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Battle of Ettlingen, 9 July 1796

Battle of Ettlingen, 9 July 1796


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Battle of Ettlingen, 9 July 1796

The battle of Ettlingen (9 July 1796) was an early French victory during General Moreau's campaign in southern Germany that convinced the Archduke Charles to make a fighting retreat towards the Danube.

At the start of June 1796 General Jourdan had crossed the Rhine at Dusseldorf. The Archduke Charles, who by then was the overall Austrian commander on the Rhine, moved north and soon forced Jourdan to re-cross the Rhine, but this movement gave General Moreau his chance to cross the Rhine. On 23-24 June Moreau's Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle crossed the Rhine opposite Strasbourg, and established itself between the Black Forest and the Rhine. Moreau won two victories over General Latour's Army of the Upper Rhine (Renchen, 26 June 1796 and Rastatt, 5 July 1796), but his slow and careful progress had given the Archduke time to move south with most of his army.

The new Austrian line ran across the northern end of the Black Forest. The Austrian right ran from Malsch west to the Rhine. The centre crossed the mountains, reaching a strong position on the plateau of Rotensol, to the east of the valley of the Alb.

The Archduke decided to attack on 10 July, but Moreau pre-empted him, attacking on 9 July. Moreau planned to make his main effort on the right. General St-Cyr, in the valley of the Murg (which flows north-west across the Black Forest) was to cross the mountains and attack the Austrian position at Rotensol. To his right General Taponier, with six battalions of infantry and 150 hussars was sent across the mountains to Wildbad, in the Enz valley, from where he could outflank the Austrian left. To St-Cyr's right General Houel was to capture Herrenalb and Frauenalb in the Alb valley, a move that would threaten the right of the Austrian position at Rotensol.

On the French left General Desaix was to attack Malsch, at the foot of the mountains, to prevent the Austrians from moving troops to the threatened areas. This attack developed into a fierce battle that lasted until ten in the evening. Malsch was taken several times by the French, but on each occasion the Austrians pushed them back. The Austrians attempted to use their cavalry to attack between Malsch and the Rhine, but the French reserve blocked this move. At the end of the day the neither side had made any progress around Malsch, but by then the battle had been won in the mountains.

Rotensol was defended by six battalions of infantry, four squadrons of cavalry and a strong force of artillery, all under the command of General Keim. Another three battalions were posted at Frauenalb, while the advance guard was further to the south-west, at Loffenau.

St-Cyr realised that a frontal attack would be very costly and so he decided to try and pull the Austrians out of their lines. Part of the 106th and 84th demi-brigades made four simulated attacks on the Austrian positions, each time withdrawing without pressing their attack. When the 106th demi-brigade made a fifth feint, the Austrians finally reacted. Thinking that they had a chance to capture the apparently isolated demi-brigade they charged down the hill into valley. St-Cyr then triggered his trap, attacking the newly exposed Austrian right with troops he had hidden in Herrenalb. The Austrians attempted to escape back to their original positions, but were prevented from doing this. Keim was forced to retreat east across the hills to Neuenbürg, to the north of Wildbad in the Enz valley. A Saxon division under General Lindt, which had been advancing towards Wildbad, joined the retreat, pulling back all the way to Pforzheim, further north down the Enz.

When the Archduke learnt of the defeat of his left, he decided to pull back from Malsch, and on the morning of 10 July the Austrians retreated by a forced march from Carlsruhe east to Durlach and then on to Pforzheim. On the same day the French occupied Neuenbürg and Ettlingen and prepared to advance east to the Neckar.

After the defeat at Ettlingen the Archduke Charles learnt that Jourdan had crossed the Rhine for a second time. He decided to retreat back to the Danube, where he would join up with General Wartensleben, who was retreating in front of Jourdan. The combined Austrian army would then turn on whichever French force was most vulnerable.

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Battle of Ettlingen explained

The Battle of Ettlingen or Battle of Malsch (9 July 1796) was fought during the French Revolutionary Wars between the armies of the First French Republic and Habsburg Austria near the town of Malsch, 9km (06miles) southwest of Ettlingen. The Austrians under Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen tried to halt the northward advance of Jean Victor Marie Moreau's French Army of Rhin-et-Moselle along the east bank of the Rhine River. After a tough fight, the Austrian commander found that his left flank was turned. He conceded victory to the French and retreated east toward Stuttgart. Ettlingen is located 10km (10miles) south of Karlsruhe.

