Information

HMS Invincible


HMS Invincible

HMS Invincible was the name ship of the Invincible class of battlecruisers, despite being laid down and completed last of the three. The battlecruiser was a confused design, a mix of the speed and lighter armour of the cruiser and the firepower of the battleship. Although not originally designed to take part in fleet engagements, their heavy guns made it inevitable that they would be used in the line of battle.

Before the outbreak of the First World War the Invincible served with the 1st Cruiser Squadron of the 1st Division of the Home Fleet, to January 1913. She was sent to Mediterranean between August and December 1913, before returning to Britain for a refit between March and August 1914.

On 3 August 1914 the Invincible was sent to Cobh (then Queenstown) on the Cork coast, to guard against any attempted German breakout into the Atlantic. Once that danger had passed, she moved to the Humber, to form the 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron with HMS New Zealand.

As part of the 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron, based on the Humber, the Invincible took part in the battle of Heligoland Bight, 28 August 1914, the first significant naval encounter of the war. The battlecruisers arrived at 12.30pm, after the battle had been underway for some time, and prevented an increasingly strong German cruiser force from mauling the lighter British cruisers and destroyers that had been involved in the first part of the battle.

On 4 November 1914 the Invincible was ordered south to the Falklands to take part in the hunt for Admiral von Spee’s cruiser squadron after the battle of Coronel. She left Devonport on 11 November and arrived at Port Stanley on 7 December. The next day von Spee arrived to attack Port Stanley. After a two hour chase, Invincible and Inflexible caught up with the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and in a three hour battle sank both of them. Only one of Spee’s ships, the Dresden escaped, to be hunted down later.

On her return from the Falklands the Invincible underwent a two month refit at Gibralter (January-February 1915) before joining the battlecruiser force at Rosyth. In June 1915 all three ships of the Invincible class were grouped together as the Third Battle Cruiser Squadron.

The Invincible was the last of the three British battlecruisers to be lost during the battle of Jutland, where she was the flagship of Admiral Horace Hood. In May 1916 the 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron had been sent to join the Grand Fleet to get some invaluable gunnery practise. This squadron led the advance of the Grand Fleet from Scapa Flow which came close to catching the German High Seas Fleet. At around 6.15 p.m. Hood’s battlecruisers joined with Beatty’s force in the battle against the German battlecruisers. The Invincible opened first at 10,000 yards, disabling the Wiesbadenand the Pillau, two light cruisers (although the Pillau later escaped). The Invincible also scored two hits on the Lützow, but was exposed to fire from that ship and the Derfflinger. The fifth hit, from Derfflinger, hit the roof of “Q” turret, penetrating the thinner battlecruiser armour. The explosion set fire to the cordite propellant, the flash spread back to the magazine and the ship was blown in half. Only seven of her crew survived.

Displacement (loaded)

20,078t

Top Speed

25.5k

Range

3090 nautical miles at 10kts

Belt Armour

6in-4in

Bulkhead Armour

7in-6in

Barbettes

7in-2in

Turret faces armour

7in

Conning Tower armour

10in-6in

Deck armour

2.5in-0.75in

Length

567ft

Armaments

Eight 12in guns in four turrets
Sixteen quick firing 4in guns
Seven Maxim machine guns
Five 18in submerged torpedo tubes, 4 on beam one on stern

Crew complement

784

Launched

13 April 1907

Completed

March 1909

Sunk

31 May 1916

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


Invincible-Class Battlecruisers

Illustration by Tony Bryan. Image from New Vanguard #126 British Battlecruisers 1914–1918, by Lawrence Burr, © Osprey Publishing, Ltd.

Displacement: 17,530 metric tons
Length: 530 feet
Beam: 78.5 feet
Draft: 30 feet
Installed power: 31 Yarrow boilers
Propulsion: Four-shaft Parsons direct-drive steam turbines
Speed: 25.5 knots
Range: 2,270 nautical miles (23 knots), 3,090 nautical miles (10 knots)
Complement: 784 (up to 1,000 in wartime)
Armament: Eight BL 12-inch guns, 16 QF 4-inch guns, seven Maxim guns, five 18-inch torpedo tubes
Armor: Belt (4–6 inches), bulkhead (6–7 inches), barbettes (2–7 inches), turrets (7 inches), conning tower (6–10 inches), decks (1.75–2.5 inches)

Approved by the British Board of Admiralty on March 16, 1905, and commissioned on March 20, 1909, HMS Invincible represented the culmination of almost a half-century of technical advances that had compelled the Royal Navy, under Admiral Sir John “Jacky” Fisher, to undergo a radical redesign. Originally dubbed “armored cruisers” but reclassified “battlecruisers” in 1911, Invincible and its class sisters Inflexible and Indomitable were designed to deploy swiftly to wherever the Admiralty—with its new network of intelligence gathering and communications—ordered them, either to run down and outmaneuver enemy ships or outrun any that outgunned them.

