Ancient cultures around the world spoke of a vast cycle of time with alternating Dark and Golden Ages; Plato called it the Great Year. Most of us were taught that this cycle was just a myth, a fairytale, if we were taught anything about it all. But according to Giorgio de Santillana, former professor of the history of science at MIT, many ancient cultures believed consciousness and history were not linear but cyclical, rising and falling over long periods of time. In their landmark work, Hamlet’s Mill , de Santillana and coauthor Hertha von Dechend, show that the myth and folklore of more than thirty ancient cultures speak of a cycle of time with long periods of enlightenment broken by dark ages of ignorance, indirectly driven by a known astronomical phenomena, the precession of the equinox. This is where it gets interesting.
We all know the two celestial motions that have a profound effect on life and consciousness. Diurnal motion , Earth’s rotation on its axis, causes humans to move from a waking state to a sleep state and back again every twenty-four hours. Our bodies have adapted to Earth’s rotation so well that it produces these regular changes in consciousness without our even thinking the process remarkable . Earth’s revolution around the sun —the second celestial motion, which Copernicus identified — has an equally significant effect, prompting trillions of life forms to spring out of the ground, to bloom, fruit, and then decay, while billions of other species hibernate, spawn, or migrate en masse. Our visible world literally springs to life, completely changes its color and stride, and then reverses with every waxing and waning of the second celestial motion.
The third celestial motion, the precession of the equinox , is less understood than the first two, but if we are to believe ancient cultures from around the world, its effect is equally transformative. What disguises the impact of this motion is its timescale. Like the mayfly, which lives but one day a year and knows nothing of the seasons, the human being has an average life span that comprises only one-360th of the roughly 24,000-year precessional cycle. And just as the mayfly born on an overcast, windless day has no idea that there is anything as splendid as sunshine or a breeze, so do we, born in an era of materialistic rationality, have little awareness of a golden age or higher states of consciousness – though that is the ancestral message.
As Giorgio and Hertha point out, the idea of a great cycle linked to the slow precession of the equinox was common to numerous cultures before the Christian era, but today we are taught nothing about it. Yet an increasing body of astronomical and archaeological evidence suggests the cycle may have a basis in fact. More importantly, understanding its ebb and flow and the character of each epoch provides insight into civilization’s direction. So far the Ancients are right on; consciousness does seem to be expanding since the depths of the dark ages, reflected as vast improvements throughout society. So what drives these changes and what can we expect in the future? Understanding the cause of precession is key.
The observation of Earth’s three motions is quite simple. In the first, rotation, we see the sun rise in the east and set in the west every twenty-four hours. And if we were to look at the stars just once a day, we would see a similar pattern over a year: the stars rise in the east and set in the west. The twelve constellations of the zodiac — the ancient markers of time that lie along the ecliptic, the sun’s path — pass overhead at the rate of about one per month and return to the starting point of our celestial observation at the end of the year. And if we looked just once a year, say on the autumnal equinox, we would notice the stars move retrograde (opposite to the first two motions) at the rate of about one degree every seventy years. At this pace, the equinox falls on a different constellation approximately once every 2,000 years, taking about 24,000 years to complete its cycle through the twelve constellations. This is called the precession (the backward motion) of the equinox relative to the fixed stars.
Precession of Earth's rotational axis due to the tidal force raised on Earth by the gravity of the Moon and Sun (Source: Wikipedia).
The standard theory of precession says it is principally the Moon’s gravity acting upon the oblate Earth that must be the cause of Earth’s changing orientation to inertial space, a.k.a. “precession.” However, this theory was developed before astronomers learned the solar system could move and has now been found by the International Astronomical Union to be “inconsistent with dynamical theory.” Ancient oriental astronomy teaches that an equinox slowly moving or “precessing” through the zodiac’s twelve constellations is simply due to the motion of the sun curving through space around another star, which changes our viewpoint of the stars from Earth. At the Binary Research Institute, we have modeled a moving solar system and found it does indeed better produce the precession observable, while resolving a number of solar system anomalies. This strongly suggests the ancient explanation may be the most plausible, even though astronomers have not yet discovered a companion star to Earth’s Sun.
Beyond the technical considerations, a moving solar system appears to provide a logical reason why we might have a Great Year, to use Plato’s term, with alternating dark and golden ages. That is, if the solar system carrying the Earth actually moves in a huge orbit, subjecting Earth to the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum of another star or EM source along the way, and shaping the subtle electrical and magnetic fields through which we move, we could expect this to affect our magnetosphere, ionosphere, and very likely all life in a pattern commensurate with that orbit. Just as Earth’s smaller diurnal and annual motions produce the cycles of day and night and the seasons of the year (both due to Earth’s changing position in relation to the EM spectrum of the Sun), so might the larger celestial motion be expected to produce a cycle that affects life and consciousness on a grand scale.
Just recently NASA discovered (March 2014) that the earth’s rotation and motion through space rearranges the electrons in the radiation belt into a zebra pattern! This was entirely unexpected. It was always believed these particles were moving too swiftly to be affected by the earth’s motion.
A hypothesis for how consciousness might be affected by such a celestial cycle can be built on the work of Dr. Valerie Hunt, a former professor of physiology at UCLA. In a number of studies, she has found that changes in the ambient subtle electrical, EM and magnetic fields (which surround us all the time) can dramatically affect human cognition and performance. In short, consciousness appears to be affected by subtle fields of light, or as quantum physicist Dr. Amit Goswami might implies, “Consciousness prefers light.” Consistent with myth and folklore, the concept behind the Great Year or cyclical model of history is based on the Sun’s motion through space, subjecting Earth to waxing and waning stellar fields (all stars are huge generators of EM spectra) and resulting in the legendary rise and fall of the ages over great epochs of time.
Part 2 - A Historical Perspective
Part 3 - An Ancient Look at the Future
By Walter Cruttenden
Renaissance for Kids
The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word "Renaissance" means "rebirth".
Coming out of the Dark
The Middle Ages began with the fall of the Roman Empire. Much of the advances in science, art, and government that had been made by the Greeks and Romans were lost during this time. Part of the Middle Ages is actually called the Dark Ages because so much of what was learned earlier was lost.