The Rhine Campaign of 1796 saw Moreau's army facing the Austrian Army of the Upper Rhine under Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour in the south. Meanwhile, Jean-Baptiste Jourdan's French Army of Sambre-et-Meuse opposed the Army of the Lower Rhine under Archduke Charles in the north. Jourdan drubbed Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg at Altenkirchen on 4 June, compelling Archduke Charles to rush to the rescue with reinforcements. Charles defeated Jourdan at Wetzlar on the 15th, forcing him to pull back to the west bank of the Rhine. At this time there was a shake up in the high command and the archduke was put in control of both Austrian armies. In Charles' absence, Moreau successfully crossed the Rhine at Kehl on the night of 23–24 June and beat Latour at Rastatt on 5 July. Leaving Wilhelm von Wartensleben in charge in the north, Charles rushed south to confront Moreau along the Alb River near Ettlingen. After an all-day combat, the Austrians held the advantage on their right wing near Malsch, but the French had defeated their left wing in the Black Forest.


History

Ettlingen was an important crossroads during Roman times, when the region was part of the province of Germania Superior. This is demonstrated by the many artifacts found in the area, including the "Neptune Stone," which commemorates a flood of the Rhine, and the remains of a Roman bath excavated beneath St. Martin's Church. The town was first mentioned in 788 as "Ediningom" in a deed of donation belonging to Weissenburg Abbey in Alsace (now in France). In 965, the village of Ettlingen ("Ediningom") received market rights (Marktrecht) from Emperor Otto the Great. In 1192, Emperor Henry VI, one of Frederick Barbarossa's sons. Margrave Herman V of Baden-Baden became Ettlingen's feudal lord in 1219. In the following centuries, Ettlingen developed into an important administrative centre within the Margraviate of Baden-Baden.

Ettlingen gave its name to a line of defensive earthworks known as the Ettlingen Line built to deter French aggression. During the Nine Years' War the town was nearly completely burned to the ground by the troops of Louis XIV, but was nevertheless rebuilt in the following decades under Margravine Sibylle Auguste. After the Catholic line of Baden-Baden died out in 1771, Ettlingen passed to the Protestant Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, which would become the reunited Margraviate of Baden. During the French Revolutionary Wars, Ettlingen was the site of a battle between elements of the French Army of the Rhine and Moselle and the Habsburg Army of the Upper Rhine on 9 July 1796. In the period of Napoleon's activities in Germany, Margrave Karl Friedrich of Baden was made Elector in 1806 and Grand Duke in 1806.

Ettlingen remained an independent town until 1937, when it was incorporated into the administrative unit that would become the district of Karlsruhe in 1939. Ettlingen and its surrounding villages and land continue to be part of this district.

In 1966, Ettlingen passed the 20,000 population mark and raised to the status of Große Kreisstadt by the state government of Baden-Württemberg. During the communal reforms of the early 1970s, several smaller communities were incorporated into Ettlingen, raising the population to over 30,000. Ettlingen's renowned open-air theater series, the Schlossfestspiele first took the stage in the Baroque inner courtyard of Ettlingen Palace in 1979.

Religions

Ettlingen was originally a part of the ancient Diocese of Speyer and was under the pastoral care of the Archdeacon of St. German and Moritz in Speyer. The town originally belonged to the deanery of Durlach but was itself made archdiaconate in the 16th century. The Protestant Reformation made gains in Ettlingen as early as 1520, but the town remained mostly Catholic, and the town's Catholic majority was supported by the Catholic line of Baden-Baden later, starting in 1624, the Jesuits played an active role in converting many of the town's inhabitants back to the Catholic faith. By the beginning of the 19th century, Protestants were a small minority.


During the period of secularization following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Ettlingen was part of the ordinariate of Bruchsal. In 1821, it became part of the newly founded Archdiocese of Freiburg, and the town was made the seat of a deanery, which included not only the parishes within Ettlingen proper, but also those in surrounding villages and neighboring municipalities. Today, Ettlingen belongs to the deanery of Karlsruhe, with the various parishes organized into pastoral units (Seelsorgeeinheiten). These include Ettlingen Stadt, with the parishes Herz Jesu (Sacred Heart), Liebfrauen (Our Lady), and St. Martin's, the town's oldest church Ettlingen South, with St. Dionysius' in Ettlingenweier, St. Wendelin's in Oberweier, and St. Joseph's in Bruchhausen and Ettlingen Heights, with St. George's in Völkersbach, St. Boniface's in Schöllbronn, and St. Anthony's in Spessart, although Völkersbach belongs politically to the municipality of Malsch.

