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Is there any evidence besides the scriptures that the Ark of the Covenant existed?


Is there any historical evidence that the Ark of the Covenant really existed? What physical or written evidence is there, excluding the scriptures?

Note: I am not discounting the writings of the Bible or Christianity. I am asking if there is any other writings without the pretense of Christian association that mentions the Ark or any other physical evidence.


Outside of the Bible (both the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Bible) and related literature (such as commentaries, but not excluding historical accounts outside the Bible) there are some references.

Flavius Josephus makes numerous mention of it in Antiquities of the Jews (For examples, see Book 3 Chapter 6 Part 5, Book 5 Chapter 11, and Book 8 Chapter 4) and one mention is Wars of the Jews (see Book 5 Chapter 9 Part 4). In Antiquities of the Jews, he tells of a tradition that "sacred vessels" have been hidden in Mt Gerizzim by the Samaritans (see Book 18 Chapter 4 Part 1). Some believe one of the "sacred vessels" may include the Ark of the Covenant, but this most likely is inaccurate.

In Ethiopia there is a place where the Ark of the Covenant is claimed to be held. They have a person who spends their whole life guarding the place. He is the only one who is allowed to see the Ark.1 If an "Ark" wasn't there, I doubt he would still be guarding it.

In the second book of Maccabees, we are told the prophet Jeremiah hid the Ark prior to the destruction of Jerusalem.2 (The Books of Maccabees may or may not be considered biblical.)

More information concerning it can be found on Wikipedia.


Nope.


Addendum:

Since "Nope" is probably not a very good answer, let me explain.

There are numerous references to the ark of the covenant throughout the biblical literature. Its construction is described in laborious detail twice in the book of Exodus, it serves as the receptacle for the words of "this song" (understood by subsequent exegetes as the Pentateuch, or at least the book of Deuteronomy) at the end of Deuteronomy, it gets taken captive, redeemed, is venerated and placed in the new temple in Judges, Samuel and Kings, and then is presumably removed from the temple by the invading Babylonians… who never mention it in any of their archival records.

This literature is the only literature that mentions the ark. But note that there is not a single part of this literature that was authored with the intention that it be a part of a "bible", which means that the books of the bible can all be viewed as independent of one another. Not only that, but they are themselves a pastiche of multiple sources, which means that there are dozens of different texts right here that all testify to the existence of this thing (or to traditions concerning its one-time existence).

References to the ark in works like those of Josephus don't count, since he's getting all of his information from the biblical literature. In fact, references to the ark in any post-biblical literature don't count for that very reason, while references in extra-biblical literature contemporaneous with the Bible's composition don't exist.

Later religious traditions have come up with explanations as to what happened to it: that it was hidden away beneath the floor of the second temple, that it was spirited off to a far away land (read: Ethiopia), or that it was secreted somewhere in the foothills of Judea. These traditions are all bogus. There is no ark. And since it was made of gold, we can assume that if there ever had actually been an ark, it has long since been melted down and turned into something of more practical use.


All proof is non-religious, more or less by definition. Faith does not require proof.

As for the empirical evidence of the Ark's existence, no, nothing's been found to satisfy a sufficient number of historians, archeologists, theologists, etc. to be declared official.


What happened to the Ark of the Covenant after Solomon's time?

I do not see the Ark of the Covenant mentioned in the Bible, after the
time of Solomon? What happened to it? Where might it be? Is recovering it
of any importance?

You are correct, as far as I know, about the last time the Ark
of the Covenant is known for sure to have existed. Of course, there has
been a great amount of speculation about the location of the Ark. Some
have claimed that the Ark is located today in a monastery in Axum in
Ethiopia. In order to keep speculation alive, those who are in charge of
the monastery do not allow any outsiders into the monastery. In my
opinion, it is an extremely dubious claim. As mentioned below, it is very
unlikely that the Ark survived the wars in Judah. Besides, if the ark
really were in Axum, those who have possession would stand to gain hugely
from showing proof of its existence.

What happened to the Ark of the Covenant? It is my belief
that it did not survive the various times that Jerusalem was conquered
throughout its history. Pharoah Neco defeated Judah and took tribute (2
Kings 23), which may have included the Ark or other items in the temple.
More likely, the Ark was taken when Jerusalem was conquered by
Nebuchadnezzar in 605 BC or when it was destroyed by his army in 586 BC.
It seems very likely that the ark was destroyed–its gold melted down at
this time, as even the existence of the Ark would have encouraged hope for
revival of Jewish worship. The fact that there has been no legitimate
evidence for the existence of the Ark for well over 2500 years seems to
support the idea that it was destroyed at this time.

Would it be significant if the Ark were found? For
archaeologists, it would be very significant. It would represent a coup
about as significant as the discovery of King Tut’s tomb, assuming the
identity of the Ark could be confirmed. For believers in the Bible, it
would be a great encouragement, of course. What would be really
interesting (although extremely unlikely) would be if the remains of the
manna in the Ark were found. However, given the great deal of
archaeological evidence in support of the Bible, it is not obvious that it
would represent a great increase in reasons for belief in the historical
veracity of the Bible. We have more than enough physical evidence to
prove that the Bible, on the whole, is an accurate historical.


Archaeology evidence linked to Abraham proves Bible 'stands up to scrutiny' claims expert

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Abraham's Gate: Dr. Johnny King discusses historic restoration

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The Biblical patriarch Abraham anchors the Christian, Jewish and Islamic faith around a single prehistoric figurehead. According to the Hebrew Bible, Abraham was a Bronze Age nomad who secured a covenant with God that resulted in the birth of Israel and is celebrated today as a patriarch of the Jewish nation. Abraham's sons meanwhile, Isaac and Ishmael, are said to be the roots from which Judaism's and Islam's followers stem, respectively.

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And though many historians and scholars argue Abraham was not a historical figure, but rather a literary one, a scripture expert has put forward archaeological discoveries that he believes can prove the Bible right.

Tom Meyer, a professor of Bible studies at Shasta Bible College and Graduate School in California, US, told Express.co.uk there is historical proof validating Abraham's family tree, as described in the Bible.

By extension, Professor Meyer believes the evidence validates the Biblical narrative as a source of historical knowledge.

The Bible expert has previously shared his insight into the possible final resting place of Israel's founding father, Jacob.