The Renaissance was a time of "coming out of the dark". It was a rebirth of education, science, art, literature, music, and a better life for people in general.
A big part of the Renaissance was a cultural movement called humanism. Humanism was a philosophy that all people should strive to be educated and learned in the classical arts, literature, and science. It looked for realism and human emotion in art. It also said that it was okay for people to pursue comfort, riches, and beauty.
The Mona Lisa -
perhaps the world's most famous painting -
was painted during the Renaissance by Leonardo da Vinci
The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy and spread to other city-states in Italy. Part of the reason it began in Italy was because of the history of Rome and the Roman Empire. Another reason it began in Italy was because Italy had become very wealthy and the wealthy were willing to spend their money supporting artists and geniuses.
City-states played a big role in the rule of Italy at the time. They were often ruled by a powerful family. Some important city-states included Florence, Milan, Venice, and Ferrara.
The term Renaissance Man refers to a person that is an expert and talented in many areas. The true geniuses of the Renaissance were great examples of this. Leonardo da Vinci was a master painter, sculptor, scientist, inventor, architect, engineer, and writer. Michelangelo was also a superb painter, sculptor, and architect.
- One of the most popular Greek philosophers was Plato. Many men studied Plato's writings at the Academy in Florence.
- Venice was famous for its glass work, while Milan was famous for its iron smiths.
- Francis I, King of France, was patron of the arts and helped Renaissance art spread from Italy to France.
- Artists were initially thought of as craftsmen. They worked in workshops and belonged to a guild.
- Two of the biggest changes to art from the Middle Ages were the concepts of proportion and perspective.
- Michelangelo and Leonardo became rivals when Michelangelo mocked da Vinci for not finishing a statue of a horse.
- Hunting was a popular form of entertainment for the wealthy.
- Artists and architects would often compete for a job, or commission, to create a piece of art.
Learn more about the Renaissance:
How did the Renaissance start?
Age of Exploration
Clothing and Fashion
Music and Dance
Science and Inventions
Famous Renaissance People
Queen Elizabeth I
Leonardo da Vinci
Go here to test your knowledge with a Renaissance crossword puzzle or word search.
What is Takt Time?
According to the Takt Time definition, Takt Time is the “takt” rate at which you need to work and finish the production process in order to meet customer demand.
Let’s look at a rough example, to illustrate:
If one customer buys 1 product every 2 hours, then you have 2 hours to finish 1 product — 2 hours is your Takt Time. In line with that, finishing 1 product every 2 hours is your takt rate.
Knowing your Takt Time will help you optimize your production process in such a way that you meet the realistic customer demand — if you follow your expected takt rate, you won’t make less or more products that you actually need.
Takt Time originated in the German aircraft industry in late 1930. The name for this concept originates from the German word “takt”, which stands for “beat”, “rhythm, ”or “pulse” — the entire phrase originated from the German word “Taktziel” (which literally translates to “Takt Time”). The company Toyota took on the concept used by the German aircraft industry and reinvented it to the Takt Time concept we know and implement today.
How to calculate Takt Time?
There are two components crucial for your Takt Time calculation:
The Net Production Time (NPT) is the clean time your team has at their disposal to finish a product. To calculate your NPT, you can subtract the time your team spends on downtime (lunch breaks, other breaks, meetings, machine maintenance…) from the total time your team spends at work. That’s how the formula usually goes.
However, it would be quicker if you were to track only the clean time you spend on the production process. You can use our time tracker Clockify to track your Net Production Time for a product and separate it from your downtime. Now, tracking the time you spend on downtime may not be crucial for your Takt Time calculations, but it can be useful on its own — you may find that you waste a lot of time, time you could be putting to better use.
Your Customer Demand is the number of products your customers buy on a regular basis — usually, your customer demand is counted on a daily basis.
Takt Time = Net Production Time/Customer Demand
Now, this formula is simple enough. However, your calculation will be more complicated if your company produces several different products, each with its own customer demand. In such a case, you’ll need to divide your day across different production processes or create separate teams for each type of product.
Takt Time example ( + Takt Time calculator in Excel)
Say you manage a raggedy doll factory, and you want to know how to calculate the Takt Time for Team #1, responsible for making Doll #1 (Jessica) on a daily basis.
Say that Team #1 needs to assemble 55 dolls during a 10-hour shift – and your time tracking results show that you spend a clean 9 hours and 10 minutes (550 minutes) of that 10-hour shift working on product production:
Net Production Time = 550 minutes
Daily Customer Demand = 55 dolls
Takt Time = Net Production Time/ Daily Customer Demand
Takt Time = 550 minutes/ 55 dolls = 10 min/doll
So, according to this calculation, Team #1 is expected to assemble one Doll #1 (Jessica) per 10 minutes (600 seconds), in order to meet the Customer Demand.
Takt Time calculator in Excel — You can use this calculator to calculate the takt rate at which you need to work to meet customer demand.
The Greatest Investment Quotes of All Time: Part 1
Some of the most profound, insightful thoughts in business aren't that complicated. Heck, a lot of them are clear as day. You might be surprised at how much you can take away from something as simple as a one-line quote. Let's take a look at the first five quotes in this two-part series.
"I will tell you how to become rich. Close the doors. Be fearful when others are greedy. Be greedy when others are fearful."
-- Warren Buffett
We all know how warm and fuzzy it feels to watch our stocks go up that's why we're investing in the first place . to make money. Alas, the human ego is a powerful thing, and it's when we're doing well in the market that we feel the most invincible, and when the market tanks that we feel like pulling all our money out, curling up in the fetal position, and screaming.
Don't get me wrong. Trying to time the market probably won't get you very far, but that's not the point. If you take a long-term approach to investing, purchasing stocks that have been beaten down and appear cheap based on fundamentals -- while having no expectations as to when they should start heading up -- it will likely leave you sitting pretty down the road.
"Based on my own personal experience -- both as an investor in recent years and an expert witness in years past -- rarely do more than three or four variables really count. Everything else is noise."