Jewish families lived in Ettlingen since at least the 17th century. They lived primarily in Färbergasse ('Dyers' Alley), which was formerly known as "Judengasse" (Jews' Alley). Ettlingen's first synagogue was built on Albstraße in 1849, only to be torn down again when a new synagogue was built on Pforzheimerstraße and dedicated in 1889. The "New Synagogue" was itself destroyed during the infamous Kristallnacht pogrom of November 1938. Most of the remaining Jewish citizens of Ettlingen were deported soon thereafter as part of the Nazi "Final Solution."

Protestants (Lutherans), most of whom had moved to Ettlingen since the early 19th century, were first administered from Rüppurr, but in 1848 they received their own clergyman, and in 1869 their own parish (Johannesgemeinde - Congregation of St. John), which soon got its own church, the oldest Protestant church in Ettlingen. The Johannesgemeinde belonged to the city deanery of Karlsruhe at first, but was later transferred over to the deanery of Alb-Pfinz with its seat in Pfinztal. The congregation continued to grow and was eventually divided in 1951, creating the Paulusgemeinde (Congregation of St. Paul). The Paulusgemeinde had a parish hall built in 1953, adding a bell tower in 1965. The Paulusgemeinde was split up in 1972 to create the Luthergemeinde (Luther Congregation), which caters to the Protestants of Ettlingen West, Bruchhausen, Ettlingenweier, and Oberweier. From 1969 to 2003, Ettlingen was the seat of the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church in Baden's district of Central Baden. However, in the wake of efforts to save money, this district was dissolved and Ettlingen incorporated into the district of North Baden.

Alongside the two major churches, there are also a few free churches and congregations, including a Free Evangelical congregation and the Liebenzell Congregation. The Jehovah's Witnesses, the New Apostolic Church, and a small Jewish community are also represented in Ettlingen.


Battle

French army

On 1 July 1796, Ferino's Right Wing was organized into one division under Delaborde and four brigades led by Nicolas Louis Jordy, Nicolas Augustin Paillard, Jean Victor Tharreau and Jean-Baptiste Tholmé. Jordy led the 3rd and 38th Line Infantry Demi Brigades. Tharreau directed the 3rd Light and the 56th, 74th, 79th and 89th Line Infantry Demi Brigades. Paillard commanded the 12th and 21st (heavy) Cavalry Regiments while Tholmé commanded the 18th Cavalry, 4th Dragoon and 8th Hussar Regiments. Tuncq was not listed as leading a division. Ferino's wing counted 18,622 foot soldiers and 1,039 horsemen. [16]

At the same date, Desaix's Left Wing was made up of the divisions of Beaupuy and Delmas. In Beaupuy's division, Dominique Joba led the 10th, 62nd and 103rd Line and the 10th Light Demi Brigades while Gilles Joseph Martin Brunteau Saint-Suzanne commanded the 4th and 8th Chasseurs à Cheval and the 6th Dragoons. In Delmas' division Jean Marie Rodolph Eickemeyer directed the 50th and 97th Line and 16th Light Infantry Demi Brigades while Maurice Frimont led the 7th Hussar and 10th and 17th Dragoon Regiments. Xaintrailles was not named as a division commander. Desaix's command comprised 17,126 bayonets and 2,058 sabers. [16]

A report from 9 July 1796 showed that Saint-Cyr's Center had two divisions under Duhesme and Taponier. In Duhesme's division, Dominique Vandamme's brigade included the 17th Line (2,793) and 100th Line (2,479), 20th Chasseurs à Cheval (254) and 11th Hussars (38). Duhesme's division counted 5,272 infantry and 292 cavalry. Taponier's division consisted of the brigades of Henri François Lambert, Antoine Laroche Dubouscat and Claude Lecourbe. Lambert led the 93rd Line (3,119) and 109th Line (2,769). Laroche directed the 21st Light (2,284) and 31st Line (2,840). Lecourbe commanded the 84th Line (2,692), 106th Line (3,186) and 2nd Chasseurs à Cheval (240). There were a total of 22,162 foot soldiers, 532 horsemen and 433 gunners in Saint-Cyr's wing. [17] However, a 14 June report showed 919 troopers present in Saint-Cyr's command, including the 9th Hussars. [18]

