162

USS Wilkes (DD-441) 44, 104, 107, 117-119, 126, 127, 130, 162

USS William D. Porter (DD-579) 401

S.S. Windsor Castle (British troopship) 44

MV Winchester Castle (British troopship) 44

USS Winooski (AO-38) 88, 99, 135-137

USS Woolsey (DD-437) 16, 20, 44, 89, 117, 137, 138, 162, 163, 229, 244, 246, 247, 249-251, 254, 258, 304, 326, 335, 363, 377, 400


Katie Thurston’s most recent ex-boyfriend is Matt James (obviously).

Does Matt James really count, though? He also had about 15 other girlfriends at the time. Then again, that’s how we met Katie and Matt is the ex-boyfriend we’re definitely most familiar with.

However, her relationship with Matt isn’t what made her the most memorable contestant from his season. We loved seeing her interact and stand up for the girls being bullied in the house, but we’re not exactly sure what her dating style is.

However, Matt and Katie did have a super fun one-on-one date. We never saw Matt laugh more, but he sent Katie home anyway. Their date felt more like two friends playing pranks on their friend, Tyler, instead of a romantic connection, so it wasn&apost not too surprising when Matt decided to send Katie home.

Nonetheless, Katie drove away from Matt’s season of The Bachelor remarking that she could already picture their future together. Girl, we feel you!


Thurston History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Thurston belongs to the early history of Britain, it's origins lie with the Anglo-Saxons. It is a product of their having lived in the village of Thurston found in the county of Suffolk. The surname Thurston is a habitation name that was originally derived from pre-existing names for towns, villages, parishes, or farmsteads. The surname originated as a means of identifying individuals from a particular area. As a general rule, the greater the distance between an individual and their homeland, the larger the territory they were named after. For example, a person who only moved to another parish would be known by the name of their original village, while people who migrated to a different country were often known by the name of a region or country from which they came.

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Early Origins of the Thurston family

The surname Thurston was first found in Suffolk at Thurston, a parish, in the union of Stow, hundred of Thedwastry. [1] The place name dates back to the Domesday Book of 1086 where it was first listed as Thurstuna. [2]

Literally the place name means "farmstead of a man called Thori," from the Viking personal name + the Old English word "tun." [3]

It is generally believed that the name originated in this parish. However, the name could have perhaps been derived "from the Teutonic name Turstin, which is found in the Domesday [Book] as the designation of persons both Norman and Saxon. One Turstanus is there described as 'machinator' - probably a military engineer." [4]

One of the first on record was Turstin or Thurstan (d. 1140), Archbishop of York, "[he] was son of Anger or Auger, prebendary of St. Paul's, London, by his wife Popelina. His brother Audoen succeeded to his father's prebend, was bishop of Evreux, and died in 1139. Thurstan was a native of Bayeux, and a prebendary of St. Paul's. " [5]

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Early History of the Thurston family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Thurston research. Another 55 words (4 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Thurston History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Thurston Spelling Variations

Until the dictionary, an invention of only the last few hundred years, the English language lacked any comprehensive system of spelling rules. Consequently, spelling variations in names are frequently found in early Anglo-Saxon and later Anglo-Norman documents. One person's name was often spelled several different ways over a lifetime. The recorded variations of Thurston include Thurston, Turston, Thruston, Turstin and others.

Early Notables of the Thurston family (pre 1700)

More information is included under the topic Early Thurston Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Thurston migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Thurston Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Daniel Thurston, who settled in New England in 1635
  • John and Margaret Thurston, who settled in Boston Massachusetts in 1637 with their two sons
  • Daniel Thurston, who arrived in Newbury, Massachusetts in 1637 [6]
  • Richard Thurston, who arrived in Salem, Massachusetts in 1637 [6]
  • John Thurston, who landed in Dedham, Massachusetts in 1643 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Thurston Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • James Thurston, who arrived in Virginia in 1703 [6]
  • Sarah Thurston, who arrived in Virginia in 1743 [6]
  • Charles Mynn Thurston, who arrived in Virginia in 1765 [6]
Thurston Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Joshua Thurston, who arrived in New York, NY in 1831 [6]
  • R Thurston, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1850 [6]
  • D T Thurston, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1850 [6]
  • John M Thurston, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1851 [6]
  • S R Thurston, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1851 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Thurston migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Thurston Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
Thurston Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century

Thurston migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Thurston Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Sarah Thurston, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Sir Charles Forbes" in 1839 [8]
  • Charles Thurston, aged 58, who arrived in South Australia in 1850 aboard the ship "Lysander" [9]
  • William Henry Thurston, aged 36, a carpenter, who arrived in South Australia in 1850 aboard the ship "Lysander" [9]
  • Catherine Thurston, aged 13, a servant, who arrived in South Australia in 1850 aboard the ship "Lysander" [9]
  • Joseph Thurston, aged 21, who arrived in South Australia in 1852 aboard the ship "Steadfast" [10]

Thurston migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Thurston Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

Contemporary Notables of the name Thurston (post 1700) +

  • Sir John Bates Thurston (1836-1897), English colonial governor, born in London, eldest son of John Noel Thurston of Bath, and Eliza West
  • John Thurston (1774-1822), English draughtsman, born at Scarborough
  • Baratunde Rafiq Thurston (b. 1977), American comedian
  • David Thurston (1918-2013), American aircraft designer
  • Samuel Royal Thurston (1815-1851), American pioneer, lawyer and politician, Delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives from Oregon Territory (1849-1851)
  • Robert Henry Thurston (1839-1903), American engineer, the first Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology
  • Scott Troy Thurston (b. 1952), American guitarist, keyboardist, songwriter, and session musician, member of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
  • Edgar Thurston CIE (1855-1935), Indian superintendent at the Madras Government Museum
  • William Paul Thurston (1946-2012), American mathematician awarded the Fields Medal in 1982
  • Johnathan Dean Thurston (b. 1983), Australian rugby league player, co-captain of National Rugby League team
  • . (Another 3 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Thurston family +

HMS Dorsetshire
  • Walter John Thurston (d. 1945), British Marine aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk he died in the sinking [11]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. John Thurston, American 2nd Class passenger from Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [12]

Related Stories +

The Thurston Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Esse quam videri
Motto Translation: To be, rather than to seem.