-- Marty Whitman
We're constantly bombarded with endless amounts of trivial pieces of data for our investments. Untold amounts of wealth have been lost in the name of panic caused by complete overreaction to events that, in the grand scheme of things, don't matter a hoot.
Take a company like oil tanker Frontline (NYSE:FRO) . Back in 2002, value investor Mohnish Pabrai began purchasing shares after the company had taken a beating when other investors were in panic mode, trying to get their heads around an array of factors, such as where the future price of oil was heading and when oil tanker rates would rebound. Pabrai took a more simplified view and focused on something much clearer: the liquidation price of the company. By focusing his attention on the big, important factors while ignoring the noise around him, Pabrai was able to score a multibagger in just two years. Keepin' it simple has its benefits.
"Never count on making a good sale. Have the purchase price be so attractive that even a mediocre sale gives good results."
-- Warren Buffett
Heck, nobody's perfect. From time to time, even the best investors in the world make mistakes. It's important you don't set yourself up for a complete catastrophe when you do. Companies with large cash balances that make up a significant portion of their market cap, such as K-Swiss (NASDAQ:KSWS) , provide a floor on the stock that you may be able to tag the "worst-case scenario" price.
The best situation you can put yourself in is when your investments offer such a large margin of safety that even if you don't end up being right, you'll still turn out OK. It's like playing Russian roulette with a squirt gun.
"The four most expensive words in the English language are, 'This time it's different.'"
-- Sir John Templeton
Every excessive boom in the stock market, whether it's the entire market or an individual stock, seems to share this common characteristic. People know prices are getting out of hand. They know every time this has happened in the past, people got burned. Yet investors can get caught up with the thought that this time, the excessiveness is justified and will be here for good.
Sure, you can try to say that the outrageous valuations on some Chinese stocks -- such as Chinese search engine Baidu (NASDAQ:BIDU) or the recent trillion-dollar market cap foray of PetroChina (NYSE:PTR) -- are justified because "China is different this time." Yes, China has many positive factors stacked in its favor, but that doesn't come close to ever justifying overvaluation. We'll never learn that we never learn.
"The stock market is filled with individuals who know the price of everything, but the value of nothing."
-- Philip Fisher
Far too many people focus on the share price of their stocks, and have little -- if any -- knowledge of what they're actually getting for that share. For the same reason that a $1,000 T-shirt is absurdly expensive but a $1,000 new car can be a bargain, you're much more likely to find value in an established company like Berkshire Hathaway (NYSE:BRK-A) (NYSE:BRK-B) at $135,000 a share (or almost $5,000 for its B shares) than you will in some penny stock your neighbor tipped you off to.
There you have it. Some of the shortest, simplest, and most reflective quotes by some of the greatest investors of all time. Check back soon for Part 2 of "The Greatest Investment Quotes of All Time. "
Why an Obsession with Eschatology is a Waste of Time, Part 1
Naked Bible enthusiasts (and despisers) may recall that, long ago, I posted a list of presuppositions that are brought to the Bible that ultimately dictate one’s position on eschatology (“end times”). I posted this because all too many Christians assume that their view is self-evident from the Bible (i.e., that it’s so clearly taught as to make them wonder how anyone else could see end times any other way). I’d say the position most guilty of this is the pre-tribulational rapture view (the view presented in the Left Behind novel series).
My goal in the posts that follow is to elaborate on my original list and unpack the items a bit. My goal isn’t to deny or endorse any position. I don’t like or hate any of them. There are things I like about all of them. I can already hear those married to one view: “how can he say that?! That’s not possible! Yeah, it is. And it’s the best perspective. (I’m sure that’ll tick someone off). I’ll explain my own thinking at the end of the series. For now . . . drum roll, please . . . let’s dive in.
Presuppositional Issue #1 – Are Israel and the Church distinct from each other, or does the Church replace Israel in God’s program for the ages? If they are distinct, it would seem that Israel might still have a national future, apart from the church. Keeping Israel and the Church distinct is key to any view of a rapture (because the Church is taken, not Israel).
“God’s people” in the first installment of the Bible (the Old Testament) was Israel (and a few Gentile converts here and there, who had to join the nation as Israelites — followers of Yahweh). God made a series of covenants with Israel to create and certify that bond. These covenants all had certain promises. As Israel came out of Egypt and entered the Promised Land, the nation inherited certain of these promises — or was it ALL of them? (that’s item #2 for next time). Here’s a list of the promises:
Abrahamic Covenant (Gen 12:1-3 Gen 15:6-7)
1. They would become a nation whose population would be like the sand of the sea and the stars of heaven.
2. They would prosper and be a blessing to all who blessed them (or a curse to those who cursed them).
3. They would inherit a land promised to them (“from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt” – more on that in other installments).
Sinai (“Mosaic”) Covenant (Exod. 20-24)
Gods covenant with the nation at Sinai was given in Exodus 20-24. Its focus is the Mosaic Law. God labeled Israel a peculiar treasure, a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation, and gave them the stipulations (laws) that would guarantee the continuance of fellowship between them and their God (continuation of the Abrahamic covenant). The covenant was ratified by a covenant sacrifice and the sprinkling of blood (Ex. 24:48). Various Sinai covenant renewals are recorded in the Old Testament. The most important were those on the plains of Moab (Dt. 29), at Shechem in the days of Joshua (Josh. 24), when Jehoiada was able to restore the Davidic line of kings under Joash (2 K. 11), the days of Hezekiah (2 Ch. 29:10), and in the days under the rule of Josiah (2 K. 23:3).
Davidic Covenant (2 Samuel 7)
God promised David that his descendants should have an everlasting dynastic rule over the Promised Land and be known as his sons (2 Sam 7:1217 Psalm 89 Isa. 55).
The New Covenant
Several passages in the prophets, but most explicitly in Jeremiah, speak of a new covenant in the messianic age (Isa. 42:6 Isa 49:68 Isa 55:3 Isa 59:21 Isa 61:8 Jer. 31:31, 33 Jer 32:40 Jer 50:5 Ezek 16:60, 62 Ezek 34:25 Ezek 37:26).