On 1 July, Bourcier's Reserve division comprised one brigade under Jean Marie Forest with the 93rd and 109th Line (detached to Saint-Cyr by 9 July), the 1st and 2nd Carabiniers and the 3rd, 9th, 14th and 15th Cavalry Regiments. The cavalry counted 1,577 sabers. In Moreau's army, all infantry demi brigades had three battalions, all Cavalry regiments had three squadrons, while Carabinier, Chasseur, Dragoon and Hussar Regiments had four squadrons. [16] There were 8,201 infantry and 238 cavalry in garrison at Bitche, Kehl, Landau and Strasbourg. Marc Amand Élisée Scherb with 2,812 foot and 239 horse watched the Austrian-held Philippsburg fortress. Moreau's chief of staff was Jean Reynier and his chief of artillery was Jean Baptiste Eblé. [18] Moreau had 36,000 men available in 45 battalions and 55 squadrons. [19]

Austrian army

On 3 July, the Army of the Upper Rhine was organized into divisions under Fröhlich, Fürstenberg, Sztáray and Johann Sigismund Riesch. In addition, Archduke Charles personally commanded divisions under Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze and von Lindt. Fröhlich had three brigades led by Condé, Johann Jacob von Klingling and Simon von Wolf. Fürstenberg led seven brigades under Zaiger, Milius, Joseph Heinrich von Staader, Ignaz Gyulai, Johann Baptist von Leloup, Franz Walter Anton von Canisius and Paul Devay. The last two brigades were detached to Latour's direct command along with the divisions Sztáray and Riesch. Sztáray's division included five brigades under Ludwig Wilhelm Anton Baillet de Latour-Merlemont, Konrad Valentin von Kaim, Prince Joseph de Lorraine-Vaudemont, Duke Alexander of Württemberg and Johann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein. Riesch's division had three brigades under Count Palatine, Adam Boros de Rákos and an unknown officer. In the archduke's corps, Hotze commanded three Austrian brigades under Wilhelm Lothar Maria von Kerpen, Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg and Joseph von Schellenberg. Lindt led five Electoral Saxon brigades. [20]

The Austrian order of battle for 9 July showed the army organized into four columns. The 1st Column under Kaim included two brigades under Schellenberg and Christoph von Lattermann. Schellenberg had two battalions each from Grand Duke of Tuscany Nr. 23 and Olivier Wallis Nr. 29 Infantry Regiments, six companies from the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the Slavonian Infantry Regiment and one squadron of the Archduke Ferdinand Hussar Regiment Nr. 32. Lattermann led three battalions of the Archduke Charles Nr. 3 Infantry Regiment, the Abfaltern and Retz Grenadier Battalions and two squadrons each of the Szekler Hussar Regiment and Waldeck Dragoon Regiment Nr. 39. [21]

Sztáray commanded the 2nd Column which consisted of an Advanced Guard under Devay, two brigades led by Latour-Merlemont and the Prince of Lorraine and two unbrigaded mounted units, four squadrons each of the Archduke John Dragoons Nr. 26 and Waldeck Dragoons. Devay led two battalions of the Pellegrini Nr. 49 Infantry Regiment, one battalion each of the Splenyi Nr. 51 and Serbian Infantry Regiments, seven squadrons of the Archduke Ferdinand Hussars and six squadrons of the Kinsky Chevau-légers Nr. 7. Latour-Merlemont commanded three battalions of the Manfredini Nr. 12 Infantry Regiment and the Candiani, Dietrich, Reisingen and Warren Grenadier Battalions. Lorraine directed four squadrons each of the Kavanaugh Nr. 12 and Archduke Franz Nr. 29 Cuirassiers. [21]

Latour led the 3rd Column which was organized into an Advanced Guard under Canisius and three brigades directed by Kerpen, Liechtenstein and Württemberg. Canisius commanded three battalions of the Franz Kinsky Nr. 47 Infantry Regiment, four companies from the Serbian and three companies of the Slavonian Infantry Regiments, six squadrons of the Lobkowitz Chevau-légers Nr. 28, four squadrons of the Szekler Hussars and two squadrons of the Coburg Dragoons Nr. 37. [21] Kerpen led three battalions of the Alton Nr. 15 Infantry Regiment [19] and the Bideskuty, Szenassy and Benjowski Grenadier Battalions. Liechtenstein controlled three squadrons of the Kaiser Dragoons Nr. 1. Württemberg directed six squadrons of the Mack Nr. 20 and four squadrons of the Ansbach Nr. 33 Cuirassiers. [21]