He now said: "Archaeological objects have been discovered that demonstrate the historical reliability of the Bible, more specifically the historicity of Abraham&rsquos family tree.

Archaeology news: What evidence is there to reveal Abraham was a historical figure? (Image: GETTY/GARY TODD)

Archaeology news: A depiction of Abraham's sacrifice as described in the Bible (Image: GETTY)

READ MORE

"These objects bear inscriptions of places named after the obscure ancestors of Abraham mentioned in the Bible.

"The custom of naming places after historical people is both a modern and ancient one.

"For example, Victoria, London was named after Queen Victoria, and Edison, New Jersey was named after Thomas Edison."

According to the expert, the Biblical genealogy of Abraham spans a period of about 300 years.

The oldest name mentioned in Abraham's family tree is that of Shem, the son of Noah.

Archaeology news: Israel's greatest sites mapped out (Image: EXPRESS)

Archaeology news: Cuneiform tablets found in the ancient city of Mari, modern-day Syria (Image: GARY TODD)

Professor Meyer said: "According to the Bible, Abraham was called by God to leave his home at Ur in ancient Mesopotamia - located in modern-day southern Iraq - and to go to a place that God would show him the Bible later tells us that the land which God promised was Canaan.

"But the family of Abraham only made it to a place named Harran, perhaps due to the frail health of Abraham&rsquos father, Terah - and perhaps that of his grandfather, Nahor - who joined him on the journey.

"After Terah&rsquos death, the Bible tells us that the extended family of Abraham stayed behind and settled in the region of Harran and began to establish cities while Abraham would go on with his wife, Sarah, and cousin, Lot, to Canaan."

The Bible says Abraham's grandfather went on to found the city of Nahor, which was named after him.

Although the city itself has not been discovered, Professor Meyer said its name appears in two extrabiblical sources.

Archaeology news: Groundbreaking discoveries mapped out (Image: EXPRESS)

Archaeology news: An Arabic depiction of the patriarch Abraham (Image: GETTY)

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Nahor is first mentioned on the so-called Mari Tablets, a 19th to 18th century BC clay tablets discovered in the ancient city of Mari in what is modern-day Syria.

The tablets were penned in the ancient Akkadian language and contain a wealth of information about the kingdom and the people who lived there.

The second source naming Nahor are 14th-century Assyrian tablets.

Professor Meyer has also highlighted the discovery of Abraham's Gate - a 4,000-year-old structure in Israel, which many believe Abraham walked through.

Professor Meyer believes there is more evidence of Abraham's family tree buried somewhere in the Middle East, and that is the city of Terah.

Founded by Abraham's father, Terah, the city is mentioned in a ninth century BC Assyrian text some 1,300 years after the city was supposedly founded.

Related articles

The text names the suburb north of Haran as the Mound of Terah and the place where the family settled.

Professor Meyer said: "Extrabiblical discoveries mentioning cities named after Abraham&rsquos obscure ancestors once again demonstrate that the historical accuracy of the Bible stands up to the keenest scrutiny."

But even with these clues in mind, not all historians agree Abraham was a real figure.

Canadian scholar John Van Seters, for instance, argued in his book Abraham in History and Tradition that the Biblical patriarchs were drawn up based on the beliefs and customs of Iron Age people.

Author William G. Dever also wrote in 2002: "After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac or Jacob credible 'historical figures.'"


Finding the Ark of the Covenant

T he Ark of the Covenant has inspired a lot of curiosity over the years. The Ark was a holy chest that God instructed the Israelites to build. It represented the throne of God. In the past, it has been the subject of documentaries and movies like Raiders of the Lost Ark.

Few people are talking about that artifact today. Yet a fascinating verse in the Bible says that in this modern era, many people will be talking about it. The implication is that very soon, the Ark of the Covenant is going to be found!

That verse is found in Jeremiah, a book of prophecy that was written for this end time (Jeremiah 30:1-9). So this prophecy about the Ark is for us today.

If the Ark were found, it would electrify many people around the world!

People don’t know where the Ark is, but I believe that the Bible—and a certain nation’s history—tell us in which country it is located today.

An End-Time Setting

This prophecy about the Ark of the Covenant is found in Jeremiah 3:16. To understand it, we need to look at the context. The verses leading up to this scripture describe this end-time period of great rebellion, culminating in the Great Tribulation. Jeremiah 3:16-17 move forward in time:

And it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the Lord, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the Lord: neither shall it come to mind: neither shall they remember it neither shall they visit it neither shall that be done any more. At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the Lord, to Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil heart.

These verses refer to the world to come, after the Messiah has arrived and is ruling the Earth. Notice: Once that occurs, people will no longer focus on that physical Ark. This implies that they were focusing on it before that time.

In ancient Israel, the Ark symbolized God’s presence. Located in the holy of holies inside the tabernacle, it was a symbol of God’s throne and rule. He even spoke from that Ark (e.g. Exodus 25:22). So it makes sense that once God’s reign is actually established on Earth, that physical Ark will no longer “come to mind.” The world will no longer need a symbol for God because He Himself will be here.

But right now, almost no one is talking about the Ark of the Covenant anyway.

Visiting the Ark?

Examine Jeremiah 3:16 carefully. It says that once the Messiah comes, “they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the Lord.” They won’t say it anymore—which means they were saying it at some point. People are not saying it now, but according to this prophecy, there is coming a time when they will be saying it! “[N]either shall it come to mind: neither shall they remember it neither shall they visit it neither shall that be done any more.”

Notice that shocking statement: God says people won’t visit the Ark anymore! Do you know any place today where people visit the Ark? There isn’t any such place, but God here describes a time when people will visit the Ark of the Covenant.

Remember, the time frame is leading up to the Tribulation and the coming of the Messiah. These scriptures refer to the time we are living in now. Just before the Tribulation, many people will be visiting the ark like a tourist attraction, according to this prophecy. It sounds like it has created a world sensation! I don’t see how you can understand this prophecy any other way.

Strong’s Concordance defines visit: “to visit, to inspect, to review.” A secondary definition is “an overseer, to be set over.” That certainly indicates to me that the Ark is going to be found.

The Ark is rarely discussed today. You may see an occasional documentary about people looking for it, but they have never found it. That is because it has not been time for the Ark to be found! But this prophecy indicates that it will be found in this end time just before the Great Tribulation. That is very soon.