Contents

Commissioned on 19 September 1942, with Captain Jack E. Hurff in command, Thurston was converted into an auxiliary transport by the Atlantic Basin Iron Works of Brooklyn, New York, and was ready for sea on the 24th.

Operation Torch [ edit | edit source ]

Following shakedown training out of Little Creek, Virginia, and landing exercises with Army units at Solomons Island, Maryland, the transport sortied on 24 October with Task Group (TG) 34.9, the Center Attack Force, for the invasion of North Africa. Her holds and decks were combat-loaded with men and equipment of the 15th Infantry Regiment.

On the morning of 8 November, she arrived in the transport area off Fedhala, French Morocco. Since her troops were assigned to the reserve force, she did not begin disembarking them until late that evening. On the 13th, Thurston entered Casablanca harbor to finish unloading supplies and equipment. She began her return voyage on the 15th and arrived at Hampton Roads 11 days later. Two round-trip voyages across the Atlantic carrying reinforcements to North Africa were next on her agenda. She then spent March and April undergoing repairs and alterations.

Operation Husky [ edit | edit source ]

On 10 May, the ship sailed with convoy UGF-8A for Oran with troops to be used in the Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. In early June, Thurston embarked units of the 16th Infantry Regiment and headed to Algiers for landing rehearsals. On 6 July, she sortied with Task force (TF) 81 and, on the 9th, arrived in the assault area off Gela. The ship landed the troops early the next morning, completed unloading on the 12th, and returned via Algiers to Oran. On 22 July, she headed to New York for more troops and supplies and was back at Oran on 2 September. Five days later, she embarked 600 German prisoners of war and disembarked them at New York on the 22nd.

Air attack off Algiers [ edit | edit source ]

On 8 October, the transport—loaded with American troops—joined Convoy UT-3 and debarked them at Gourock, Scotland, on the 17th. She then proceeded to Glasgow to pick up Canadian troops, returned to Gourock, and joined a convoy for North Africa. The convoy arrived off Algiers on 6 November and, that evening, was subjected to an air attack in which destroyer USS Beatty (DD-640), SS Santa Elena, and the Dutch ship SS Mornix van St. Aldegonde were torpedoed and sunk while Allied ships splashed six German planes.

The remainder of the convoy arrived at Naples two days later, and Thurston disembarked the Canadians. She then moved to Palermo to pick up elements of the American 1st Armored Division for passage to Scotland. After a week at Gourock, the transport got underway for the United States on the last day of November and reached New York on 9 December 1943.

Operation Overlord [ edit | edit source ]

Thurston carried troops from New York to Liverpool in January 1944 to Gourock in February and to Cardiff, Wales, in April. When the ship finished unloading at Cardiff on 4 April, she proceeded to Loch Long for three weeks of landing exercises to prepare for Operation Overlord, the invasion of Hitler's "Fortress Europe." She anchored at Portland, England, on the 29th and sustained minor damage there on 28 May when a German bomb exploded 30 yards off her port side.

In the evening of 5 June, Thurston began the channel crossing to Normandy with Assault Group O-3. At 0333 the next morning, she was anchored about 10 miles off the Omaha beaches and landed her troops on schedule at H-hour. She lost three of her boats in the initial assault wave and two in the 2nd wave. That evening, the transport left the area and returned to Portland the next morning to remain "on-call" until the 19th.

Operation Dragoon [ edit | edit source ]

On 4 July, Thurston got underway and proceeded, via Oran, to Naples with a load of lorries and M4 tanks. After unloading on the 17th, she remained at Naples until 13 August, when—loaded with assault troops—she sortied with the Assault Group of TF 84 (Alpha Force) for Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France. She was off Baie de Pampelonne, France, on the morning of the 15th and launched the assault wave, which went ashore with little opposition. The next morning, she got underway for Oran.

Late in September, the transport loaded French troops and landed them at Lardier on the 30th. She then operated in resupply convoys from North Africa and Italy to the beaches until 25 October when she joined a convoy headed to the United States.

Transfer to the Pacific [ edit | edit source ]

The ship arrived at New York on 6 November and began an overhaul that lasted until 19 December. She called at Norfolk, Virginia the next day and got underway for the Pacific on the 21st. She transited the Panama Canal on 27 December 1944 and arrived at San Francisco on 5 January 1945. There, the transport loaded passengers and cargo and headed for Hawaii. She reached Pearl Harbor on the 22nd debarked the passengers embarked garrison troops and proceeded via Eniwetok to the Marianas.

Invasion of Iwo Jima [ edit | edit source ]

The transport was at Saipan from 11 to 16 February, whence she sortied with Transport Group Able of the Attack Force for the assault against Iwo Jima. Thurston remained off the Iwo beaches from 19 to 26 February before she was finally ordered to land her troops. She finished unloading cargo the next day and headed back toward the Marianas. She arrived at Saipan on 2 March, called at Guam the next day to off-load 33 battle casualties, and then proceeded to the Solomons.

Invasion of Okinawa [ edit | edit source ]

Thurston called at Tulagi on the 12th and continued to Espiritu Santo to load elements of the Army's 27th Infantry Division. From there, her itinerary took her via Ulithi, to Okinawa. The ship debarked her troops at the Hagushi Beaches on 9 April and, five days later, headed for the Marianas, whence she was routed, via Ulithi and Manus, to New Caledonia. She embarked 917 homeward-bound passengers and battle casualties at Nouméa on 11 May and debarked them at San Francisco on 26 May.

After hostilities [ edit | edit source ]

Thurston took on Army troops on 9 June and proceeded, via Eniwetok and Ulithi, to the Philippines. She arrived at Manila on 8 July, discharged her troops and cargo there, moved to Tacloban, and embarked homeward-bound naval personnel. The transport called at Ulithi to pick up more sailors and, as the war ended, anchored at San Francisco on 14 August.

On the 25th, the ship began a voyage to the Philippines with more Army troops and arrived at Manila on 15 September. There, the ship was assigned to Operation Magic Carpet duty, returning servicemen home from overseas.

Minor postwar engagement [ edit | edit source ]

Thurston was next ordered to the Solomons. On 4 October, while en route to Guadalcanal, she sighted a 28-foot dory, which showed no sign of life. However, a blanket in the forward cockpit aroused suspicion of the deck officer, who sent a landing craft to see if anyone was on board. The LCVP circled the dory at very close range before moving alongside.