The vessels had mixed fortunes in World War I. Inflexible and Indomitable failed to prevent the German battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau from reaching Turkey in August 1914. During the Battle of Heligoland Bight on August 28 Invincible fired 18 shells at the German light cruiser Cöln—and missed. The battlecruiser concept saw its greatest success on December 8 when Invincible and Inflexible intercepted the German East Asia Squadron off the Falkland Islands and sank the armored cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Indomitable helped sink the German armored cruiser Blücher off Dogger Bank on Jan. 24, 1915, but Inflexible was badly damaged by a Turkish mine in the Dardanelles on March 18, 1915.

Invincible itself proved just the opposite at Jutland on May 31, 1916, when the German battlecruisers Lützow and Derfflinger blew it in two and sank it in 90 seconds, killing Rear Adm. Horace Hood and 1,025 crewmen and leaving only six survivors. Although the sinking of Invincible and two similar battlecruisers raised doubts regarding the validity of the entire concept, more recent research suggests poor ammunition handling, rather than an unsound design, lay behind those disasters. Already obsolescent by war’s end, Inflexible and Indomitable were sold for scrap in 1921. MH


HMS Invincible

Doesn't make a lot of sense all round. Moving 6-7,000 paratroopers and more support staff via an air bridge is highly risky. Only reason I can think is OpSec and that implies they will be moving on from Corvo. Only targets within C-47 range are Canaries or possible Southern Spain both of which are a huge stretch fully laden. 250 C-46 flights on a makeshift strip is going to take a while too (2 weeks?)

Hammerbolt

Aye - but where are they going next?

Doesn't make a lot of sense all round. Moving 6-7,000 paratroopers and more support staff via an air bridge is highly risky. Only reason I can think is OpSec and that implies they will be moving on from Corvo. Only targets within C-47 range are Canaries or possible Southern Spain both of which are a huge stretch fully laden. 250 C-46 flights on a makeshift strip is going to take a while too (2 weeks?)

Lord Wyclif

I think Lajas Field on Terceira Island is the only realistic choice for larger aircraft such as the C46 to land at the Azores - unless there is a 'retcon' of some kind to create a suitable landing strip on Corvo?

OTL the Portuguese hedging their bets on having to move the Government to the island and wanting to defend it against 'opportunity' expanded it in 1941 and 42 and eventually in 43 'leased' it to the British

This might have happened earlier but for a diplomatic incident regarding Portuguese sovereignty of the Islands in mid 41 due to US Newspaper articles suggesting that the US seize the islands (Monroe Doctrine stuff) and some speeches by US Politicians and then the preemptive invasion of Portuguese Timor by British Commonwealth forces in Dec 1941 further strained relations.

This all may not have happened in this TL allowing for better relations with the Western Allies which in turn may allow for an earlier 'basing rights' in the islands.

Sounds good we’ll go with that.

Lord Wyclif

Sunday night saw 446 British bombers attacked Bremen, Germany, damaging Lloyd dynamo works, Focke-Wulf factory as well as the U-boat yards. 21 bombers were lost.

On the night of the 13th, 202 British bombers attack the U-boat yards at Wilhelmshaven.

On the 15th 369 British bombers attacked the Ruhr damaging a Krupp factory in Essen 39 bombers were lost during this night.

Lord Wyclif

U-589 attempted to attack the PQ-18 convoy but was sunk by destroyer HMS Onslow and a Swordfish aircraft from escort carrier HMS Avenger, becoming the 75th U-boat destroyed at sea that year. HMS Impulsive, escorting Allied convoy PQ-18, sank U-457 with depth charges 200 miles northeast of Murmansk. 12 German He 111 torpedo bombers attacked the convoy at the entrance of the Kola Inlet, sinking US ship Kentucky at the cost of 3 bombers lost.

The U-261 was attacked and sunk by a British Wellington bomber 100 miles southwest of the Faroe Islands.

Lord Wyclif

Battle of the Atlantic.