These passages assume a nation in exile due to its sins — its violations of the Sinai covenant. This covenant argues that, though the Sinai covenant was broken, the promise of God would not fail. There would be a remnant through whom God would honor His promises. He would make a new covenant. His law would be written on hearts of flesh. In that day the throne of David would be occupied by one of Davids line (this assume a situation when that was not the case – such as in exile) and the people would enjoy an everlasting covenant of peace in which the nations would also share (Isa. 42:6 Isa 49:6 Isa 55:35 cf. Zech 2:11Zech 8:2023 14:16 etc.). In those days worship would be purified (Ezk. 4048), true theocratic government would be established, and peace would be universal.
Got all that? Good. Now here’s the question: Is the nation of Israel (the national ethnic entity) still the focus of these covenant promises (before and after the final New Covenant) or is the Church their focus now?
Arguments can be made for both sides — depending on presuppositions. We’ll be getting into the details in items # 2 and 3, so let’s preview those items. The two sides of this #1 issue depend on whether one believes the promises of the Abrahamic, Sinai, and Davidic covenant were CONDITIONAL. That is, were there conditions behind receiving the promises (“Israel must do/be X”) or were the promises made without any conditions (“no matter what Israel does in the way of sin, God would still give them the promises”)? If there were conditions, it is obvious that Israel failed (they went into exile at God’s hand). If there were no conditions is that what the New Covenant is about? Is the New Covenant the answer?
These questions are important for #1 because they create a construct by which to parse this first issue’s question: Are Israel and the Church distinct from each other, or does the Church replace Israel in God’s program for the ages?
Jesus very clearly came to establish the New Covenant (“this is the new covenant in my blood” – see Luke 22:20 1 Cor 11:25 2 Cor 3:6 Heb 8:13 Heb 12:24). And the Spirit came upon the disciples and their converts after the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2 see the book of Acts thereafter). The church was “circumcision neutral” — it was not only Jews, but also Gentiles, that also was a New Covenant element. But if the Church — and not Israel as a nation — was the focus of the New Covenant, then what purpose is there for national Israel (except to embrace Jesus and become absorbed into the Church)? It also means that the Davidic ruler is Jesus, and the Promised Land is bigger than Israel — it’s the whole world — hence the Great Commission. Let’s ask it this way: Is there any part of the New Covenant *not* answerable by the Church? One might say the “all nations” part — but that is precisely the point of the Great Commission – given to the fledgling CHURCH, not Israel (Matt. 28:18-20).
At this point the common objection is the Land — that the Church isn’t a theocratic kingdom. But it is – it’s head is Christ and its land is the whole earth (back to the Great Commission). Why would we insist that the Land promises must be fulfilled in a tiny portion of the earth (Israel) rather than the whole earth? The answer given would be “well, the Abrahamic covenant guaranteed the Promised Land, and have specific dimensions, and Israel never got all that land … and so they either get *that* land as a national entity, or else God’s promises failed. That, too, is a presupposition. It presupposes that God’s plan doesn’t *succeed* through the New Covenant and the global, Gentile-inclusive Church. It also presumes that Israel never got the land according to the dimensions of Gen 15 (see later on that). But if the covenants were conditional, then Israel sinned the land promises away (they failed God did not), and this objection about a literal kingdom within the parameters of Genesis 15 may be completley moot.
One more note on the difference and sameness of Israel and the Church, Galatians 3 (read the whole chapter) is crystal clear that Christians — the Church – “inherited” the promises given to Abraham. Should we exclude the land from land? If “the Promised land” has been replaced by “the whole earth,” then the answer is yes — and that is the primary argument for saying that we have no reason to look for a literal kingdom in *Israel* (a millennium) in the future.
So, are Israel and the Church distinct? Yes, one is not the equation of the other. But does the Church replace Israel as the people of God? In one sense, this is clearly the case since the Church inherits the promises given to Israel through Christ (Galatians 3). But what about the land? If the land promise is still out there, waiting to be fulfilled, then Israel as a national entity is still distinct in terms of kingdom prophecy. If the land promise was sinned away and is now replaced by the whole earth, then the nation of Israel itself has no special role in biblical prophecy — it’s all about the Church.
And believe it or not, if it’s all about the church, there is no seven year tribulation or rapture, since the former is entirely built on the 70 weeks prophecy given to Jerusalem and Israel, and the latter is in turn built on the literal tribulation.
The Lost Original
“Auntie, will momma be seeing me this week?” I asked with hopeful eyes.
Momma hadn't been around sense the last four moon cycles. She has such pretty hair, and a pretty voice. She also started to teach me magic about a year ago. She said I was improving even better than my older sister.
My sister. My big brothers. I haven't met them yet because momma said I wasn't aloud. It was too dangerous though I don't know why. That didn't stop her from telling me stories about them and their antics. There was Fin, the eldest who momma said was her favorite next to me.
"But don't tell anyone child, a mothers not supposed to have favorites." She told me once, smiling and brushing her fingers through my hair. I smiled and giggled at the secret we shared.
Then there was Elijah, the very noble and protective brother. Momma said he was the most mature, of the group. I thought him to be quite in need of a tickle fight. When I told momma that she laughed saying she couldn't even imagine such a scene.
Then there's Kole, a little trouble maker, but a very spirited soul. Always out and about, pranking his fellow siblings. I thought I'd very much so like Kole.
And Rebekah, my sister. Momma said she was magic just like us. She has a kind soul, and is very loving. Though she could have quite the little tantrums, for her brothers love to tease her because she is a girl. I thought we would make a good team up against our brothers. I asked her when I could show the silly boys what we girls could do but her smile only slipped slightly as she said someday soon.
Henrik was the youngest boy. Momma said he was a bit of a follower, but he tried to stand out. Momma loved him very much though and tried to show him how being himself was enough.
Finally, she told me about Nicklaus. She had such sad eyes when she talked about him, but yet there was so much love. She told me that Nick and I were both really special. "Special how?" She looked at me hesitantly, before shaking her head. "That is another story for another time darling. When you are older." I pouted, reluctantly letting the subject drop.