As the boat officer stepped aboard the dory, three Japanese armed with grenades in both hands emerged from under the blanket and hurled them at the officer and the boat. The boat officer tumbled overboard and the boat crew abandoned the LCVP over the "off-side" before the grenades exploded. A second LCVP with a fully armed crew was launched to rescue the crew of the first boat. As soon as they were picked up, Thurston opened fire with her machine guns and finally sank the dory with a 3-inch shell. The boat crew suffered no casualties, and the LCVP was recovered.

Final transport missions [ edit | edit source ]

The ship then called at Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, New Caledonia, and arrived at Seattle on the 30th. The transport made three more Magic-Carpet voyages: to the Philippines in December 1945 and in March 1946, and to Okinawa and Japan in May. When she arrived at San Francisco on 20 June, she began preparations for inactivation.


Thurston (AP-77): Photographs

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Near the New York Navy Yard on 23 September 1942.
Note the full loadout of landing craft, including the many on deck and the three in the port Welin davit.

Photo No. 19-N-34572
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Near the New York Navy Yard on 23 September 1942.
The ship is carrying her original armament, including a 5"/50 gun on the stern.

Photo No. 19-N-34575
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Near the New York Navy Yard on 17 December 1944.
The ship has been rearmed and now has a 40mm twin mount on a raised platform above and just aft of the two 3"/50 guns on the bow.

Photo No. 19-N-78189
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Near the New York Navy Yard on 17 December 1944.
The ship has been rearmed, losing her 5"/50 gun aft and gaining two 40mm twin mounts on raised platforms, one forward and one aft.

Photo No. 19-N-78190
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Photographed from USS Hamlin (AV-15) off Iwo Jima on 20 February 1945 while launching boatloads of troops.
Note the numerous troops on deck, the landing craft being held at the rail by cargo booms both forward and aft where the troops could board them, and the partial loadout of landing craft remaining on deck aft and in the davits.


Thurston AP-77 - History

This is my work in progress list of ship that participated in the Battle of Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945). Over 600 ships participated in the invasion force and I could not find a master list of ships who took part in the invasion. Most of the information has come from ship websites, articles, unit histories and books about the battle. I am very interested in finding a list of what Marine Divisions were on which ships. I have added important notes behind certain ship to denote interesting or historic facts about that particular ship during the battle. If you see that a ship is not listed please contact me so I can add it to the list.

List of Ships at Iwo Jima

    Amphibious Command Ship
  • USS Auburn (AGC-10) Command Ship Amphibious Group 2
  • USS Eldorado (AGC-11) Invasion Command Ship Gen Holland Smith/James Forrestal
  • USS Estes (AGC-12) D-2 2/17/45 UDT Action Command Ship
  • USS Biscayne(AGC-18) Flagship for Transport Screen

US Coast Guard Crewed Ships

Contributors: American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org, US Militaria Forum Members,Iwo Jima Veterans and Families, B. Burns, Jim Simons, Jeffrey S. Williams,David Fredrick.

81 comments:

My husband was a Navy Corpsman with the 3rd Marine Division. The USS Cape Johnson 9aP172) was the troop transport that brought him from Guam to Iwo Jima.

That should have been (AP-172). Sorry.

Thank you! The note has been added. Only the greatest respects for your Husbands service in WWII! LF

LST 808 also participated in the battle of Iwo Jima. My husbands grandfather Marlin Henry was on that ship, as a radar operator. The following is from a website with history of this ship: LST-808

LST-808 was laid down on 1 August 1944 at Evansville, Ind., by the Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Co. launched on 15 September 1944 sponsored by Mrs. W. I. Oliver and commissioned on 29 September 1944.

During World War II, LST-808 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima in Feburary 1945 and the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. LST-808 was torpedoed by a Japanese kamikaze off le Shima on 18 May 1945. Grounded on a reef following the torpedoing, she was destroyed on 11 November 1945 and struck from the Navy list. LST-808 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

Thank you Bonnie, the ship has been noted on my list! It is greatly appreciated as it is more difficult to document these smaller ships. Thank you again! Leonardo

Thank you for creating this site. I am looking for guidance in my quest to learn which ship my uncle was on during WWII. All I really know is He definitely was on a ship at Iwo Jima and he was wounded but survived. His name was Charles Leonard Mayes, Jr. and he lived his life in Evansville, Indiana. He was born 9/23/1925 and died 8/18/1988. I hate to bother somebody with something which seems I could do myself but I keep hitting stone walls. Thank you again, whether you can help or not, I appreciate and love sites like yours.

Yes I think I found him looks like he was on the USS Wasp. I'll post more info when I get home later today.

My dad Edward Mooradian says he was on the LSM-8

Michael, I have your Dad written on the WWII Navy Rosters as being on LSD-2 During the Battle of Iwo Jima. He later went on LSM-8 in late 45 and 1946. Thank You!

I am trying to locate the ship for Chief Claybourne Rasley. He was a Seabee on Iwo Jima. DOB 12-14-1914. Any information is greatly appreciated.

After further research, I located CMM Rasley with the 62nd NCB. From declassified unit histories, the 62nd was attached to the 5th Marine Division. They were transported from Hawaii to Iwo Jima on APA-195 (Lenawee). That would provide more detail than your current listing. From personal histories on the unit's website, the 62nd also landed with LST 943 and LST 884. History on both these vessels confirms action in the Pacific theater and specifically the Iwo Jima landing.

DA,
Thanks for the info, I don't think I saw your original post so sorry for the delay!

There are two entries for Claybourne Edgar Rasley (service number 6543985), both as a passenger:

Claybourne E Rasley
Ship, Station or Activity: Allen M Sumner
Ship Number or Designation: DD-692
Muster Date: 4 Oct 1945

Claybourne Edgar Rasley
Ship, Station or Activity: LST 943
Ship Number or Designation: LST-943
Muster Date: 24 Jan 1945

You are very lucky as most Navy Rosters do not show passenger lists for NCB and the like.

Thanks for your help concerning the other ships, it is very helpful!

This comment has been removed by the author.