On the17th a USAAF Liberator bomber attacked and sank the U-515 and the U-109. Nine cargo ships were sunk.

Lord Wyclif

Lieutenant-General Frederick Morgan was appointed Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Dwight D Eisenhower in February 1942. The operation for the return to the European mainland was the most meticulously planned to date and benefited from the experiences gained at Operation Flipper, Operation Gymnast and other raids and landings.

A joint HQ to co-ordinate all land, sea and air elements, which was to deliver all the advantages of speedy and effective communications in the heat of battle set up in Malta. Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder Commander Mediterranean Air Command who said: "In my opinion, sea, land and air operations are now so closely inter-related that effective coordination will only be possible if the campaign is considered and controlled as a combined operation in the full sense of that term."

Royal Navy Beach Commandoes Dog, King and Mike began a covert operations reporting directly back to Morgan himself even before debriefing by Admiral Ramsey’s office. Their task was to provide vital intelligence about tidal and beach conditions, to ensure that suitable beaches were suitable for heavy vehicles etc. Their work was undertaken in darkness to avoid detection. If they, or their clandestine activities, were discovered, their presence would give advance warning of an impending military operation.

Lord Wyclif

On September 18th Monsignor Montini, future Pope Paul VI, sent a letter to Pope Pius XII, noting that "the massacres of the Jews reach frightening proportions and forms". A request was included that the letter be read to all who were in attendance at Mass on the 20th.

Lord Wyclif

Members of the French Resistance and the British Special Operations Executive provided intelligence and helped weaken resolve through sabotage.

Diestormlie

Lord Wyclif

Lord Wyclif

Sonofpegasus

Coulsdon Eagle

Dusk on the 31st a powerful fleet put to sea in the eastern Mediterranean from Alexandria. The Light Fleet Carriers HMS Pioneer, HMS Terrible and HMS Theseus the Battleships HMS Nelson, HMS Royal Sovereign and HMS Resolution along with the cruisers HMS Norfolk, HMS Suffolk, HMS Hawkins, HMS Frobisher and HMS Effingham, HMS Kenya, HMS Sheffield, HMS Aurora and HMS Jamaica and the Anti-aircraft cruisers HMS Centaur, HMS Cambrian and HMS Constance. Also sailing were the destroyers HMS Capel, HMS Farndale, HMS Foresight, HMS Forester, HMS Fury, HMS Laforey, HMS Lightning, HMS Oribi, HMS Penn, HMS Porcupine, HMS Quality, HMS Quentin, HMS Tartar, HMS Zulu the Australian destroyer HMAS Quiberon. An amphibious strike group consisting of the Commando-Carriers HMS Majestic, HMS Magnificent and HMS Ocean the Landing Ships HMS Bachaquero, HMS Invercorrie and HMS Inverampton the Troopships HMS Prince Leopold, HMS Princess Josephine Charlotte, HMS Prince Albert, HMS Princess Astrid, HMS Prince Charles, HMS Royal Scotsman and HMS Royal Ulsterman the Assault Ships HMS Glengyle, HMS Glenearn and HMS Glenroy and the steamers Narkunda, Batory, Ormonde, Macharda, Silverteak and Potaro.

Under pressure from the Canadian government to ensure that Canadian troops saw some action,soldiers from the the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, commanded by Major General John Hamilton Roberts, were onboard the troop transports.

Coiler

Lord Wyclif

Pjmidd

Lord Wyclif

HMAS Quiberon (G81/D20/D281/F03) was a Q-class destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Although built for the Royal Navy and remaining British property until 1950, Quiberon was one of two Q-class destroyers commissioned into the RAN during World War II. She was passed into full RAN ownership in 1950, and converted into an anti-submarine frigate.

Coulsdon Eagle

HMAS Quiberon (G81/D20/D281/F03) was a Q-class destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Although built for the Royal Navy and remaining British property until 1950, Quiberon was one of two Q-class destroyers commissioned into the RAN during World War II. She was passed into full RAN ownership in 1950, and converted into an anti-submarine frigate.

Lord Wyclif

Sunday September 20th to Saturday September 26th 1942

New Britain
Dauntless dive bombers of US Marine Corps VMSB-231 squadron and US Navy VS-3 squadron from Hoskins airfield, New Britain attacked Japanese destroyers Umikaze and Kawakaze in the western Solomon Islands they heavily damaged Umikaze and forced the convoy to turn back. On the same day, US Army B-17 bombers attacked the Japanese Navy base on Shortland island, damaging seaplane carrier Sanuki Maru. Japanese ships ferried 100 fighters and 80 bombers to Rabaul, New Britain on the 25th, in an attempt to regain local air superiority. The USS Ranger deployed 120 miles south of New Britain midway between it and Muyua Island.