"I'll meet them one day though right momma?"
"When the time is right. Don't worry your little head now, get your rest. I will return soon my love."
She kissed me on top of my head and brushed through my soft curls.
"I love you, always," she whispered as I drifted off to sleep, just like she always does.
I looked at the witch before me now who has taken care of me sense infancy. She looked quite old and fragile, but I knew how powerful she really was. Maybe not as powerful as my mother, but still close. We lived outside a village near the one my family lived in. I was never aloud as a child to go to the village because we couldn't allow anyone to know who I was. I will be 17 years old in 3 days and I still don't understand why.
"Will mother be seeing me this week?"
"I'm not sure child. But your mother hasn't missed one of your birthdays yet, so I have faith she will come."
I smiled slightly at that "You're right, it just feels like so long sense I've seen anyone or anything really." I slump down in a chair.
"Well," my "aunt" begins, "You are just about 17 now, about the time most women are being courted. I believe it safe, if you'd like, for you to go out to the village and get some supplies."
My eyes widened. This would be my first trip to the village alone. The only other time I had gone was when my aunt was practically on her death bed, yet she insisted on coming along with me to get the remedies she needed instead of me going alone. The trip almost killed her.
This was a huge step and I knew it. I let my most dazzling smile grace my face as I rushed to hug her, murmuring “thank yous” in her black and grey streaked hair.
"Alright alright. Go now before I change my mind," I stepped back but before I could move again she stopped me by cupping my face, searching it with her black eyes.
"No, you are very powerful, and I do not worry for your safety today. But I do worry for you."
Then she let me go, turned around, and walked out of the room.
I began my walk through the dense woods to the village. I was not allowed to ride our horse to the village because it would be too easy for someone to track us back to our home. I thought it all to be an over precaution. What would anyone want with a seemingly old hag, and a plane young girl? Even so I continued my journey on foot, taking in the beautiful scenery of nature around me. There was so much light, so much life. I felt my fingers tingle with the sweet sensation of power as I drew from some of its energy. It was times like these when I was glad to be a witch to have such a connection to nature.
My mother had named me Diana after the Goddess Diana Goddess of the witches. She has also been told to be the Goddess of the moon, and the hunt. But all witches worship Diana. I felt now, or during nights when the moon is full and at its brightest, that I could not have a name better suited for me.
The wind began to pick up, and colors of fall began to circle me. I giggled and spun about like a young child. My hair wiped about in the wind but I didn't care. Oh what a sight someone would see if they found me now.
But nobody came, for nobody ever does. I was alone like always. Yet, with the song birds whispering in my ear, and the energy vibrating all around me, I didn't feel alone.
Cycle time graph with Numbers
Sample data of the time between parts to determine the cycle time, with different averages given. Image copyright Christoph Roser on AllAboutLean.com.
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The heavens are telling the glory of God and the firmament proclaims his handiwork.
Day to day pours forth speech, and night to night declares knowledge.
There is no speech, nor are there words their voice is not heard
yet their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.
In them he has set a tent for the sun,
which comes forth like a bridegroom leaving his chamber,
and like a strong man runs its course with joy.
Its rising is from the end of the heavens, and its circuit to the end of them
and there is nothing hid from its heat.
The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul
the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple
the precepts of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart
the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes
the fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever
the ordinances of the LORD are true, and righteous altogether.
More to be desired are they than gold, even much fine gold
sweeter also than honey and drippings of the honeycomb.
Moreover by them is thy servant warned
in keeping them there is great reward.
But who can discern his errors? Clear thou me from hidden faults.
Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins let them not have dominion over me!
Then I shall be blameless, and innocent of great transgression.
Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight,
O LORD, my rock and my redeemer.
* bara , used only in referring to God in the Hebrew Bible occurs in Gen. 1:1, and in v21, 27. God also "makes" ( asah ), "causes to appear"
( hayah ), "forms ( yatsar ), "establishes" ( kun ), etc. Man is "creative" only in that he carries the image of his Creator.
Only God can call into existence the things that do not exist (Romans 4:17, Amos 9:6, Psalm 33:6-8). See also Notes on the Early Chapters of Genesis.
1. James Stambaugh, Star Formation and Genesis 1, Impact #251 , Institute of Creation Research, PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021, May 1994.
2. Davies, Paul, The Accidental Universe , Cambridge University Press, New York, 1982.
3. Misner, Charles W., Thorne, Kip S., and Wheeler, John Archibald, Gravitation , W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1973.
4. Morton, Glenn R., Changing Constants and the Cosmos , CRSQ, Vol. 27, No. 2, September 1990, pp. 60-67
5. Norman, Trevor, and Setterfield, Barry, The Atomic Constants, Light and Time , SRI International Invited Research Report, August 1987. Other related papers and further technical information on this subject is available on this web page at On the Constancy of the Speed of Light.
6. Taking Genesis One seriously and literally poses lots of problems for doing physics of the early universe. See Physics Problems for Creation Week
8. The Observer's Location in Genesis One: The following notes show how Genesis One begins with a cosmic view of the entire universe, but soon narrows down to discuss the earth, the ecosystem, then man. This is in keeping with the overall constant, progressive narrowing of the Bible's focus onto the "scarlet thread" of man's redemption. (I am presenting here my current thoughts on this matter for discussion purposes. Others may not agree with me and I could change my mind at any time. Comments on this are welcome.)
Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. [Here the term "the heavens and earth" means the entire universe, physical plus the spiritual universe. The planet earth is not in view here]. 2 The earth [still refers to the entire material universe] was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep [tehom] and the Spirit of God was moving over the face(s) of the [primeval, universal] waters. 3 And God said, "Let there be light" and there was light. 4 And God saw that the light was good and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. 6 And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." [the discussion still refers to the whole universe--all of space everywhere] 7 And God made the firmament and separated the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament. And it was so. 8 And God called the firmament Heaven [shemayim, almost always plural in Hebrew]. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day [still referring to the entire universe not just the earth]. 9 And God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear." And it was so. 10 God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. [Here is the first mention of our planet, earth (eretz), as a created object within the cosmos. This is emphasized in the text by God's "naming" of Earth. "Naming" is the way God gives something its identity]. [From here on the focus of Genesis One is that of an observer on the planet earth. Things happening elsewhere in the universe are secondary and de-emphasized from this point on]. 11 And God said, "Let the earth put forth vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, upon the earth." And it was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. 14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to separate the day from the night and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light upon the earth." And it was so. 16 And God made the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night he made the stars also. [note the sun and moon are viewed here as more central to the narrative compared to the rest of the stars and planets, which are seen as incidental to the narrative, i.e., "he made the stars also," almost as if this were an afterthought]. 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light upon the earth, [earth the center of attention] 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. 20 And God said, "Let the waters [on earth] bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the firmament of the heavens." 21 So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." 23 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. 24 And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds." And it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds and the cattle according to their kinds, and everything that creeps upon the ground according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness [shift from nature to man] and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth." 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him male and female he created them. 28 And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth." 29 And God said, "Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit you shall have them for food. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food." And it was so. 31 And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, a sixth day. "
The Uniqueness of Creation Week
First written, October 7, 1992, revised June 14, 1994, August 28, 1996, October 9, 1999, January 11, 2001. March 6, 2003. July 22, 2020. February 10, 2021. April 2, 2021
ONE OF THE CHILDREN, Francis II, was now gone. The Biblical scourges were unleashing their furies in the religious wars between the Catholics and Protestants, which had begun in 1561, while Nostradamus still lived. Solyman the Great was on the throne of Turkey, his pirates were sweeping the length of the Mediterranean, harrying Venice, preying on the commerce of all Europe. Hatred and rivalry were between Charles IX and his brother, the Duke d’Anjou, Catherine's favorite child.
These three quatrains are like the opening bars of a tragic symphony, giving the leit-motif which the music will interweave with other patterns, amplifying and developing the theme. Covering the reign of Charles IX were the four religious wars which spread death and ruin over the country. The Protestants numbered more than a quarter of the population of France, a large number to do away with or even crush, yet such was the only idea that presented itself to the Catholics.
In 1565 Catherine and Charles IX met the Duke of Alva at Bayonne to consult about means of quenching the fire of the Protestant menace. The time was set for the massacre which was later postponed until Saint Bartholomew's because the Protestants got wind of it. The Nymph of the North is Queen Elizabeth, whose encouragement and active support were invaluable to the Protestants. The prophet sees the unity of faith lost to France, snuffed out never to return, largely by virtue of this support. Elizabeth also removed the light of the Duke d’Anjou's hope to marry her, which died aborning.
In 1558, two years after the prophet's death, a new and final edition of the Prophecies was published at Lyons by Rigaud. The arrangement of the Centuries was in two parts. The first comprised all of the two previous editions together with the letter to César. The second half consisted of three new Centuries of a hundred verses each, preceded by a letter of dedication to Henry, King of France Second. The edition was brought out under the direction and supervision of Brother Jean Vallier of the monastery of the Mineurs Conventuals, and with the permission of his ecclesiastical superiors. It is evident that this must have been in accordance with a pre-arranged plan made during the prophet's lifetime. It also shows the support and
approval which the Church accorded to his prophetic powers.. In this time of high excitement, war and death, the publication of fresh prophecies was an event of prime importance in court circles. So many forecasts had already been fulfilled that, as Nostradamus had predicted, he was even more famous in death than he had been in life.
In this same year occurred another event of importance to the court, and saddening to all France. This was the death of the Princess Elizabeth, then Queen of Spain. Of her marriage to Philip, Nostradamus had this to say:
Jupiter and Sun, stars of pomp and royalty, had been in friendly aspect during the splendid, fatal tourney which celebrated the match. Philip, from the time he became King of Sicily, was called by the French the "Blood-Sucker of the Midi." The prophet, remembering the sweet child he had seen at Blois, called the
marriage an "extreme remedy," but he saw that the sacrifice was justified for France. The long peace was as foretold. It was only broken after the death of Henry III, when the rise of Navarre, allied with the Nymph of the North, roused Spanish fears.
CRESCENT AND CROSS
While the turmoil of civil war was obsessing France, momentous happenings in the Mediterranean were fulfilling more of the prophet's visions, which were a continuation of what Villiers de L’Isle Adam, the soldier of Rhodes, had told him so many years before.
In 1565 the Turks boldly attacked Malta, killing eight thousand of the Knights and possessing themselves of half the island. The island had, you will remember, been given to the Knights of Rhodes, under Nostradamus’ patient, the Knight Commander de L’Isle Adam, by Spain, as a reward for their valor at Rhodes. Therefore, says Nostradamus, it is poor guerdon for Philip II of Spain and King of Sicily (the deed of Messina, Sicily) to leave them to be squeezed in the straits without sending any help in their dire extremity. John Calvin made Geneva his headquarters. The prophet refers to the "New City," as it was called, in this connection, as contributing to the war.
The Holy Father shall heed the cry of Sicily,
All preparations will go forward from the Gulf of Trieste
Extending down to Sicily,
Comprising many galleys. Flee, flee from the horrible scourge.
In 1571 the Battle of Lepanto turned back and seriously crippled Turkish sea power. In that year the island of Cyprus, "The neighboring descendants of the Crusaders will be ambushed," was seized by Turkey with a massacre so complete and dreadful that at last Christian Europe was galvanized into action. Individual soldiers went from France to take part in the expedition, as did soldiers from all over Europe and England. But France as a nation remained aloof. Philip of Spain and the Pope were the organizers of the naval expedition which did include ten governments, counting the states of Italy. "The picked men" were the flower of Europe's chivalry. Great princes in person led the boarding parties that took the Moslem ships. Cervantes was among the heroes at the battle. The colorful Don John of Austria was the military commander of the allied fleet.