If you would like to get his records, contact Lori at [email protected], let her know I sent you. Good Luck.

I am researching my husband's grandfather #965828 PFC George A Mack. 1st Batt'l, 28th Mar, 5th Mar Div., Co B. He was aboard the LST-449 and arrived Feb 19 at Iwo Jima. On the 22nd he was wounded. I would love to know what records are available and how you get them. please feel free to message me at my e mail agenealogylady at att dot net.

My 90 year old Grandfather served aboard the USS President Monroe 1944-1946. He is in excellent health. He has a photo album from his time on ship and in Philippine , Guam etc. these photos are just unreal. Please contact me if these photos or his assistance are needed / wanted. History told by these gentlemen themselves will soon be impossible . [email protected]

My father, John W. Mills, gunners mate, was on SC 1054 at Iwo Jima, saw the flag raised at Mt Surabachi

USS Biscayne was a command ship. Flag ship of destroyer admiral i believe. Check out wikipedia page for biscayne..

Thank you! I added to the list!

Hi, Great job. I would ask you to add one ship. My fathers ship was there USS PCS 1388. Navsource has a picture of her off Iwo Jima.
http://www.navsource.org/archives/12/071388.htm
When she was commissioned she had a 40 mm gun aft. In the picture it has been replaced by a structure. She was in the process of being converted to an AGS or geodetic survey ship. Thank you for your work in this regard.

Thank you Daniel Ship has been added! Best Regards to your fathers service!

My grandfather landed on Iwo Jima aboard the LST 782, which was carrying "H" Battery 3rd BN 13th Marines

I am so glad I found your site. As a child, I was told my father had been on Iwo Jima, but I never saw any proof of that. When I started work on my family tree, I ordered my father’s DD-214 and gleaned a lot of info from the document. (I was lucky that it survived a fire where documents had been stored.) Using info from the DD-214 I searched the Internet to find proof that he had been on Iwo Jima. Until very recently, I’d only found one reference to my father’s anti-aircraft gun battalion, the 947th.. Then, just the other day, I found an “unclassified” document titled Participation in the Iwo Jima Operation and your website. Based on those two finds, it looks as if my father’s anti-aircraft gun battalion was in Iwo Jima. How do I find out if HE was in fact there? Is there a ship’s roster? (USS Hyde if I read your list correctly) Is there someplace else I can look for the names of the service personnel who served at Iwo Jima? Although I am getting “warmer” in my search, I don’t feel that I have 100% proof that my father was in fact in Iwo Jima. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Hello Karin, I looked on the Hyde Rosters but it didn't list Army personnel, just the ships personnel. I believe the only Iwo Jima Army uniform I own is from the 947th, I would have to look. Unfortunately most Army Rosters just don't exist like the Marines and Navy. There is a "army forces at Iwo Jima" after action report online but they only have the first 70 pages of 700 pages, a roster might be on there but you'll have to get the rest of the report from the national archives. Feel free to contact me if you have anymore questions.

Hi Leonardo. Thank you for your reply. I'll look into the "army forces at Iwo Jima" after action report. I'll get it from the national archives if I have to. I got my great-father's Civil War pension record that way. Well worth the cost. Thanks again.

Looking for more information on my grandfathers ship, finding the same general story everywhere I look. He was on the USS Colhoun DD-801 at the time it was attacked. I believe he was only on that ship until picked up by USS Forster and taken back stateside and discharged. Reed Winfield Campbell. Any other sites or ideas to find more than his inlistment card and muster rolls? I am looking for more specifics.

Seeking any information available on my great uncle PFC Don E Thomas, 28th Marine Regiment. I found where he arrived Iwo Jima on the Missoula (APA-211) Feb 19th, and died (if I recall correctly) March 5th.


HistoryLink.org

Native Americans had been residents of southern Puget Sound long before the first documented white settlers passed through in 1792. Archaeological excavating and carbon dating procedures have established a human presence at Tumwater Falls on the Deschutes River as far back as 2,500 to 3,000 years ago. The Nisqually and Squaxon tribes gradually established themselves in the area. They built a settlement of longhouses at the falls, which they called Tum-wa-ta, meaning “strong water,” and wintered on a peninsula they called Cheet-Woot (the present-day site of Olympia).

The Native Americans found their primary food source from the water, particularly salmon and shellfish they either caught the fish in shallow water in the inlets or skimmed the deeper waters in canoes carved out of large cedar logs. They also hunted game such as elk and deer both for meat and to make clothing from the pelts. Roots, camas bulbs, and berries also were a staple of the diet.

During the warmer months, Indians lived in lightweight homes that often had a portable mat roof made from tule reeds and cattails. The portable roofs were a logical extension of the migratory life of root-gathering and berry-picking that dominated the late spring and summer months. Winter homes were more substantial, built with heavy red-cedar posts (sometimes carved and painted). The roof boards of these homes were alternately concave and convex to allow rain water to run off. These boards were also adjustable to let more light into the homes in good weather, and to custom fit the size of the smoke holes needed for each home.

Exploration and Settlement

Though some Native American legends claim others might have explored Puget Sound (at least as far south as Commencement Bay) as early as 1750, the first documented exploration of Puget Sound was headed by British captain George Vancouver (1757-1798) in May 1792. On May 20 Lieutenant Peter Puget and Master Joseph Whidbey began a six-day exploration of the southern sound. Puget found the Indians he encountered to be friendly and honest, and wrote in June 1792: “They beheld the approach of our boats with out the least apprehension or evident signs of fear . . The conduct of these people impressed me with a high idea of their honesty” (Palmer).

White explorers next visited the area in the 1820s when scouts of the British-owned Hudson’s Bay Company passed through, looking to establish a trading post on Puget Sound. The Hudson’s Bay Company subsequently established Fort Nisqually -- the first European settlement on Puget Sound -- in April 1833 near Sequalitchew Creek on the Nisqually Delta, but on the eastern side of the Nisqually River, in today’s (2006) Pierce County. Still, this nearby settlement would, a decade later, provide a helping hand in the establishment of the first American settlement in Washington -- in the future Thurston County.

In May 1841 United States Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) arrived in Puget Sound. He conducted a survey of the sound and named several landmarks, including Budd Inlet, named after one of the officers in the survey expedition.