Sydney
Rutland’s ships began their third and final week in port. Both carriers received new air groups. The now standard for a Royal Navy fleet carrier two squadrons of Australian built Sea Mosquitos and three squadrons of Grendels. They sailed to the Solomon Sea on the evening of the 25th to relieve the USS Ranger on station and allow her to return to Pearl, where her crews would get some much needed R&R.

On the 21st the Australian 16th Infantry Brigade arrived at Port Moresby and on the 22nd the destroyer HMAS Voyager departed Darwin, with 400 men of Australian 2/4th Independent Company, sailing for the island of Timor to reinforce troops of Australian 2/2nd Independent Company, arriving after dark on the 24th.


Invincible Exhibition Explores History Of Navy's 18th-Century 'Ferrari' Ship

Portsmouth’s ‘Diving Deep’ exhibition displays the archaeological battle to preserve the wreck of HMS Invincible.

The archaeological battle to preserve an 18th Century Navy shipwreck is the subject of a new exhibition.

At ‘Diving Deep’ in Portsmouth’s Historic Dockyard, the story of HMS Invincible explores the excavation project to save what had been the fastest warship in the naval fleet.

Isle Of Wight Tanker: Seven Arrested After SBS Storms Vessel

The 74-gun, French-built ship was seized in battle by the British and went on to “run rings” around larger, less agile vessels, explained Dr Eileen Clegg, Community Archaeology Producer.

“That made her basically a bit of a ‘Ferrari’ of the Royal Navy – so fast and powerful,” she said.

At the beginning of a voyage to Nova Scotia in 1758, however, HMS Invincible’s anchor became trapped underneath her bow, her rudder also jamming.

“She has no brakes, no steering and of course she’s setting sail in high winds,” said Dr Clegg, explaining how the ship was blown out of control before running aground on a sandbank in the Solent.

For more than two centuries, HMS Invincible lay undisturbed on the seabed – a cannonball storage room pinning her down.

In 1979, some of the wreckage was caught up in a fisherman's net.

Appeal For Donations After WW2 Plane Suffers Engine Failure On Loch Ness

Divers have since only managed to bring the cutwater of the vessel and several artefacts to the surface – giving visitors in Portsmouth an insight into life onboard the 18th Century ship.

Leather shoes, rum barrels, wig-curlers, and items used to discipline the crew are just a few of the recovered props at the exhibition.

Meanwhile, an interactive model formed from thousands of deep-sea photographs helps guests to fill in the gaps.

COVID-19 has seen sanitiser stations placed between the family-friendly, hands-on exhibits at ‘Diving Deep’, which will be open for a year before moving to Chatham in Kent next autumn.


HMS INVINCIBLE

Invincble went to the rescue of the Chester, one of her scout cruisers, which had been chased by four enemy cruisers (the Frankfurt, Pillau, Elbing and Wiesbaden) and had taken heavy casualties. At 17:53 Invincible’s 12-inch guns opened fire at 8,000 yards. The Wiesbaden, last ship in the line, was hit as she turned to run: one of the Invincible’s massive shells had burst through the side in the engine room bringing her to a stop.

A half hour later Invincible had – after having steering problems – joined up with Beatty’s line and roughly 9,000 yards distance from Hipper’s battle-cruisers. At 18:26 she was heavily engagd with the Lützow and causing heavy damage so much so that Rear Admiral Horace Hood encouraged his gunner officer, Herbert Danreuther (a godson of Richard Wagner) saying “Your firing is very good. Keep at it as quickly as you can. Every shot is telling”.

Minutes later, the fog back that had been protecting parted and the ship was lit up by the sunlight which fell trough. At 18:31 Lützow now landed a shell that penetrated Q turret and set her magazines on fire. The explosion was like a small nuclear mushroom cloud.

HMS Invincible seen astern of one of her sister ships at Jutland.

Passing ships were confused. They had not seen what had happened and at first cheered, thinking it was a German ship.

HMS Invincible broken into two parts, bow and stern, with the destroyer HMS Badger picking up survivors.