The small 4th Column was commanded by Johann Nepomuk von Mosel and consisted of two battalions of the Schröder Nr. 7 Infantry Regiment, one battalion of the Leloup Jägers and two squadrons each of the Albert Nr. 5 and Kaiser Nr. 15 Carabiniers. [21] Lindt's Saxon infantry was made up of the Brandenstein and Glaffay Grenadier Battalions, one battalion of Weimar Jägers, and one battalion each of the Kürfurst, Prinz Anton, Prinz Clemens, Prince Gotha and Van der Hayde Infantry Regiments. The Saxon mounted troops included four squadrons each of the Carabinier, Hussar and Prinz Albert and Courland Chevau-léger Regiments plus two squadrons of the Saxe-Gotha Cavalry Regiment. [20] Altogether, Charles had about 32,000 troops available. [19]

Combat

After conferring with Desaix and Saint-Cyr at Renchen, Moreau mounted his assault on 9 July 1796. This decision preempted Archduke Charles, who had planned to attack the French on the 10th. [13] The French commander planned to pin the Austrians in the Rhine plain while turning their left flank among the mountains of the Black Forest. For his part, Charles hoped to outflank the French left near the river and recapture Gernsbach. [14] Latour held the Austrian right near the Rhine, Sztáray was posted in the center near Malsch, Kaim defended the left-center in the hills along the Alb River and Lindt's Saxons held the far left near Neuenbürg. [22]

Moreau accompanied Desaix's Left Wing with the divisions of Delmas and Sainte-Suzanne (vice Beaupuy), Bourcier's Reserve and Saint-Cyr's cavalry and horse artillery which were ineffective in the mountains. [13] Malsch was captured twice by the French and recaptured each time by the Austrians. [14] Latour tried to force his way around the French left with cavalry but was checked by the mounted troops of the Reserve. [23] Finding his horsemen outnumbered near Ötigheim, Latour used his artillery to keep the French cavalry at bay. [14] In the Rhine plain the combat raged until 10 PM. [23] In the evening the Austrians were pushing Desaix back when bad news from the left flank caused Charles to call a halt. [13]

Kaim had six battalions of infantry, four squadrons of cavalry and plenty of artillery deployed at Rothenzholl. He posted three more battalions at Frauenalb to the north and an advance guard in Loffenau. [23] Saint-Cyr left Duhesme's division behind to guard Freudenstadt and the Kneibis Mountain. [13] He started from Gernsbach with 12 battalions plus six more borrowed from the Reserve. Finding that the Saxons were marching south along the Enz River to turn his right flank, he sent Taponier with six battalions [24] and 150 hussars east to Wildbad. [23] Taponier surprised the Saxons and sent them scurrying back north. With Lambert and Lecourbe's brigades, Saint-Cyr advanced through Loffenau to Rothenzholl northwest of Dobel where he confronted Kaim. Finding the Austrians in powerful defenses, Saint-Cyr tried to draw Kaim's troops out of position. [24]

Employing elements of the 84th and 106th Line, [23] the French wing commander ordered the troops not to press home their assault, but to retreat every time they came against strong resistance. Each attack was pushed farther up the ridge before receding into the valley. When the fifth assault in regimental strength gave way, the defenders finally reacted, sweeping down the slope to cut off the French. Saint-Cyr now sprung his trap. Lecourbe led the massed grenadier companies to attack one Austrian flank, other reserves bored in on the other flank and the center counterattacked. [24] The French troops that struck the Austrian right were hidden in the nearby town of Herrenalb. [23] As the Austrians gave way, the French followed them up the ridge right into their positions. Nevertheless, Kaim's men laid down such a heavy fire that Lecourbe's grenadiers were thrown into disorder and their leader nearly captured. At length, Saint-Cyr's troops emerged triumphant, inflicting 1,000 casualties on their opponents and capturing two cannons. [24] Kaim was compelled to withdraw east across the hills to Neuenbürg. From there, Kaim and Lindt's soldiers fell back toward Pforzheim. [23]


Operation Citadel: Counter Attack at Prokhorovka, July 1943

Background The Battle of Prokhorovka was fought on 12 July 1943[a] near Prokhorovka, 87 kilometres (54 mi) southeast of Kursk in the Soviet Union, during the Second World War. Taking place on the Eastern Front, the engagement was part of the wider Battle of Kursk, and occurred when the 5th Guards Tank Army of the Soviet Red Army attacked the II SS-Panzer Corps of the German Wehrmacht in one of the largest tank battles in military history.[k] Read More…


The battle

At the beginning of the battle on July 9th, the French troops stood on the line Bietigheim - Muggensturm - Waldprechtsweier . Moreau wanted to bypass the left wing of the Austrians at Herrenalb in order to then open the road to Pforzheim .