In October 1845 Michael Simmons settled near Tumwater Falls and established the first American settlement in what would become the state of Washington. With Simmons was his friend, African American George Washington Bush, and other settlers. They survived the first winter with help from nearby Fort Nisqually. Simmons built a grist mill and a sawmill at the site and called his settlement New Market as a way of letting all know that Hudson’s Bay Company now had competition.

In October 1846 Levi Smith and Edmund Sylvester arrived from New England and built a cabin on a peninsula called by local Indians Cheet-Woot. This would later be Olympia.

Thurston County Forms

In August 1848 Congress established Oregon Territory, which included the future state of Washington. By 1850 there were more than 300 non-Indian inhabitants north of the Columbia River, and as the new communities on and near the southern shores of Puget Sound began to grow, so grew the need for a local organized government and a new county. Simmons (in honor of Michael Simmons) was proposed as the name of the new county.

Instead, Thurston was chosen as the new county’s name and Olympia was chosen as the county seat. The Oregon Territorial Legislature carved the new county out of Lewis County on January 12, 1852. The early Thurston County was considerably larger than it is today, covering territory from west of the Cascades to the coast and north to the Canadian border. However, other counties were quickly formed from parts of Thurston County and by 1877 it had been reduced to its present size.

Thurston County’s name came from Samuel R. Thurston (1816-1851), the first delegate to Congress in 1849 from the new Oregon Territory, who had made a name for himself during his brief tenure in office defending the territorial rights of the northern part of Oregon Territory against the claims of the Hudson’s Bay Company.

State Government and County Seat

By the early 1850s settlers living north of the Columbia River felt they had little in common with their southern neighbors and also felt they were largely ignored by the Oregon Territorial Government. The settlers first wrote Congress in 1851 and asked for a new territory, but Congress did not act.

The second attempt was more successful. Late in November 1852, the New Territory Convention met in Monticello (near present-day Longview in Cowlitz County) and the delegates drafted a petition to form a new territory to be called Columbia out of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River. Citizens south of the river did not object, and the bill was introduced in Congress in December. As the bill went through Congress, the name of the proposed territory was changed from Columbia to Washington, partly to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia and partly to honor George Washington. Both the House and Senate approved the bill, and President Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), in one of his last acts as president, signed it on March 2, 1853, creating the Territory of Washington (which at that time also included northern Idaho and a small slice of northwestern Montana).

President Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) took office two days later. He appointed Isaac Stevens (1818-1862) as the territorial governor. Stevens arrived in Olympia in November 1853. He consulted leading citizens (including Arthur Denny of Seattle) on various issues, including the choice of location for the seat of the new government. Stevens picked Olympia as the territorial capital, and called for a territorial legislature to be elected on January 30, 1854, and to meet in Olympia on February 27.

The 1855 Legislature was called upon to vote on the location of the state government. Vancouver and Olympia were in the running. Arthur Denny (1822-1899) gave an impassioned speech to the Legislature extolling the virtues of Olympia, and Olympia won. But was only the beginning of the capital battle.

A Capital Battle

As early as 1859 a bill was introduced into the Territorial Legislature to move the capital to Vancouver, but it failed. Another such bill was introduced when the Legislature again convened in December 1860, and this time it passed. The Territorial Supreme Court would eventually decide the validity of that bill. But during the 1860 legislative session, the Legislature also passed a second bill providing that territorial voters should decide the capital location in the next election.

That election came in July 1861, and Olympia defeated Vancouver by a vote of 1,239 to 639. But at some point in 1861 the legislature moved to Vancouver. Then, in December 1861, the Territorial Supreme Court (which had also moved to Vancouver) ruled on the validity of the first bill, which had moved the capital to Vancouver. The court held that the Legislature could change the location of the state capital -- unless a vote of the people was in favor of keeping the seat of government in Olympia. Since voters had subsequently voted to keep the capital in Olympia, the court ruled that the capital should remain in Olympia.

In October 1889, as Washington neared statehood, the capital issue again was put to a vote. Olympia garnered 25,490 votes, but it wasn’t enough. North Yakima and Ellensburg almost evenly split most of the remaining ballots, and between them the two towns received 27,594 votes. Since Olympia did not win a majority of the votes in the 1889 election, a second election was held in 1890. This time Olympia won hands down, defeating its nearest rival, Ellensburg, by a vote of 37,413 to 7,722. North Yakima was third with 6,276 votes.

And still this did not settle the question. Some state agencies began simply drifting away from Olympia as early as 1899 the Board of Health moved to Seattle. After World War II ended in 1945, the trend of agencies leaving Olympia accelerated. By the mid-1950s, 13 agencies had moved their headquarters to Seattle. Once again the matter ended up in front of the Washington Supreme Court. On August 3, 1954, the Washington State Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that state agencies must headquarter in Olympia. “The decision, a new and stunning climax to the century-long fight by Olympians to be the center of state government, was written by Justice Charles T. Donsworth” (The Daily Olympian). In a 33-page decision, the court wrote: “We feel certain it was the intention of the framers of our state constitution and the people . that the whole of the executive department should be located in the seat of government” (The Daily Olympian).

The case was controversial enough to generate a written dissent. The four dissenting justices argued that the capital question was one for the Legislature, not the court, to decide.

The Other Thurston County

For most of Thurston County’s first century, state government played only a secondary role in the county’s economy. In the nineteenth century, timber covered much of the region, and coal was discovered in the southern part of the county, providing attractive economic opportunities for the slowly growing influx of settlers.

In December 1854 Governor Isaac Stevens and 62 leaders of major Indian tribes in western Washington met at Medicine Creek (now McAllister Creek) in Thurston County and signed what became known as the Medicine Creek Treaty. Inequities in the treaty and other factors soon provoked the Indian War of 1855-1856. Though most of the fighting took place outside Thurston County, local fear of an attack was rampant: Olympia built a stockade to block an attack that never happened, and citizens formed two volunteer companies that saw action (and some fatalities including fighters from Thurston County) in the White River Valley.

There were also economic threats to the county’s early settlement. In 1873 the Northern Pacific Railroad chose Tacoma instead of Olympia as its terminus, and routed its railroad tracks 15 miles from Olympia. In a day when railroad was king, being bypassed by the railroad was frequently a death knell for small towns. But not Olympia. It simply built a railroad of its own and by 1878, it was connected with the Northern Pacific.