The losses on both sides were very heavy, but the Christians administered a smashing defeat from which Turkey never recovered. Lepanto is one of the most
important naval engagements in history. Its spirit was that of the ancient Crusaders. Its "trireme galleys," little changed from the days when Rome defeated Carthage, saw their last use in a major engagement at Lepanto. These romantic ships of war were shortly discarded for boats of different build adapted to hold the new artillery, and to a complete change in the methods of sea war.
It was some years later, but in direct consequence of Lepanto, that the Shah of Persia seized important Turkish provinces, and also one of the great ports on the Persian Gulf, which enabled him to enrich himself by expansion of his maritime commerce.
THE MASSACRE OF SAINT BARTHOLOMEW
Meanwhile the civil wars of religion went on interminably in France. Leaders on both sides were killed. The ability and faith of Admiral Coligny, after the Prince of Condé died, made him the greatest leader and military commander whom the Protestants had.
Admiral Coligny resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the French navy seven years after he had received it, in order to head the Protestant party. He came within an ace of carrying off "the prize" of power by his ascendancy over Charles IX. For a time, he and his party, as well as his enemies, thought that he had. His domination was so great that Catherine dared delay no longer in putting into execution the plans made seven years previously with the
[paragraph continues] Duke of Alva, at Bayonne. And the first death must be Coligny's. An assassin was sent, Maurevert, to kill the Admiral. Guizot says he watched Coligny's house for three days before the Admiral went out, and the killer got his chance. Nostradamus’ vivid picture of the old man reading his Bible under the eye of the murderer is a perfect bit. Coligny was only wounded, so that the general mass murder was ordered at once. This occurred on the twenty-fourth of August, 1572. Six days earlier, Marguerite of Valois had married Henry of Navarre, and the court was still celebrating the wedding. The feverish deliberations and last minute conferences which preceded the ringing of the tocsin happened precisely as Nostradamus describes. Coligny was murdered at night, unarmed, by the Duke de Guise, his servant, Besme, and three or four of the Swiss mercenaries. The towns mentioned were those in which Protestants were strong, particularly New La Rochelle.
The prophet had no sympathy for Coligny, the spearhead of the faction he believed undermining France. The anointed King acted within his rights to kill the "Traitor." But he deplored that the savagery of that same King should massacre his people, "the slaughtered innocents" of the quatrain quoted earlier. Charles IX was said to have stood at the palace window, arquebus in hand, and shot down Protestants until exhausted.
Events of importance followed two years later, in 1574.
The Fish was the Duke d’Anjou. The Pope, in the Centuries, is often called the Fisherman. France, politically and religiously, was always the best-loved fish of the papacy. Henry of Anjou was heir presumptive to the throne. The quarrel between himself and Charles had become so acute that neither was safe from the other. Henry was offered the crown of Poland, which he accepted to get out of France. After sophisticated Paris, he loathed living in Poland. The Poles quite misjudged the character of the times in France when they invited Henry. He was only there three months. Charles IX, racked with remorse and illness, died, soothed at the last only by the old Protestant nurse whom the prophet had seen with the little boy in the gardens of Blois. Henry left Poland at once to become Henry III of France, until such time as one of his own people would murder him.
DUEL A OUTRANCE
Henry III was weak, vicious, perverted but like all the Valois he had charm. The psychopathic jealousy
and hatred which he had felt for his brother, Charles IX, now that Charles was dead, he projected upon the strong, brilliant Henry, Duke de Guise, son of the warrior who took Calais. Courtly, eloquent, magnetic, Guise was the idol of Paris. He was twice wounded in action, once in the arm, and again in the leg and head. A bullet clipped his ear and scarred his cheek which gave him his nickname, Le Balafré, in spite of which he was considered very handsome. One of the cardinals at court remarked of the Guises, father and son, that they made other people seem common by comparison.
Guise as the descendant of Charlemagne, and having also the royal blood of the Capet line, was one of the two royal brothers whom Nostradamus describes in the following accurate picture of their deadly duel, which was half personal hatred, half desire for power. Guise, like the Bourbons, wanted the throne. As the leader of the Catholic faction, he was in consequence close to the palace, and had in a fashion the inside track. He was at this time far more powerful than the coming King, Henry of Navarre. Guise had every confidence that he would win the crown. The weak King, Catherine supporting her son with her craft, and the Duke de Guise are the actors in this tragedy.
The religious wars were more than a fight between Catholic and Protestant. They were a three-cornered fight for power between Catherine de’ Medici, backing successively her sons, and the great competing houses of Guise-Lorraine and Bourbon-Navarre. None of the three would yield to the others it had to be, as it was, a duel to the death.
Note how the Oriental motif is sustained. Lepanto had defeated Turkey, but not crushed her, and France had not fulfilled her obligation then. No Turkish armies threaten, but the Turk still takes his captives as pirates' prey, while Christian France quarrels internally. The Duke de Guise organized the Catholic League to wrest the power from the King. Spain supported this effort, the King was losing. Assassination was the answer. The King had gone to Blois. The Duke, as Lieutenant-General of France and High Steward of the Royal Household, was also there, both being present for the meeting of the States-General.
[paragraph continues] So one has the strange picture of these two deadly enemies and rivals under the same roof and dining at the same table. The King summoned the Duke for a private conference. As the Duke raised the tapestry to enter the room, known as the old closet, he was stabbed five times by the King's men. The King and the Duke had taken communion together shortly before the murder.
When the Duke was dead the King exclaimed, "Now I am sole King. The King of Paris is dead!" Catherine said, "You have done the cutting, now we must sew it well." But there was little time for her sewing. Her own death, in bed, occurred thirteen days after the murder of the Duke de Guise. France was outraged at the murder. Orleans turned against the King. The other towns mentioned by the prophet promptly went over to the Protestants, for which Nostradamus blames them. Sixtus V, whom, as we have seen, the prophet did not admire, was subservient to Spain, and in many ways vacillating or afraid to adopt a strong policy. The Cardinal de Guise, brother ("Two shall be killed by one of the children") of Le Balafré, was murdered by Henry a few days after the Duke. The third Guise brother, the Duke de Mayenne, then took over the leadership of the Catholic League.