Deuteronomy 8:3 says that we must live by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God. That includes the book of Jeremiah. Do you have the faith to believe every word of God?

The Ark Was Everything

The biblical book of Chronicles contains a lot of prophecy for this end time. My booklet The Book of Chronicles explains why (request your free copy). Chapters 13-17 of 1 Chronicles are five key prophetic chapters, and they discuss the Ark of the covenant extensively.

Why should the Bible speak so much about the Ark of God? Because of what it symbolized. In the Old Testament, the Ark was everything. It is called in various places “the ark of God,” “the ark of the Eternal,” “the ark of the God of Israel,” “the ark of the Lord of all the Earth.” Everyone in Israel looked to it. It was a type of the throne of God—very much like a blueprint of God’s throne room in heaven. It was the symbol of God!

1 Chronicles 13:6 talks about God dwelling “between the cherubim.” Most Bible dictionaries have a picture of the Ark of the Covenant, showing those cherubim with their outspread wings covering the throne of God. That depicts how God’s actual throne looks in heaven.

1 Chronicles 15 describes the Ark’s return to Jerusalem after the Philistines had taken it captive so many years before. The Israelites really lamented when they lost it because the glory of God had departed from them. But as they brought it into the city, they celebrated with trumpets and cornets, cymbals and dancing. David wore a robe of linen, and all the singers wore linen, a symbol of righteousness.

1 Chronicles 16:37 describes Asaph and his brothers ministering “before the ark continually, as every day’s work required.” God’s people today are likewise expected to labor before God daily. Psalm 55:17 and Daniel 6:10 show a good example of constant daily contact with God. Every day we must renew the “inner man”—drawing close to God on our knees in prayer, and by studying our Bibles.

1 Chronicles 17:4 contains a very interesting statement. God sends a message to David saying, “Thou shalt not build me an house to dwell in.” He is talking about the temple, which would house the Ark. God determined that Solomon would build that temple, not David. But here He refers to the Ark as “me”! In verse 5, He says, “For I have not dwelt in an house since the day that I brought up Israel unto this day but have gone from tent to tent ….” Again, God is talking about the ark and saying, I dwell there, because the ark is there .

Imagine what a spectacular event it would be for the Ark that symbolizes God Himself to be discovered today!

But where is it? Nobody today really knows. However, I want to show you how the Bible and Irish history reveal what nation it is in. To understand this, we first need to look at some important history.

A Royal Lineage

The ancient nation of Judah fell to the Babylonians in 585 b.c.e. In the siege, the king of Babylon killed all the sons of Judah’s King Zedekiah. Most people believe that the royal line of King David ended at that point. But if you study 2 Samuel 7:12-16, you see that God had promised to establish David’s lineage on that throne forever! If David never had another royal descendant—if the throne of David ceased with Zedekiah—then God’s promise would have been broken.

However, as Herbert W. Armstrong proved in his book The United States and Britain in Prophecy, that throne did not cease. God kept His promise by keeping a royal descendant of David—not a son of Zedekiah but a daughter—alive. He preserved her with the help of the Prophet Jeremiah, whom God allowed to escape Babylonian captivity.

“The real ancient history of Ireland is very extensive, though colored with some legend. But with the facts of biblical history and prophecy in mind, one can easily sift out the legend from the true history in studying ancient Irish annals,” Mr. Armstrong wrote.

[I]n 569 b.c . (date of Jeremiah’s transplanting), an elderly, white-haired patriarch, sometimes referred to as a ‘saint,’ came to Ireland. With him was the princess daughter of an eastern king and a companion called ‘Simon Brach,’ spelled in different histories as Breck, Berech, Brach or Berach.” This is Jeremiah’s scribe, Baruch. “The princess had a Hebrew name Tephi—a pet name—her full name being Tea-Tephi. … This royal party included the son of the king of Ireland who had been in Jerusalem at the time of the siege. There he had become acquainted with Tea-Tephi. He married her shortly after 585—when the city fell. Their young son, now about 12 years of age, accompanied them to Ireland.

As Mr. Armstrong proved in his book, this royal line was thus preserved in the British Isles. It can be traced directly to the British throne!

This was once common knowledge. The Otago Witness, a prominent newspaper in New Zealand for about 80 years up until 1932, ran an article on Sept. 24, 1902, titled “The King’s Pedigree.” It mentioned how Frederick Robert Augustus Glover, one of the best Irish historians with knowledge about Jeremiah, researched the history of the British monarchy and contacted Queen Victoria. “He sent Her Majesty a letter intimating the nature and result of his labors,” the paper reported.

In reply, he got what both surprised and delighted him. The Queen’s answer was a most gracious letter in which she acknowledged Mr. Glover’s [work] and informed him that she was already in possession of the facts of which he had spoken concerning her ancestral line … and led him to believe that the facts were actually accepted as genuine by the royal family as true and authentic.

Queen Victoria died in 1901, so this is fairly recent history. She recognized that she was a descendant of King David of ancient Israel—that her sitting on the throne of England was actually a fulfillment of God’s promise to King David !

Queen Victoria ruled more than 60 years on that throne of David. She knew about all the history of her throne. These days, we don’t hear much about that history from Britain’s throne, but we should. It brings the Bible to life in a deeply inspiring way.

Where Is the Ark?

Irish annals show that when Jeremiah migrated to Ireland, he brought with him more than just the princess of Judah who carried on David’s throne. “Besides the royal family, Jeremiah brought with them some remarkable things,” Mr. Armstrong continued, “including a harp, an ark , and a wonderful stone called ‘lia-fail,’ or ‘stone of destiny’” (op. cit., emphasis mine).

The “stone of destiny” is also called “Jacob’s pillar stone.” It is the stone the patriarch Jacob set up to memorialize the promise God made to him in Genesis 28—that his descendants would become as numerous as “the dust of the earth.” This stone remained with the nation of Israel throughout its history. And when Jeremiah fled Jerusalem, he took this stone with him.

We know where this stone is today: It is in Scotland, in Edinburgh Castle. In recent years, faithless critics have tried to discredit the origins of this stone—but for hundreds of years its true origins were widely accepted and understood. Queen Elizabeth was crowned over it, as was Tea-Tephi’s royal son anciently.