Still, water remained the best route of travel along Puget Sound, even in the latter decades of the nineteenth century. But here there was another problem that slowed the county’s growth -- its port. At low tide, Olympia’s port turned into an enormous mudflat. The ports of Tacoma and Seattle (Commencement Bay and Elliott Bay) were deeper and more accessible. In 1895 Olympia’s harbor was dredged, but by this time growth in both Seattle and Tacoma had far eclipsed that of Thurston County.

Thurston County began the twentieth century on a bright note. The 1900 Census put the population of the county just shy of 10,000. As the new century began, lumber was the most important industry, with sandstone and coal mining in the southern part of the county also adding a glow to the economic horizon.

Timber still dominated the county’s economy in the 1920s, and when the Port of Olympia formed in 1922, it shipped forest products from the lumber mills lining Budd Inlet all over the world. But state government began making significant inroads into the county’s economy during the 1920s.

Olympia’s state capitol campus was completed in 1927 and symbolized the trend toward state government becoming the dominant industry in the county. Indeed, state employment (assisted by federal funds) provided employment opportunities for Olympia and Thurston County citizens in the 1930s, as did Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) projects, which helped offset some of the worst effects of the decade’s Great Depression.

Still, the 1930s were a difficult decade for Thurston County its economy did not begin to fully recover until the coming of World War II. Then activity at the Port of Olympia picked up, military training areas were built in the county, and the Olympia airport became a satellite for nearby McChord Field (Pierce County).

The April 13, 1949, earthquake that struck the Northwest was centered in the extreme northeastern part of Thurston County, along the shoreline with Puget Sound. The magnitude 7.1 earthquake killed two Olympians. To date it remains the worst recorded earthquake in the region since the 1840s.

By the 1940s much of the timber in Thurston County was logged out, and by the 1950s state government surpassed timber as the dominant economy in Thurston County. But many county logging mills hung on until the 1960s, when they began to close in rapid succession -- three closed in Olympia in 1967 alone.

The 1960s brought social strife to Thurston County, but with its own unique component: “fish-ins” by Native Americans and their supporters. Always political, sometimes violent, these fish-ins along the Nisqually River (and the Puyallup River in neighboring Pierce County) were designed to reassert Indian fishing rights on traditional fishing grounds.

In 1974 a court ruling known as the "Boldt Decision" allocated 50 percent of the annual catch to treaty tribes. This led to further battles between tribal and non-tribal fishermen and regulators, as well as an appeal of the decision, which was affirmed in 1979 by the United States Supreme Court.

Agriculture

Agriculture developed slowly but steadily during the early years of Thurston County. Small farms sprang up and began producing bacon, milk, cheese, chickens, and wheat. But the quality of the soil was poor for growing crops, and by the end of the nineteenth century many farmers had turned almost exclusively to dairy farming. In addition, the lumber industry in Thurston County by the end of the nineteenth century had become so lucrative that many farmers only farmed part time and worked in the lumber industry part time as well.

Still, the number of farms in Thurston County grew during the first half of the twentieth century as the county’s population slowly grew, reaching a peak of 2,876 farms in 1940. By this time the county’s farming was becoming more diversified, with hay and berries being grown. This diversification continued throughout the remainder of the century even as agriculture’s role in the county economy dwindled.

By the end of the twentieth century, agriculture claimed only about 2 percent of Thurston County’s employment. The 1997 Census of Agriculture reported that blueberries, hay, and corn were the county’s primary field crops, while dairy cows and hens represented the gist of the county’s livestock production.

Settlement first reached the Lacey area with the arrival of the Chambers family in 1847. In 1891 local residents applied for a post office with the Post Office Department (now the United States Postal Service) and requested the name Woodland, but it was already taken. Residents filed a second petition for another name. A real estate investor, O. C. Lacey, was involved with the second petition -- it is not precisely clear how -- and his name was proposed and accepted.

Saint Martin’s College, a Catholic Benedictine school, opened in Lacey in September 1895. The school originally offered grammar and high school courses and did not actually add college level courses until 1900. One of the college’s Benedictine brothers, Father Sebastian Ruth, established one of Washington state’s earliest radio stations, KGY, in April 1922 the station broadcast from the Saint Martin’s campus until 1932. Saint Martin’s College became Saint Martin’s University in August 2005.

The Lacey area was home to numerous resorts in the early twentieth century. Lake resorts sprang up in the 1910s and reached their heyday in the 1920s. By then Hicks, Long, Pattison and Southwick lakes all had resorts. Hicks Lake alone boasted seven resorts by 1926, including Gwinwood, which is today (2006) the site of Christian summer youth camps.

Lacey made its mark in 1966 with two big events that fall: First, the South Sound Mall, the Northwest’s first “indoor mall,” opened in October. Then, on December 5, the City of Lacey incorporated.

Lacey has grown rapidly in recent years. The 2000 U.S. Census put its population at 31,226, an increase of nearly 60 percent since 1990, and making it the second most-populated city in Thurston County.

In October 1846, Levi Smith and Edmund Sylvester arrived from New England and built a cabin on the peninsula that Indians called Cheet-Woot. Smith called the new settlement Smithfield, but the name did not last. Smith died in 1848 and Sylvester inherited Smith’s share of the land. When Sylvester platted the town in 1850, he chose the name Olympia, after the Olympic Mountains. Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens designated Olympia as the territorial capital in November 1853. On January 29, 1859, Olympia was incorporated as a city at the time its population had not yet reached 1,000. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, growth was slow and transportation difficult.

The 1890s was a decade of contradictions for Olympia. Technological innovations brought the town into the modern era -- telephones had arrived in 1889, electricity was in widespread use by the early 1890s, and in the 1890s Olympia built a water system. But the depression of the mid-1890s so wrecked the local economy that by 1900, Olympia’s population had dropped nearly 20 percent from its 1890 level.

Several dredging projects changed Olympia’s look between 1895 and 1910. In 1895 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredged the harbor in Olympia, making access to the harbor much easier. In 1909 another dredging project filled in mudflats north of downtown, adding 29 blocks to the city and filling in the Deschutes Waterway.