The French vanguard pushed forward between Ottenau and Ebersteinburg on Kuppenheim and pushed the outposts of the Austrian Sztáray division back to the right bank of the Murg. The Austrian troops under Latour stood on the Hardt between Malsch and Waldprechtsweier and the left wing established itself further east of it at Rotensol . The Saxon contingent under Major General Lindt marched through the Enztal , coming from Pforzheim , in order to establish themselves between Urna Gold and Besenfeld . At noon, the middle of the French attacked under Saint-Cyr between Loffenau and Herrenalb and then met stubborn resistance from the Austrian division under FML Kaim on the Alb section between Dobel and Frauenalb . Saint-Cyr learned that the Saxons were approaching he himself attacked with twelve battalions and his cavalry between Frauenalb and Rotensol, while he sent General Taponier with six battalions and 150 horsemen through the Enz valley towards the Saxons to Wildbad .

The main battle of the battle broke out for the possession of the village of Malsch, here the Austrians were overwhelmed by 16 to 12 battalions. The place was stormed, lost and taken again several times in bloody close combat by the mutual troops. When Archduke Charles and additional cavalry arrived, the French gave way to the superior force. The French left wing under General Desaix had to retreat into the forest of Oberweier and Niederweier , the Austrians took Bietigheim and Ötigheim and pursued the enemy as far as Rastatt. Although the Austrians had advanced with the center and the right wing, Archduke Karl gave the order to retreat after the news arrived that the left wing under General Kaim had been defeated near Rotensol in the meantime. The Austrians withdrew to Pforzheim via Ettlingen and Mühlburg on July 10th to secure the threatened supply depots near Heilbronn . The French under Saint-Cyr pursued through the Enz valley to Neuenbürg .


The Archduke Goes South, Moreau Dithers

All of Archduke Charles successes in Germany were rendered moot by Bonaparte's in Italy. The Archduke was sent south to attempt to retreive the situation.

And so 1797 saw the French in Germany attacking again. Jourdan went first winning the battle of Second Battle of Altenkirchen on the 18th of April 1797.

Moreau vastly superior in numbers to the forces facing him got his licks in at Diersham on the 20th of April 1797.

Finally the overstreched Bonaparte brought an end to hostilities in April by upsurping his government's authority and negotiating directly with the Austrians whose capital he appeared to be threatening.


History

Ettlingen was an important crossroads during Roman times, when the region was part of the province of Germania Superior. This is demonstrated by the many artifacts found in the area, including the "Neptune Stone," which commemorates a flood of the Rhine, and the remains of a Roman bath excavated beneath St. Martin's Church. The town was first mentioned in 788 as "Ediningom" in a deed of donation belonging to Weissenburg Abbey in Alsace (now in France). In 965, the village of Ettlingen ("Ediningom") received market rights (Marktrecht) from Emperor Otto the Great. In 1192, Emperor Henry VI, one of Frederick Barbarossa's sons. Margrave Herman V of Baden-Baden became Ettlingen's feudal lord in 1219. In the following centuries, Ettlingen developed into an important administrative centre within the Margraviate of Baden-Baden.

Ettlingen gave its name to a line of defensive earthworks known as the Ettlingen Line built to deter French aggression. During the Nine Years' War the town was nearly completely burned to the ground by the troops of Louis XIV, but was nevertheless rebuilt in the following decades under Margravine Sibylle Auguste. After the Catholic line of Baden-Baden died out in 1771, Ettlingen passed to the Protestant Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, which would become the reunited Margraviate of Baden. During the French Revolutionary Wars, Ettlingen was the site of a battle between elements of the French Army of the Rhine and Moselle and the Habsburg Army of the Upper Rhine on 9 July 1796. [2] In the period of Napoleon's activities in Germany, Margrave Karl Friedrich of Baden was made Elector in 1806 and Grand Duke in 1806.