Notice that along with that stone, Jeremiah brought the Ark of the Covenant on his journey to Ireland!

This knowledge, too, was not uncommon until relatively recently. F. R. A. Glover, who ascertained that the British monarchy was aware of its linkage to King David, wrote extensively about these objects having made their way to Ireland with Jeremiah. His book England, the Remnant of Judah and the Israel of Ephraim records this history.

Glover stated that the grave of Queen Tea-Tephi lies in the Hill of Tara, the origin of Irish history. In his research, he found that she had been buried with the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments, along with the Ark of the Covenant.

In Volume i of The Journal of the British Archeological Association, published in 1895, an essay called “The Hill of Tara” by R. H. McDonald referred to the work of the Irish archaeologist Dr. Denis Hanan: “‘Tara,’ says Dr. Hanan, is almost pure Hebrew for Torah, which means ‘law,’ and the original tables of the law were in the Ark which, curiously enough, Irish history says is buried with Tea.”

Note that! Tara comes from torah—God’s law! There is a well-known connection between the famous Tara Hill and the law of God!

This is amazing history. The tablets of the Ten Commandments were written by the very finger of God! (Exodus 31:18 34:1, 28). God personally gave them to Moses, and they were placed within the Ark of the Covenant (Deuteronomy 10:5 1 Kings 8:9).

According to these archaeologists and historians, these tablets were buried with Tea-Tephi in Tara Hill! Why don’t we hear more about this history? It is clearly recorded in Ireland’s history books. This simply cannot be chalked up as a “legend” or “myth” of Irish history!

Don’t you think it might galvanize a lot of people if the Ark were found, and the Ten Commandments on those two tables of stone were inside?

A Warning From God

Why would God cause the Ark to be found in this end time—and never before? Why would He want people to visit the Ark now—and not before or long after? He could be using this symbol as a warning sign that we have strayed far from the true God—and are about to experience dire consequences.

Prophecy shows that God is going to do some dramatic things to warn this world of the Great Tribulation and Day of the Lord. The period leading up to the Messiah’s coming is going to be the worst time of suffering in human history. That is the horrifying end result of mankind’s vile sins! God wants to warn people in advance to help as many as possible to repent before that time comes so they don’t have to experience it.

If the Ark were discovered, wouldn’t that be a powerful witness to the world? I believe it would be. Proof that the biblical chronicle is accurate could help lead some to repentance. The Ark’s discovery would even point people to where God’s message was being proclaimed, and help them to realize that even though they heard it and didn’t act on it, that message was right and was from God (Ezekiel 33:30-33).

Prophecy shows that many people—an innumerable multitude—are going to repent during the Great Tribulation and will receive God’s protection at that time. Perhaps the discovery of the Ark of the Covenant will contribute to the size of that number.

Remember the prophecy in Jeremiah 3:16, because God tells us that the Ark is going to be found! And Scripture and Irish history even tell us, in general, where it will emerge!


Why Didn’t Israel Use the Ark in the Second Temple?

As it turned out, the Babylonians did invade Jerusalem. They destroyed the Temple and carried away many of the vessels and implements to their capital city a thousand miles away. No mention is made in the Scriptures of the Babylonians taking the Ark, the Menorah, or other key Temple items. If the Ark and the other implements were hidden under the Temple, why weren’t they recovered and used after the Captivity? It’s hard to imagine that the priests would have knowingly left the Ark out of the Holy of Holies if they could have utilized it during the 500 years of the Second Temple.

The explanation offered is that they felt that as long as Jerusalem was subject to domination by the succeeding powers of Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, the Ark and other treasures could be desecrated and captured by the Gentile armies. Thus, the sacred items would remain in seclusion until it was considered safe to bring them out to be placed in the Temple.


Probing Question: Is the Ark of the Covenant real?

Replica of the Ark of the Covenant in the Royal Arch Room of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial. Credit Ben Schumin

When you hear the words "Ark of the Covenant" what comes to mind? For some, Steven Spielberg’s film "Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark" provides the most vivid pop-culture reference to this mysterious sacred object.

The quest to find the real Ark has inspired generations of adventurers and Hollywood directors, but the trail has always gone cold.
Is the Ark of the Covenant real?

"Different people will give you different answers to that question," said Baruch Halpern, Penn State professor of ancient history, classics and ancient Mediterranean studies, and religious studies. "The Ark is a regular feature in the Old Testament, making several appearances in the first five books of the Bible. There are many consistent references to the Ark, and when you add it all up, it seems like the Ark was a real article."

According to scriptural accounts, Halpern said, the Ark is a box made from acacia wood, covered in gold and used as a container for the stone blocks bearing the Ten Commandments. Said to have been built at God’s command, the Ark is believed to measure about 4 feet by 2 feet by 2.5 feet and features gold rings on the two long sides that hold the wooden poles used to carry it.

The top surface of the Ark is decorated with two cherubim, or angels, who crouch facing each other with wings outstretched, forming a seat. Believers say God himself occupies that seat, while the Ark served as a footstool, Halpern said.

There are references in other ancient texts of similar "containers" used to transport sacred relics, and the image of God sitting on the wings of cherubim with his feet resting on the Ark below fits with depictions of ancient kings, he said.

"It’s also important to note that it wasn’t just the Ark being carried into battle. YHWH, the name accorded the god of Israel in much of the Bible and later literature, accompanies the Ark into battle, giving it miraculous power," Halpern said.

There are many references to the awesome power of the Ark, he said. Various Bible stories describe how, during the exodus of the Israelites, the power of the Ark parted the river Jordan to allowing the people to pass. During the siege of Jericho, the Ark was toted around the city walls in a seven day procession accompanied by seven priests sounding seven trumpets - and made the city walls come tumbling down. The ferocity of the Ark was so great that it had to be covered by a veil while being carried around, and could bring misfortune and tragedy on those who disrespected it.

Despite the powers it was said to possess, the Ark was eventually lost to the sands of time. The last Biblical mention of the Ark comes when the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the temple where the Ark was stored, Halpern said. After this point, the fate of the Ark is the subject of much speculation.
One theory is that the Ark was captured by an Egyptian pharaoh, a tale that gave rise to the Raiders of the Lost Ark movie plot. Another possibility is that the Ark was hidden by priests under the Temple Mount for safekeeping, or spirited away to an unknown site before the Babylonians even arrived in Jerusalem. Other suggestions are that the Ark was removed by divine intervention, taken by an Ethiopian prince, or destroyed in battle.