Olympia experienced a building spree during the 1920s in both residential and commercial buildings. But perhaps the most significant construction in Olympia during the 1920s was the State Capitol Campus. (The campus moved east of Capitol Way in the 1950s).

By the end of the 1950s Olympia had assumed its current characteristics of a capital city with the economic benefits of having state government in the city. Growth in Olympia has since accelerated, and in the 2000 Census the city’s population was 42,514.

In April 1972, The Evergreen State College opened on Cooper point in Olympia. Known for its innovative educational strategies, the school also boasts a unique motto: “Let it all hang out.” In 2005 the college had more than 4,400 students.

New Market (Tumwater) was the earliest American settlement in the state of Washington, first settled in October 1845 by Michael Simmons. New Market became Tumwater in the 1860s. Tumwater held its own as a center for small manufacturing and industry until the 1890s, when the triple-whammy of being bypassed by the railroad, the 1890s Depression, and technological changes (such as the installation of electric lines) that tended to benefit industries in the more developed cities (such as Olympia) dramatically slowed Tumwater's growth.

Until the 1940s the town’s population remained under 1,000. But as neighboring Olympia began to rapidly grow in the mid-twentieth century, so grew Tumwater in 2000, Tumwater’s population was 12,698.

One of Tumwater’s most famous landmarks is the Olympia Brewing Company. Leopold Schmidt opened it in 1896 as the Capital Brewing Company. He built a four-story brewhouse and a bottling and keg plant.

In 1902 the company changed its name to the Olympia Brewing Company and adopted its slogan “It’s the Water” to explain the taste of its Olympia beer. In 1906 the firm built a new, six-story brewhouse to replace the original, and it remains standing today as part of the Tumwater Historic District. The Olympia Brewing Company was forced to close in 1915 with the advent of Prohibition (which took effect in 1916 in Washington state), but quickly reopened after Prohibition’s repeal in 1933. The company built a new, modern plant up the hill above the original site, and operated under a number of different owners until closing in 2003.

In 1978, 300 acres and more than 20 buildings in Tumwater were placed on the National Register of Historic Places, and in August 1979 Tumwater dedicated the Tumwater Historic District, in a nod to its rich heritage in Washington’s history.

Thurston County Today

Thurston County’s population began to rapidly increase during the 1950s, and by the 1970s the communities of Olympia, Tumwater, and Lacey had blended into an extended metropolitan area. The county’s population, 44,884 in 1950, passed 100,000 in the late 1970s and 200,000 in the late 1990s, with the 2000 census recording 207,355 in the county. In 2005 the estimated population in the Olympia metropolitan area exceeded 225,000.

With the growth in population has come a concurrent construction boom. The boom was particularly marked in the late 1980s with the construction of office buildings, three new state buildings, homes, and schools.

In the early twenty-first century, government -- particularly state government -- continues to dominate the county’s economy, though in recent decades its dominance has actually slipped slightly. Still, government employment represented 40 percent of the county’s employment at the turn of the millennium.

Meanwhile, the trade sector has been the county’s economic upstart in the past 30 years, with employment increasing by 266 percent between 1970 and the end of the 1990s, particularly in the retail sector. Economic conditions for Thurston County’s Native Americans have been boosted as well in recent years with the opening of tribal casinos in Rochester and near Yelm. Meanwhile, population migration into the county from the greater Seattle-Tacoma area continues to increase, adding further fuel to the increasing urbanization of Thurston County.


Contents

Commissioned on 19 September 1942, with Captain Jack E. Hurff in command, Thurston was converted into an auxiliary transport by the Atlantic Basin Iron Works of Brooklyn, New York, and was ready for sea on the 24th.

Operation Torch

Following shakedown training out of Little Creek, Virginia, and landing exercises with Army units at Solomons Island, Maryland, the transport sortied on 24 October with Task Group (TG) 34.9, the Center Attack Force, for the invasion of North Africa. Her holds and decks were combat-loaded with men and equipment of the 15th Infantry Regiment.

On the morning of 8 November, she arrived in the transport area off Fedhala, French Morocco . Since her troops were assigned to the reserve force, she did not begin disembarking them until late that evening. On the 13th, Thurston entered Casablanca harbor to finish unloading supplies and equipment. She began her return voyage on the 15th and arrived at Hampton Roads 11 days later. Two round-trip voyages across the Atlantic carrying reinforcements to North Africa were next on her agenda. She then spent March and April undergoing repairs and alterations.

Operation Husky

On 10 May, the ship sailed with convoy UGF-8A for Oran with troops to be used in the Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. In early June, Thurston embarked units of the 16th Infantry Regiment and headed to Algiers for landing rehearsals. On 6 July, she sortied with Task force (TF) 81 and, on the 9th, arrived in the assault area off Gela. The ship landed the troops early the next morning, completed unloading on the 12th, and returned via Algiers to Oran. On 22 July, she headed to New York for more troops and supplies and was back at Oran on 2 September. Five days later, she embarked 600 German prisoners of war and disembarked them at New York on the 22nd.

Air attack off Algiers

On 8 October, the transport—loaded with American troops—joined Convoy UT-3 and debarked them at Gourock, Scotland, on the 17th. She then proceeded to Glasgow to pick up Canadian troops, returned to Gourock, and joined a convoy for North Africa. The convoy arrived off Algiers on 6 November and, that evening, was subjected to an air attack in which destroyer USS Beatty (DD-640), SS Santa Elena, and the Dutch ship SS Mornix van St. Aldegonde were torpedoed and sunk while Allied ships splashed six German planes.

The remainder of the convoy arrived at Naples two days later, and Thurston disembarked the Canadians. She then moved to Palermo to pick up elements of the American 1st Armored Division for passage to Scotland. After a week at Gourock, the transport got underway for the United States on the last day of November and reached New York on 9 December 1943.

Operation Overlord

Thurston carried troops from New York to Liverpool in January 1944 to Gourock in February and to Cardiff, Wales, in April. When the ship finished unloading at Cardiff on 4 April, she proceeded to Loch Long for three weeks of landing exercises to prepare for Operation Overlord, the invasion of Hitler's "Fortress Europe." She anchored at Portland, England, on the 29th and sustained minor damage there on 28 May when a German bomb exploded 30 yards off her port side.