There were 6 survivors. Four were picked up by Badger. Two, including Hubert Danreuther, were seen at 19:02 by HMS Colossus. At 19:05 Jellicoe himself signaled Badger: “Is wreck one of our ships? Reply – Yes, Invincible”

Rear Admiral The. Hon. Horace Hood, 3 rd Battle

Squadron flew his flag from HMS Invincible.

When the surviving ships came back to Rosyth, Hood’s family were gathered and eagerly awaiting the father of the family. They had not heard the news. It must have been crushing.

Lady Hood wrote a number of letters to re-assure those with husbands who had not returned of their last moments. One such letter concerned Charles Overy in a letter to the Dorking and Leatherhead Advertiser, on January 27 th 1917.

Two friends lose brothers the same day. On the same ship

Below is a letter from Oldric Portal, whose younger brother, Raymond, died on Invincible. It is written to his friend Tom Fisher who also lost his brother – Charles – on Invincible.

Oldric’s letter summarises the report that Hubert Dannreuther, the Gunnery Commander on Invincible, presented to the Admiralty and the King. Dannreuther was one of the six who survived, having been up on the mast turrets, observing the fire and taking ranges


HMS Invincible - History

Shipbuilding's boom years came in the early 20th century stimulated by the build up of demand for warships and ship repair yards. Then came the steepest slump on record, with heavy job losses and unemployment.

A Wearside welder

By the mid 1920s, the unemployment rate in the shipyards was over 40%.

Jarrow, a shipbuilding community, was one of the worst hit areas with unemployment reaching 74% at the height of the Depression.

The Second World War once again brought prosperity followed by a brief revival in the 1950s but this was short lived. From the early 1960s the yards struggled to find work with a lack of orders and increasing competition.

The Swan Hunter yard in Newcastle was originally part of the Neptune shipyard founded at Low Walker in 1860. The yard's first ship was the Victoria, a paddle steamer launched in the same year.

Wearsiders watch the launch of a ship in the 1960s

In 1880 Swan Hunter became a business, and launched ships that became famous worldwide including the Mauretania, the 'queen of the ocean', which was launched in Wallsend in 1906.

The yard went on to build the Carpathia in 1912, which braved icebergs to rescue the survivors of the Titanic, and the Dominion Monarch, the largest diesel motor driven ship in the world when completed in 1939.

Over its history Swans launched over 1600 ships ranging from cargo liners, ferries and ice breakers to destroyers, frigates and submarines.

In the late 1960s Swan Hunter built eight supertankers including the Esso Northumbria, the first new-style supertanker in 1969.

Swans also went on to produce modern day aircraft carriers like the HMS Ark Royal and the HMS Illustrious in the 1980s.

At its peak the yard employed 3,000 men but competition from abroad increased, resulting in job losses and periods of stagnation.

In May 1993 the receivers were called in and job losses of over 2,000 were announced. In the mid 1990s Swan Hunter Tyneside was formed.

Invincible is launched at Barrow

Barrow has a long history of naval shipbuilding with Vickers having developed a reputation for naval shipbuilding.

The Iron Shipbuilding Company was founded in 1871 by James Ramsden, General Manager of the Furness Railway Company who became first mayor of the new town of Barrow.

The name of the yard was changed to the Barrow Ship Building Company (BSBC) when it was discovered that there was already another company building iron ships further down the coast at Birkenhead. At the end of the 19th century the company was bought by Vickers.

In 1901 Vickers was awarded the contract for the Royal Navy's first ever submarines. Britain's first nuclear submarine 'Dreadnought' and first Polaris-armed ballistic nuclear submarine 'Resolution' were also built at the yard.

The HMS Invincible was one of the many ships built by the yard, and it was one of the largest ever ships commissioned by the Royal Navy.

The building of the Invincible created 30,000 related jobs, and the ship itself was launched in the Queen's Jubilee year.

Where ships were born

Wearside has a proud 600 year history of shipbuilding dating back to 1346 when Thomas Menville was recorded as building vessels.

Shipyard worker on the Wear in the 1960s

In 1840 Sunderland had 65 shipyards, and by the mid twentieth century, the town produced more than a quarter of the nation's total tonnage of merchant and naval ships for World War Two.

Sunderland was once dubbed 'the largest shipbuilding town in the world', and employed a wide variety of shipyard workers - bumpers up, holders down, rivet catchers, welders, foremen, ship fitters, tuners and boiler makers to name a few.