"They’re all fantasy, and we’ll never really know which one is true," Halpern said. "Some theories seem more plausible than others. Was the Ark hidden from the Babylonians? Unlikely. Did the Babylonians take it? That theory is more probable."

Like Indiana Jones, some real-life scholar-adventurers are on the trail of the Ark, with one researcher claiming to have found the remnants of the Ark stored in a library in Zimbabwe. Could this be true?

In some ways, the story of the Ark is similar to other Judeo-Christian religious relics such as the Shroud of Turin and Noah’s Ark, Halpern said. "You have to remember why this scripture was written in the first place, and see the Ark’s symbolic power to people as a sacred object. If you try to over-explain it, you lose the power of the story."


4 Answers 4

In the first two centuries CE:

Adoptionism, reflected in canonical epistles, the earliest of which pre-date the writing of the gospels. The letters of Paul the Apostle, for example, do not mention a virgin birth of Christ. Paul describes Jesus as "born of a woman, born under the law" and "as to his human nature was a descendant of David" in the Epistle to the Galatians and the Epistle to the Romans.

Ebionism during the first 2 centuries CE - A majority of the Ebionites rejected as heresies the proto-orthodox Christian beliefs in Jesus's divinity and virgin birth.

Cerinthus in the late first and early second century. He lived in Asia Minor and was deemed heretical by early church fathers (e.g., Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 1.26.1 Hippolytus of Rome, Refutation 7.21 Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.28–35, 7.25.3). According to these sources, Cerinthus denied the virgin birth, taught that Jesus was a normal human who was exceedingly wise, and that he was empowered by the Christ-spirit upon his baptism.

Gnosticism - the oldest Christian critiques of gnosticism dat from the early 2nd century CE, so it must have been in existence before that, though we have few documents. Most scholars place the origin of Gnosticism around the first century CE. In particular, Marcion preached that the benevolent God of the Gospel who sent Jesus Christ into the world as the savior was the true Supreme Being, different and opposed to the malevolent demiurge or creator god, identified with the Hebrew God of the Old Testament.

Theodotus claimed that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Spirit as a non-divine man, and though later "adopted" by God upon baptism (that is to say, he became the Christ), was not himself God until after his resurrection

During the time of the early Christians, was there yet a doctrine of the deity of Christ to be denied? Let's read:

The Young Church, p. 48
"We read the Gospels and the book of Acts in the light of our understanding of the pre-existence and the incarnation of God the Son. However, the early Christians had no such concepts in their minds. They had no doctrine of the deity of Christ by which they might interpret Jesus."
(The Young Church: Acts of the Apostles, by George Eldon Ladd, edited by William Barclay and F. F. Bruce, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1964.)

During the time of the early Christians, was there yet a doctrine of the deity of Christ to be denied? According to Ladd, "They had no doctrine of the deity of Christ".

As is common knowledge, how do many interpret the Scriptures today? According to Ladd, "in the light of our understanding of the pre-existence and the incarnation of God the Son". However, did the early Christians interpret the Scriptures in the same way? According to Ladd, "the early Christians had no such concepts in their minds". Hence, the concepts of pre-existence and the incarnation were unknown to the early Christians.

What is the proof? Where is any mention of the divinity of Christ noticeably absent? Let's read:

The Div. Trinity, p. 150
"… even the Didache, or “Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,” the oldest literary monument of Christian antiquity outside of the New Testament canon … contains no formal profession of faith in the Divinity of Jesus Christ and the Atonement."
(The Divine Trinity. A Dogmatic Treatise by Pohle, Joseph, Rt. Rev. Msgr., PH.D., D.D., edited by Arthur Preuss, B. Herder Book Co., © 1911.)

Where is any mention of the divinity of Christ noticeably absent? According to Pohle, "the Didache". What is the Didache? According to Pohle, "the oldest literary monument of Christian antiquity outside of the New Testament canon". Many scholars hold that it was written sometime during the First Century.

Hence, even passages like, "I am My Father are one," (John 10:30) would not have been interpreted at the time as referring to "the Divinity of Jesus Christ".

What is the proof that the concept of preëxistence was also unknown to the early Christians? Where is any mention of the preëxistent Christ noticeably absent? Let's read:

The Philo. of the Ch. Fathers, p. 190
"In contradistinction to these two types of works, in which there is either a specific mention of a preëxistent Christ or an allusion to it, there is the Old Roman or the so-called Apostles’ Creed (ca. 100), which follows the language of Matthew and Luke and makes no mention of the preëxistent Christ."
(The Philosophy of the Church Fathers, Wolfson, Harry Austryn. Volume 1: Faith, Trinity, Incarnation. 2nd rev. ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964.)

Where is any mention of the preëxistent Christ noticeably absent? According to Wolfson, "the Old Roman or the so-called Apostles' Creed". When was this written? According to Wolfson, "ca. 100". This was also around the time when the last of the Apostles passed away.

Hence, even passages like, "In the beginning was the Word," (John 1:1) would not have been interpreted at the time as referring to "the preëxistent Christ".

Thus, during the First Century, there was not yet a doctrine of the deity of Christ to be denied, and so we will find no statements during that time outright refuting it in unambiguous terms.

What about in the Second Century? When was the earliest time known at which Jesus was deified? Let's read:

Sys. Theology, p. 305
"The earliest time known at which Jesus was deified was, after the New Testament writers, in the letters of Ignatius, at the beginning of the second century.”"
(Systematic Theology by Strong, Augustus Hopkins, D.D., LL. D., Philadelphia: The Judson Press, © 1907.)

When was the earliest time known at which Jesus was deified? According to Strong, "at the beginning of the second century". This was after the Apostles had already passed away.

In whose writings was Jesus first deified? According to Strong, "in the letters of Ignatius". Ignatius was one of the so-called Apostolic Fathers, who were believed, erroneously, to have been personal disciples of the Apostles.

When, however, was this doctrine only finalized? Let's read:

A Hist. of God, p. 81
"… the doctrine that Jesus had been God in human form was not finalized until the fourth century. The development of Christian belief in the Incarnation was a gradual, complex process."
(A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, by Karen Armstrong. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994.)