The edict of Poictiers, passed by Henry III in 1577, among other things permitted Protestant ministers to marry. Nostradamus saw this as a threat to Catholicism. It was a temptation away from the ascetic standards of the priesthood, into the freer customs of the Protestant ministry. Venus, here a metaphor for self-indulgence, clouds the Sun of the monarchy.
HENRY OF NAVARRE
The two royal brothers, Henry III and Henry of Navarre, sinking their religious differences and agreeing on a common plan, climb into the same ship of state which is also the barque of religion in a country having a state religion. The condition of the treasury, and the reaction of Italy to the combination of the two rulers were as the prophet indicates.
The great King will be taken by a Young Man
Not far from Easter, when there will be confusion and knife thrust, p. 313
The perpetration of the deed is at the time when there are captives, and powder in the tower,
This murder follows the death of three brothers who injured themselves.
After the furor over the murder of the two Guises, Henry III, twice King, once of Poland, once of France, desperately in need of backing, with the Duke de Mayenne, the third and sole surviving Guise brother, in virtual control of Paris, sought out Henry of Navarre and made an alliance with him. But, "scant
space"--only a few months later the King was assassinated by Jacques Clément, believed to be the agent of the Third Estate. "The Third Estate shall murder one." Clément, the name meaning clement or gentle, is exactly indicated by the prophet as the murderer. The alliance with Navarre was at Easter, the murder--"not long after."
Paris, in the hands of the Duke de Mayenne, preparing its defenses and arresting Protestants and royalists, there were "captives and powder." Pope Sixtus, "the leader of Perouse," after the papacy having been despoiled of England by Henry VIII, was terrified lest it happen now with France. Henry II had been struck on his armored neck-piece by Montgomery's lance. Henry III was stabbed in "the little gut," or neck of the colon. "Father and son both struck in the neck." Henry of Navarre, surviving member of the alliance, is advised to hang on, for not to the nobles under the Duke de Mayenne shall fall Lutetia, Paris. Henry will survive his opponents.
The Seven Children of the King are now dead, all but Marguerite, the wife of Henry of Navarre, who had no children. Under the Salic law she cannot rule, and in time Navarre will divorce her.
Cryptic as these verses read, they tell a perfectly straight story. Two brothers in royalty, Navarre and Mayenne, lead the Protestant and Catholic factions. The winner of the war, Navarre, will not live beyond 1610. He was assassinated then. A coup or an illness will mark his year in 1606. He nearly died of illness in 1608, but Guizot speaks of it as if it were of long standing, and it may have begun when the prophet said.
Henry of Navarre did claim the crown to avenge Henry III, his brother-in-law. He seized Brittany, previously tributary, but autonomous under France. It had belonged to Queen Claude, grandmother of Henry III. Nostradamus said in a verse, previously given, "the cadet branch," the Bourbon, "will plant its foot on Armoric soil." Armorica was the old name of Brittany. Thereafter Brittany remained as a province of the crown.
"The buried" is Coligny who, through his Protestant successor, Henry of Navarre, will enchain the power of Paris. The Barbel is a fish equipped with prongs to spear its prey. The fish, in the Centuries, is always a religious symbol. Here, the Barbel, the vicious fish of the false religion, Protestantism, will poison with the eggs it lays, hopes of the house of the Catholic faction under Guise-Lorraine, so that it is defeated by Navarre. The latter is Lord Warden of the Marches because he comes from the border kingdom of Navarre, a bulwark against Spanish aggression.
But when Henry claimed the throne, the Duke de Mayenne put up a counter-claimant who was none other than Navarre's uncle, the old Cardinal de Bourbon, who had come over to his side. It was in this Cardinal's house that the prophet had lodged while in Paris. But nothing can stop Vendôme (one of the family names of Navarre) although he is worried and doesn't know what Spain is going to do about all this. His first concern was to see that his uncle, whom he had under guard, didn't escape and get himself crowned. The Cardinal was at Chinon in the care of Sieur Chavigny, who was also old, like the Cardinal, and nearly blind. Henry sent a courier with a letter to the governor of Saumur "bidding him at any price" to get the Cardinal away from Chinon and under proper guard, which was done. But the poor old man, "the contender in the duel," died, as the prophet said, not long after.
The battle of Arques, 1589, the first of Navarre's
two great victories, was as the prophet indicates it. Mayenne was between Henry and the sea, blocking help. Henry had a complete line of trenches dug surrounding the castle and town of Arques. Nor does Nostradamus forget to mention the white plume of Navarre, so famous in song and story. Victory, he tells us, will crown Navarre in the battle, that is what he means by "follow the Fleur de Lis." It is the beginning of the taking over by the house of Bourbon--to the prophet a faithless line--the royal lily emblem of Capet.
Meanwhile the letters from Sixtus were very bittersweet. He admired Navarre, but he didn't want a Protestant ruling France. Henry of Navarre at once began to put into practice his ideas of toleration which later were shaped into the Edict of Nantes. "The son of Anion," the religious turncoat and heretic, Navarre, of course, was chosen at Rome, after his purely political conversion to Catholicism. Thus were the two great personages, Mayenne and the Cardinal, defeated.
The Cardinal is dead, but we are not yet finished with the Duke de Mayenne. (And, reader, if the history of France seems unduly involved, don't shoot the prophet and the author. Like the pianist, we are doing our best.)
Steps to Get Started Using Cycle Time:
- Establish an accepted definition of cycle time. It is important that everyone in the company calls it by the same thing, or there will be confusion.
- Identify a fairly stable process and establish Standard Work for it. That will require documenting the cycle time.
- Identify potential problems where the cycle time of a process seems off. Look for parts of the process where the cycle time seems too long (i.e. lots of waiting), where there is excessive variation, and, of course, where there are clear opportunities to improve.
- Do daily improvement or schedule a project to make the improvements identified in step 3.
- Go back to step 3 and repeat.
Note about timing your process: For the shop floor, use the Time Observation Sheet. In the office, use the Office Process Recording Sheet. You will likely learn a great deal about your operation simply by watching and timing. If your cycle times fluctuate wildly from one observation to the next, you should start your improvement process by focusing on variation reduction.