Ettlingen remained an independent town until 1937, when it was incorporated into the administrative unit that would become the district of Karlsruhe in 1939. Ettlingen and its surrounding villages and land continue to be part of this district.

In 1966, Ettlingen passed the 20,000 population mark and raised to the status of Große Kreisstadt by the state government of Baden-Württemberg. During the communal reforms of the early 1970s, several smaller communities were incorporated into Ettlingen, raising the population to over 30,000. Ettlingen's renowned open-air theater series, the Schlossfestspiele first took the stage in the Baroque inner courtyard of Ettlingen Palace in 1979.

Religions

Ettlingen was originally a part of the ancient Diocese of Speyer and was under the pastoral care of the Archdeacon of St. German and Moritz in Speyer. The town originally belonged to the deanery of Durlach but was itself made archdiaconate in the 16th century. The Protestant Reformation made gains in Ettlingen as early as 1520, but the town remained mostly Catholic, and the town's Catholic majority was supported by the Catholic line of Baden-Baden later, starting in 1624, the Jesuits played an active role in converting many of the town's inhabitants back to the Catholic faith. By the beginning of the 19th century, Protestants were a small minority.

During the period of Malsch.

Jewish families lived in Ettlingen since at least the 17th century. They lived primarily in Färbergasse ('Dyers' Alley), which was formerly known as "Judengasse" (Jews' Alley). Ettlingen's first synagogue was built on Albstraße in 1849, only to be torn down again when a new synagogue was built on Pforzheimerstraße and dedicated in 1889. The "New Synagogue" was itself destroyed during the infamous Kristallnacht pogrom of November 1938. Most of the remaining Jewish citizens of Ettlingen were deported soon thereafter as part of the Nazi "Final Solution."

Protestants (Lutherans), most of whom had moved to Ettlingen since the early 19th century, were first administered from Rüppurr, but in 1848 they received their own clergyman, and in 1869 their own parish (Johannesgemeinde - Congregation of St. John), which soon got its own church, the oldest Protestant church in Ettlingen. The Johannesgemeinde belonged to the city deanery of Karlsruhe at first, but was later transferred over to the deanery of Alb-Pfinz with its seat in Pfinztal. The congregation continued to grow and was eventually divided in 1951, creating the Paulusgemeinde (Congregation of St. Paul). The Paulusgemeinde had a parish hall built in 1953, adding a bell tower in 1965. The Paulusgemeinde was itself split up in 1972 to create the Luthergemeinde (Luther Congregation), which caters to the Protestants of Ettlingen West, Bruchhausen, Ettlingenweier, and Oberweier. From 1969 to 2003, Ettlingen was the seat of the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church in Baden's district of Central Baden. However, in the wake of efforts to save money, this district was dissolved and Ettlingen incorporated into the district of North Baden.

Alongside the two major churches, there are also a few free churches and congregations, including a Free Evangelical congregation and the Liebenzell Congregation. The Jehovah's Witnesses, the New Apostolic Church, and a small Jewish community are also represented in Ettlingen.

Twin towns

Ettlingen is a twin town of:

  • Épernay, France, since 1953
  • Middelkerke, Belgium, since 1971
  • Clevedon, United Kingdom, since 1980
  • Löbau, Saxony, since 1990
  • Gatchina, Russia, since 1992
  • Menfi, Italy, since 2007

Districts

  • Bruchhausen
  • Ettlingenweier
  • Oberweier
  • Schluttenbach
  • Schöllbronn
  • Spessart

Rheinland Kaserne

Ettlingen is the location of Rheinland Kaserne. Formerly a German Army base, for many years after World War II Rheinland Kaserne was the home of several U.S. Army units and many Americans. In the mid-nineties, the U.S. Army handed the barracks back to Germany. It is now home to a private school, medical offices, a vehicle registration centre, new housing and the Kulisse movie theatre.

Among the U.S. Army units based in Rheinland Kaserne were the 78th Engineer Battalion and 44th Signal Battalion.


Ettlingen

Ettlingen is a town in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, about 8 kilometres south of the city of Karlsruhe and approximately 15 kilometres from the border with Lauterbourg, in Frances Bas-Rhin department. Ettlingen is the second largest town in the district of Karlsruhe, after Bruchsal.