When, however, was this doctrine only finalized? According to Armstrong, "the fourth century". Hence, during the Second Century, very little of the doctrine existed to be refuted.

Was such a doctrine even widely known at that time? According to Tertullian, how did people in his day interpret Christ? Let's read:

Chall. of a Lib. Faith, p. 63
"Tertullian (160-230 A.D.), one of the most notable of the Church Fathers, wrote that in his day, “the common people think of Christ as a man.”"
(Challenge of a Liberal Faith, by Marshall, George N., New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing, Inc., © 1970.)

According to Tertullian, how did people in his day interpret Christ? According to Marshall, "the common people think of Christ as a man". Hence, during the Second Century, most were unaware that there even existed a doctrine of the deity of Christ to be denied, and still interpreted the Jesus of the Bible as a man.

When only would this doctrine be openly denied? Not until the Third Century, when it finally entered mainstream consciousness, after it was used as a response to a pagan philosopher who was causing the Christians to question their faith at that time. (I touch upon those events briefly here.)

Hence, during the First and Second Century, there exists no statement that outright denies the divinity of Jesus.

Does this, however, mean that the doctrine is in agreement with the teachings of the Bible? Whom does our Lord Jesus Christ introduce as God? Let's read:

John 17:1, 3 NKJV
1 Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said: "Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You,
3 And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)

Whom does our Lord Jesus Christ introduce as God? Jesus said, "Father". What does Jesus call the Father? Jesus said, "the only true God". What is the definition of the word "only"? No more or nothing more besides. Hence, besides the Father, there is no other true God.

What is Jesus' relationship to the Father? Jesus said, "Your Son". From this, we can make the following deduction:

In this way, Jesus has denied His own divinity.

This is what Jesus taught His disciples during the First Century, which would shape how the early Christians would interpret the Scripture.

How did God's people prior to the First Century also regard the Father? Let's read:

Isa. 64:8, 4 NKJV
8 But now, O LORD, You are our Father we are the clay, and You our potter and all we are the work of Your hand.
4 For since the beginning of the world men have not heard nor perceived by the ear, nor has the eye seen any God besides You, Who acts for the one who waits for Him.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)

How did God's people prior to the First Century also regard the Father? Isaiah said, "nor has the eye seen any God besides You". From this, we can make the following deduction:

Hence, the belief of the early Christians, that there was no God besides the Father, was also the belief held in the centuries before them.

The doctrine of the divinity of Christ which would be introduced later, then, contradicts this.

According to the Apostle Paul, who did he maintain is the one God? Let's read:

I Cor. 8:6(a) LEB
6a yet to us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things, and we are for him,
(Lexham English Bible. Bellingham, Washington: Logos Bible Software, 2011.)

According to the Apostle Paul, who did he maintain is the one God? Paul said, "the Father".

Likewise, according to the Prophet Malachi, who did he maintain is the one God? Let's read:

Mal. 2:10 NKJV
10 Have we not all one Father? Has not one God created us? Why do we deal treacherously with one another by profaning the covenant of the fathers?
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)

According to the Prophet Malachi, who did he maintain is the one God? Malachi said, "Father". Hence, the teaching that only the Father is God is one that endured for many centuries. Thus, in this way, the Bible denies the divinity of Christ.

What are some other deductions that deny the divinity of Christ? Let's read:

Ezek. 28:2 NKJV
2 "Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre, 'Thus says the Lord GOD: "Because your heart is lifted up, and you say, 'I am a god, I sit in the seat of gods, in the midst of the seas,' yet you are a man, and not a god, though you set your heart as the heart of a god
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
John 8:40 NKJV
40 But now you seek to kill Me, a Man who has told you the truth which I heard from God. Abraham did not do this.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
John 4:24 KJV
24 God is a spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.
(The Holy Bible: King James Version. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1962.)
Luke 24:39 NKJV
39 Behold My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself. Handle Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see I have."
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Isa. 40:28 NKJV
28 Have you not known? Have you not heard? The everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, neither faints nor is weary. His understanding is unsearchable.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
John 4:6 NKJV
6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied from His journey, sat thus by the well. It was about the sixth hour.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Ps. 121:3-4 GNB
3 He will not let you fall your protector is always awake. 4 The protector of Israel never dozes or sleeps.
(Good News Bible: Today’s English Version. New York: United Bible Societies, 1992.)
Matt. 8:24 NKJV
24 And suddenly a great tempest arose on the sea, so that the boat was covered with the waves. But He was asleep.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
I Tim. 1:17 NLT
17 All honor and glory to God forever and ever! He is the eternal King, the unseen one who never dies he alone is God. Amen.
(Holy Bible: New Living Translation: Second Edition. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2005.)
Mark 15:37 GNB
37 With a loud cry Jesus died.
(Good News Bible: Today’s English Version. New York: United Bible Societies, 1992.)
I John 3:20 NKJV
20 For if our heart condemns us, God is greater than our heart, and knows all things.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Mark 13:26, 32 NKJV
26 Then they will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and glory.
32 "But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Isa. 46:9 NKJV
9 Remember the former things of old, for I am God, and there is no other I am God, and there is none like Me,
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
John 20:17 NKJV
17 Jesus said to her, "Do not cling to Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father but go to My brethren and say to them, 'I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.'"
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Job 34:13 NASB
13 "Who gave Him authority over the earth? And who has laid on Him the whole world?
(The New American Standard Bible. New York, New York: American Bible Society, 1991.)
Matt. 28:18 NKJV
18 And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Lev. 19:2 NKJV
2 "Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them: 'You shall be holy, for I the LORD your God am holy.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
John 10:36 BBE
36 Do you say of him whom the Father made holy and sent into the world, Your words are evil because I said, I am God's Son?
(The Bible in Basic English. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006.)
Ps. 100:3 BBE
3 Be certain that the Lord is God it is he who has made us, and we are his we are his people, and the sheep to whom he gives food.
(The Bible in Basic English. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006.)
Acts 2:36 NKJV
36 "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ."
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Gen. 17:1 NLV
1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord came to him and said, “I am God All-powerful. Obey Me, and be without blame.
(The Holy Bible: New Life Version. Uhrichsville, Ohio: Barbour Publishing, Inc., 2003.)
Acts 10:38 NKJV
38 how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Gen. 18:25 NKJV
25 Far be it from You to do such a thing as this, to slay the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous should be as the wicked far be it from You! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?"
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Acts 10:42 NKJV
42 And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He who was ordained by God to be Judge of the living and the dead.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Isa. 45:21 NKJV
21 Tell and bring forth your case yes, let them take counsel together. Who has declared this from ancient time? Who has told it from that time? Have not I, the LORD? And there is no other God besides Me, a just God and a Savior there is none besides Me.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
Acts 5:31 NKJV
31 Him God has exalted to His right hand to be Prince and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.
(Holy Bible: New King James Version. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.)
I Cor. 15:27-28 GNB
27 For the scripture says, "God put all things under his feet." It is clear, of course, that the words "all things" do not include God himself, who puts all things under Christ. 28 But when all things have been placed under Christ's rule, then he himself, the Son, will place himself under God, who placed all things under him and God will rule completely over all.
(Good News Bible: Today’s English Version. New York: United Bible Societies, 1992.)