In the evening of 5 June, Thurston began the channel crossing to Normandy with Assault Group O-3. At 0333 the next morning, she was anchored about 10 miles off the Omaha beaches and landed her troops on schedule at H-hour. She lost three of her boats in the initial assault wave and two in the 2nd wave. That evening, the transport left the area and returned to Portland the next morning to remain "on-call" until the 19th.

Operation Dragoon

On 4 July, Thurston got underway and proceeded, via Oran, to Naples with a load of lorries and M4 tanks . After unloading on the 17th, she remained at Naples until 13 August, when—loaded with assault troops—she sortied with the Assault Group of TF 84 (Alpha Force) for Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France. She was off Baie de Pampelonne, France , on the morning of the 15th and launched the assault wave, which went ashore with little opposition. The next morning, she got underway for Oran.

Late in September, the transport loaded French troops and landed them at Lardier on the 30th. She then operated in resupply convoys from North Africa and Italy to the beaches until 25 October when she joined a convoy headed to the United States.

Transfer to the Pacific

The ship arrived at New York on 6 November and began an overhaul that lasted until 19 December. She called at Norfolk, Virginia the next day and got underway for the Pacific on the 21st. She transited the Panama Canal on 27 December 1944 and arrived at San Francisco on 5 January 1945. There, the transport loaded passengers and cargo and headed for Hawaii. She reached Pearl Harbor on the 22nd debarked the passengers embarked garrison troops and proceeded via Eniwetok to the Marianas.

Invasion of Iwo Jima

The transport was at Saipan from 11 to 16 February, whence she sortied with Transport Group Able of the Attack Force for the assault against Iwo Jima. Thurston remained off the Iwo beaches from 19 to 26 February before she was finally ordered to land her troops. She finished unloading cargo the next day and headed back toward the Marianas. She arrived at Saipan on 2 March, called at Guam the next day to off-load 33 battle casualties, and then proceeded to the Solomons.

Invasion of Okinawa

Thurston called at Tulagi on the 12th and continued to Espiritu Santo to load elements of the Army's 27th Infantry Division. From there, her itinerary took her via Ulithi, to Okinawa. The ship debarked her troops at the Hagushi Beaches on 9 April and, five days later, headed for the Marianas, whence she was routed, via Ulithi and Manus, to New Caledonia. She embarked 917 homeward-bound passengers and battle casualties at Nouméa on 11 May and debarked them at San Francisco on 26 May.

After hostilities

Thurston took on Army troops on 9 June and proceeded, via Eniwetok and Ulithi, to the Philippines. She arrived at Manila on 8 July, discharged her troops and cargo there, moved to Tacloban, and embarked homeward-bound naval personnel. The transport called at Ulithi to pick up more sailors and, as the war ended, anchored at San Francisco on 14 August.

On the 25th, the ship began a voyage to the Philippines with more Army troops and arrived at Manila on 15 September. There, the ship was assigned to Operation Magic Carpet duty, returning servicemen home from overseas.

Minor postwar engagement

Thurston was next ordered to the Solomons. On 4 October, while en route to Guadalcanal, she sighted a 28-foot dory, which showed no sign of life. However, a blanket in the forward cockpit aroused suspicion of the deck officer, who sent a landing craft to see if anyone was on board. The LCVP circled the dory at very close range before moving alongside.

As the boat officer stepped aboard the dory, three Japanese armed with grenades in both hands emerged from under the blanket and hurled them at the officer and the boat. The boat officer tumbled overboard and the boat crew abandoned the LCVP over the "off-side" before the grenades exploded. A second LCVP with a fully armed crew was launched to rescue the crew of the first boat. As soon as they were picked up, Thurston opened fire with her machine guns and finally sank the dory with a 3-inch shell. The boat crew suffered no casualties, and the LCVP was recovered.

Final transport missions

The ship then called at Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, New Caledonia, and arrived at Seattle on the 30th. The transport made three more Magic-Carpet voyages: to the Philippines in December 1945 and in March 1946, and to Okinawa and Japan in May. When she arrived at San Francisco on 20 June, she began preparations for inactivation.


Next Stop: Pointe Du Hoc and Omaha Beach – Amazing Color Pictures of the 2nd Rangers embarking in Weymouth

Almost Seventy one years on we look back on The US Ranger’s embarkation in Weymouth, destination Pointe Du Hoc and Omaha Beach. These amazing color pictures tell the story of the brave troops embarking their ships and move off to their destiny.

2nd Ranger battalion marches through Weymouth to the landing craft moored in the harbor. [via]

June 1st 1944, note the Weymouth Pavilion in the background[Via]

LCA’s awaiting the Rangers, LCI(L)-497, 84 and LCH-87[Via]

5th Rangers loading LCA of the HMS Prince Baudouin, LCI(L) 497, 84 and LCH-87 [Via]

5th or 6th ESB (Engineer Special Brigade) embarking a LST, destination: Omaha Beach [Via]

United States Rangers from E Company / 5th Ranger Battalion, on board a landing craft assault vessel (LCA) in Weymouth harbor, Dorset, on June 4, 1944. The ship is bound for the D-Day landing on Omaha Beach in Normandy.

Clockwise, from far left: First Sergeant Sandy Martin, who was killed during the landing, Technician Fifth Grade Joseph Markovich, Corporal John Loshiavo and Private First Class Frank E. Lockwood.

They are holding a 60mm mortar, a Bazooka, a Garand rifle and a pack of Lucky Strike cigarettes. [Via]

5ht ESB ambarking in to their LCVP (Landing Craft Vehicles Personnel), destination: Omaha Beach [Via]

Boarding the ship in early June 1944 – Operation Overlord LCVP USS Thurston (AP-77) boarding staff 5th ESB (Engineer Special Brigade) for Omaha. In the background the Weymouth Pavilion. [Via]

LCA-521 LCA-1377 with Rangers on their way to Pointe Du Hoc [Via]

British Navy Landing Crafts (LCA-1377) carry United States Army Rangers to a ship near Weymouth in Southern England on June 1, 1944. British soldiers can be seen in the conning station. For safety measures, U.S. Rangers remained consigned on board English ships for five days prior to the invasion of Normandy. [Via]

Footage of the Embarkation at Weymouth


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