1. Geography
Ettlingen is situated at the northern edge of the Black Forest on the Upper Rhine Plain. The Alb River arises in the hills of the Black Forest and flows through Ettlingen before emptying into the Rhine at Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, making Ettlingen a central feature of the Albtal, the Alb Valley. Central Ettlingen and its largest constituent communities lie on the plain itself, but some of the villages are nestled among the northernmost foothills of the Black Forest.

1.1. Geography Neighbouring communities
The municipality of Ettlingen is bordered by the following communities, clockwise from the north: Karlsruhe, Waldbronn, Karlsbad Baden, Marxzell, Malsch, and Rheinstetten, all of which belong to the district of Karlsruhe, except for the independent city of Karlsruhe itself.

2.1. History Religions
Ettlingen was originally a part of the ancient Diocese of Speyer and was under the pastoral care of the Archdeacon of St. German and Moritz in Speyer. The town originally belonged to the deanery of Durlach but was itself made archdeaconate in the 16th century. The Protestant Reformation made gains in Ettlingen as early as 1520, but the town remained mostly Catholic, and the towns Catholic majority was supported by the Catholic line of Baden-Baden later, starting in 1624, the Jesuits played an active role in converting many of the towns inhabitants back to the Catholic faith. By the beginning of the 19th century, Protestants were a small minority.
During the period of secularization following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Ettlingen was part of the ordinariate of Bruchsal. In 1821, it became part of the newly founded Archdiocese of Freiburg, and the town was made the seat of a deanery, which included not only the parishes within Ettlingen proper, but also those in surrounding villages and neighboring municipalities. Today, Ettlingen belongs to the deanery of Karlsruhe, with the various parishes organized into pastoral units Seelsorgeeinheiten. These include Ettlingen Stadt, with the parishes Herz Jesu Sacred Heart, Liebfrauen Our Lady, and St. Martins, the towns oldest church Ettlingen South, with St. Dionysius in Ettlingenweier, St. Wendelins in Oberweier, and St. Josephs in Bruchhausen and Ettlingen Heights, with St. Georges in Volkersbach, St. Bonifaces in Schollbronn, and St. Anthonys in Spessart, although Volkersbach belongs politically to the municipality of Malsch.
Jewish families lived in Ettlingen since at least the 17th century. They lived primarily in Farbergasse Dyers Alley, which was formerly known as "Judengasse" Jews Alley. Ettlingens first synagogue was built on AlbstraSe in 1849, only to be torn down again when a new synagogue was built on PforzheimerstraSe and dedicated in 1889. The "New Synagogue" was itself destroyed during the infamous Kristallnacht pogrom of November 1938. Most of the remaining Jewish citizens of Ettlingen were deported soon thereafter as part of the Nazi "Final Solution."
Protestants Lutherans, most of whom had moved to Ettlingen since the early 19th century, were first administered from Ruppurr, but in 1848 they received their own clergyman, and in 1869 their own parish Johannesgemeinde - Congregation of St. John, which soon got its own church, the oldest Protestant church in Ettlingen. The Johannesgemeinde belonged to the city deanery of Karlsruhe at first, but was later transferred over to the deanery of Alb-Pfinz with its seat in Pfinztal. The congregation continued to grow and was eventually divided in 1951, creating the Paulusgemeinde Congregation of St. Paul. The Paulusgemeinde had a parish hall built in 1953, adding a bell tower in 1965. The Paulusgemeinde was split up in 1972 to create the Luthergemeinde Luther Congregation, which caters to the Protestants of Ettlingen West, Bruchhausen, Ettlingenweier, and Oberweier. From 1969 to 2003, Ettlingen was the seat of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Badens district of Central Baden. However, in the wake of efforts to save money, this district was dissolved and Ettlingen incorporated into the district of North Baden.
Alongside the two major churches, there are also a few free churches and congregations, including a Free Evangelical congregation and the Liebenzell Congregation. The Jehovahs Witnesses, the New Apostolic Church, and a small Jewish community are also represented in Ettlingen.


References

  • Dodge, Theodore Ayrault (2011). Warfare in the Age of Napoleon: The Revolutionary Wars Against the First Coalition in Northern Europe and the Italian Campaign, 1789-1797. USA: Leonaur Ltd. ISBN  978-0-85706-598-8 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Phipps, Ramsay Weston (2011). The Armies of the First French Republic: Volume II The Armées du Moselle, du Rhin, de Sambre-et-Meuse, de Rhin-et-Moselle. USA: Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN  978-1-908692-25-2 . <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN  1-85367-276-9 . CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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