The early Christians did not openly deny the divinity of Christ, for no such doctrine yet existed in the First Century and was largely ignored during the Second Century. Rather, the Jesus they believed in was a man, and they, just as the Israelites did before them, believed in only one God, the Father.

The first thing that has to be addressed is the idea of 'unambiguous' evidence. Given standard Trinitarian paraphrase of various passages, even a passage that said "Jesus was a man, and not God" would be ambiguous. First, Trinitarians hold that Jesus is fully man and fully God. So 'Jesus was a man' -> 'Jesus had a fully human nature in the context of a dual nature'. Second, Trinitarians hold that various references to 'God' in the NT refer to either the entire trinity or to one person of the trinity - the term, they hold, is ambiguous. So the phrase 'not God' here is compatible with Trinitarianism - Jesus is not God the Father, or God the Holy Spirit. Rather, He is of the category 'God'.

Let's begin with the Old Roman Creed (generally traced to the 2nd century), an older and shorter version of the Apostles' Creed, which another answerer mentioned. It is a 'dog that didn't bark' - a formula containing the basic, important elements of a worldview, that doesn't include a seemingly really important part - that Jesus is God. Instead, it says

"I believe in God the Father almighty and in Christ Jesus His only Son, our Lord, Who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary"

A Biblical Unitarian would have no problem with this. Indeed, the creed sounds like it is stating the Father is God, but in distinction, Jesus is the Son of God (not God the Son).

This is similar to the more recent Apostles' Creed, which is to this day recited in various churches.

"I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth And in Jesus Christ his only Son, our Lord who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary"

It is perhaps humorous to some Unitarians that you have millions upon millions of Trinitarians reciting a creed that very well may be Unitarian!

We can now move on to the the Didache (generally dated late 1st century to mid-2nd century), also referenced by another answerer. The Didache is another 'dog that didn't bark' - nowhere does it reference Jesus being God. As a manual of Christian living, this point would seem relevant.

1 Clement is the only extant uncontested writing of Pope Clement I. It is generally dated to the 1st Century. It is another early Christian 'dog that didn't bark' in that there is no mention of Jesus being God.

1 Clement not only does not mention that Jesus is God, it clearly and consistently distinguishes between God and Jesus. Perhaps the strongest instance of this is 1 Clement 59:4.

"Let all the Gentiles know that Thou art the God alone, and Jesus Christ is Thy Son."

This sounds quite similar to John 17:3, which is

"Now this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom You have sent."

Unlike John 17:3, where Trinitarians focus on the epithet 'true' to mark out 'God' here as 'God the Father', as opposed to the other persons of the trinity, Clement 59:4 has no such epithet. It is not clear how a Trinitarian would paraphrase this statement - it sounds, logically, like it entails a denial of Jesus being God. If so, it goes beyond being simply a dog that doesn't bark.

Martyrdom of Polycarp (mid-2nd century) is another argument from silence. But similar to the other texts (Didache, Old Roman Creed, 1 Clement, Epistle of Polycarp), throughout the text it sounds like the author is distinguishing between God and Jesus. For example, 14:1

"O Lord God Almighty, the Father of Thy beloved and blessed Son Jesus Christ, through whom we have received the knowledge of Thee[.]"

God Almighty seems to be identified with the Father, and distinguished from Jesus, the Son. If so, again it goes beyond being merely another dog that doesn't bark, and is a positive argument for unitarian belief for (in this case) Polycarp, who is being quoted (or the author of Martyrdom of Polycarp).

That leads to the Epistle of Polycarp to the Phillipians (first half 2nd century). This is another argument from silence, unless you think a textual variant in section 12, which puts 'God' in front of 'Jesus Christ' is original. That textual variant is at odds with repeated similar phraseology in the epistle, however, and not included in about half the manuscripts. See here for an argument that the textual variant is not original.

Outside of that textual variant, Polycarp consistently distinguishes between God and Jesus. Here is an example (also from section 12).

"But may the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ Himself, who is the Son of God, and our everlasting High Priest"

It sounds like he's saying God is one thing and Jesus another. So again, if the one textual variant in section 12 which is questionable is set aside, you have another argument from silence and another seemingly positive argument.

I came across this documentary called, "The Secret Family of Jesus", by a British Academic Theologian named Dr. Robert Beckford. Among the topics discussed was Christ's divinity in the eyes of those close to him (his siblings). Though not stated explicitly or openly, the Documentary argues that because due to certain vernacular and language not being used to describe Christ as Divine (Virgin Birth, Saved by the Blood, etc) by his siblings (James and Jude) that they did not see him as being Divine in the sense of being GOD but as being more human. All of this beginning (roughly) at the 1hr 30Min, the documentary begins to focus on how Christ brothers were relegated in Christianity due to portraying Yashua/Jesus as their Master but not Divine, a human character blessed by GOD. A contributor within the Documentary, Dr. James Tabor states that the Epistle of James emphasizes the teachings of Christ but not the teachings about Christ: "Doesn't mention the cross of Christ, The Blood of Jesus, Doesn't mention forgiving of Sins through believing of our Lord and Savior who is in Heaven". In one of the texts mentioned in the documentary, The Didache, Dr. Robert Beckford alludes to it being weird how there is no mention of the Virgin Birth, no mention of the Resurrection, and no mention of Christ as GOD within the text. When asked why they speak of Jesus just as Lord and not LORD GOD, Archbishop Aristarchos (a representative of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Jerusalem) stated that in his opinion (paraphrasing) "Within the New Testament there was a balance seeing Christ as The Son of Man and The Son of GOD. The Lord in whom we believe is Divine but he is Human". The question stated, "Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians (post-New Testament) openly denying the divinity of Jesus in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?", though the documentary did not show anything explicit material or sources that specifically pointed against Christ divinity, it goes to show that viewpoints that could possibly be interpreted as going against the doctrine of Christ being Divine were glossed over, not placed in the forefront and even almost downplayed in importance. Can read the here. (Didache).