In the boom year of the early 1900s, the yards employed over 12,000 men, a third of the town's adult population.

Sunderland's original yards were owned by local families – Bartrams, Doxfords, Pickersgills, Shorts and Thompsons among them.

When the shipbuilding industry was nationalised in 1977, British Shipbuilders took over most of the larger yards.
But competition from Japan and Korea was intense, and the yards suffered from shrinking order books.

Despite heavy investment in new technology and massive protest, Sunderland's last shipyards were closed down in 1988 and are now a distant memory for the thousands who used to work in them.

Shipbuilders Talk Shop - Sunderland Oak (1961/b&w/sound)
Sunderland shipyard workers talk about the uncertain future of shipbuilding on the Wear as they have a tea break. (4 minutes 16 seconds ©BBC)

The Big 'Un - Building the Big 'Un (1969/b&w/sound)
The building of one of the first 'supertankers' - the Esso Northumbria - on the river Tyne at Wallsend in the late 1960s. (4 minutes 8 seconds ©BBC)

The Swan Hunter Story - Swan Hunter: Tradition of Innovation (1980/b&w/silent)
The story of Swan Hunter's shipbuilding yard during its early days. (1 minute 36 seconds ©NRFTA)

Sunderland Shipbuilding - Sunderland: Setting for Industry (1966/colour/sound)
Sunderland's shipbuilding industry at its peak, looking at the challenges ahead and watching the launch of the Montrose. (1 minute 35 seconds ©NRFTA)

Building the Invincible - I Name This Ship Invincible (1977/colour/sound)
The building of the Invincible in Barrow - it was one of the largest ships ever to be built for the Royal Navy. (2 minutes ©NRFTA)


Shipwreck [ edit | edit source ]

On 16 March 1801, she was lost in a shipwreck off the coast of Norfolk, England. She had been sailing from Yarmouth under the flag of Rear-Admiral Thomas Totty in an effort to reach the fleet of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker in the Sound preparing for the upcoming attack on the Danish fleet, with approximately 650 people on board. As the ship passed the Norfolk coast, she was caught in heavy wind and stuck on the Hammond Knoll Rock off Happisburgh, where she was pinned for some hours in the afternoon before breaking free but immediately being grounded on a sandbank, where the effect of wind and waves tore down the masts and began to break up the ship. She remained in that position for all of the following day, but late in the evening drifted off the sandbank and sank in deep water. ΐ]

The admiral and 195 sailors escaped the wreck, either in one of the ship's boats or were picked up by a passing collier and fishing boat, but over 400 of their shipmates drowned in the disaster, most of them once the ship began to sink in deeper water. ΐ] The compulsory court martial investigating the incident, held on Ruby in Sheerness, absolved the admiral and the captain (posthumously) of culpability in the disaster, posthumously blaming the harbour pilot and the ship's master, both of whom had been engaged to steer the ship through the reefs and shoals of the dangerous region, and should have known the location of Hammond Knoll, especially since it was daytime and in sight of land. [ citation needed ]

The remains of many of her crew were located by chance in a mass grave in Happisburgh churchyard during the digging of a new drainage channel. Α] A memorial stone was erected in 1998 to their memory by the Ship's Company of the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Invincible, and by the Happisburgh parochial church council.


Commanding officers

  • 1979�: Captain Michael Livesay RN
  • 1982�: Captain Jeremy Black RN
  • 1983�: Captain the Hon. Nicholas Hill-Norton RN
  • 1984�: Captain Christopher Layman RN
  • 1988�: Captain Michael Gretton RN
  • 1990�: Captain John Tolhurst RN
  • 1992�: Captain Fabian Malbon RN
  • 1993�: Captain Richard Hastilow RN
  • 1995�: Captain Ian Forbes RN
  • 1996�: Captain Roy Clare RN
  • 1997�: Captain James Burnell-Nugent RN
  • 1999�: Captain Rory McLean RN
  • 2002�: Captain Trevor Soar RN
  • 2004�: Captain Neil Morisetti RN

Ship's Orders

NOTE: This Wiki is the authoritative source for orders per the Fourth Space Lord. All orders have been
provided by the issuing authority or the TRMN Announcements & Orders group on Facebook.

Ship's Orders are subordinate to, and expand upon or amplify Admiralty Orders, Naval Directives, Second Fleet Orders, Task Force 21 Orders, Task Group 21.1 Orders, and Battle Squadron 1 Orders. They are applicable to Invincible operations and personnel.