Is there any evidence besides the scriptures that the Ark of the Covenant existed? - History

Menelik I (originally named Ebna la-Hakim, “Son of the Wise”), first Jewish Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, Queen of Sheba and ruled around 950 BC, according to traditional sources. Tradition credits him with bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, following a visit to Jerusalem to meet his father upon reaching adulthood.

According to the Kebra Nagast, King Solomon had intended on sending one son of each of his nobles and one son each of each temple priest with Menelik upon his return to his mother’s kingdom. He is supposed to have had a replica made of the Ark for them to take with them, but the son of Zadok the High Priest secretly switched the replica with the real Ark, and brought it into Ethiopia where it is said to remain to this day in the ancient town of Axum.

Upon the death of Queen Makeda, Menelik assumed the throne with the new title of Emperor and King of Kings of Ethiopia. According to legend, he founded the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia that ruled Ethiopia with few interruptions for close to three thousand years and 225 generations later ended with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974

This is very simple. Queen of Sheba CANNOT BE WHITE. NO white people
(Gentiles) in biblical times occupied or lived in Africa or the Middle East…Even to this day. Here is Wisdom…Hypothetical, if she was from Arabia, this would make her a “Shemite”. Remember the story of ESAU(Edom)…Jacob twin brother? Esau is the progenitor of the EDOMITES who are ARABS, Who speak ARABIC, and live in ARABIA. Esau was born of Isaac who is a Shemite Hebrew. That makes Esau a Shemite Edomite. The bible says “They were separated” . If I hear one more IGNORANT Black person that says the “Edomites” is the white man, I will scream. My point is…Queen Sheba was Black regardless of whether she from Arabia or Africa. Let me make this clear. Queen Sheba was a “HAMITE” which makes her a African. She is a descendant of ” Cush” who are the Ethiopians.

also, the problem with modern day theologians and historians, they forget that people in biblical times were always described with either black skin or, olive skin. olive skin color is only slightly lighter than black and, even to this day, people with olive skin color are referred to as light black people. the biggest mis-interpettation of skin color is seen in the pictures of Jesus as a white man but, the bible is very clear his skin color was olive skin or, would be considered black, by today’s standards.

I also believe it is not fair to say the queen of Shebia was white. She was from AFRICA. So get the facts right.

why do “historians” try so hard to conceal African wealth and heritage? Abyssinia( Ethiopia) is not and was never a part of the Yemen territory. She took to Solomon 4.5 tons of Gold. Queen Makeda is BLACK from Eastern Africa not white as depicted in the photoraph above. Sheba is in Africa not Arabia….. Sheba is old swahili which means copper… ‘ The land of Copper’….

A pity records were always kept by these Kings and Queens by their scribes , then how is it possible that to this day no accurate truth to this stories of any earlier history.

Sheba is a kingdom in Yemen. Balqees is a queen born in Yemen. I wonder why some people tell and write lies! Grow up!

Raplh.. very interesting where did you read that.. would like to read more about this

She was Bathsheba. They don’t want to say, but King David’s historical name was Pa-Seba (another story). And the mother of Bathsheba was the Pharaoh’s daughter who married King David. Bath Sheba means Daughter of Sheba, the daughter of King David. But King David eventually took Bath Sheba as his wife, so Bath Sheba became Malkah Sheba, or the Daughter of Sheba became the Queen of Sheba (the Queen of King David). And they had a son – Solomon.

Malkah Sheba then moved to the south of Egypt. When she eventually came back to the royal court to meet her now famous son, she did so with great pomp and ceremony befitting a princess of Egypt. This was the story of the Queen of Sheba that we are familiar with, but it was actually mother meeting son. Perhaps you can see what they wanted to keep all of this quiet…

See Solomon Pharaoh of Egypt. (When is says she was the Queen of the South, it meant Queen of Upper Egypt…)

This was a great read. but I’m still scratching my head. LOL for you see, I came hear to hopefully understand why as a young child I gave my oldest sister this nickname?! in my young eyes I saw her as a mean and extremely bossy “Queen a Sheba. ” lol. kids. go figure. so now my sister is about to turn 60 years old, still as bossy as ever!! LOL I love her so much. (I am surprised to hear that about the Queen and King Solomon. I will dig deeper into that whole thing, THANK YOU. Sincerely, Darlene 9/20/18

Thank you for for rich understanding! Today i’am Reading Matt, and see where the Queen of Sheba was mentioned by Jesus! Beautiful workThank you! Mike Hendon Sparks Nevada 8/14/18

1.The Queen of Sheba is not from Ethiopia she is from Ophir (I Kings 10:1-13),Sheba was the brother of Ophir (Genesis 10:27-29). Sheba is from Islands in the Eastern border known in Hebrew word as QDM (Psalms 7210) same is true with Ophir, In Matthew 12:42 it is known as the utmost part of the world meaning Eastern borther or South East Asia. Ophir is the modern day Philippines and Sheba is the Old name of Cebu Philippines the land of Gold. Read Rizal Code La Pluma de Sangre by Dr. RV Narag.

2.The Queen of Sheba was born in 1020 BCE in Ophir, and educated in Ethiopia. Her mother was Queen Ismenie. Sheba was known to be beautiful, intelligent, understanding, resourceful, and adventurous. Vancouver Grand Masonic Day, October 16, 1999
by VW Bro. Art Scott, Victoria Columbia Lodge No. 1

3.https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=paA5AQAAMAAJ
Augustus Henry Keane – 1969 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions
Thus also ‘the gold of Sheba’ becomes ‘the gold of Ophir,’ that is, of the Sabaean emporium, the frankincense land, and importer of this gold from abroad.

Isa
This is false story of quran
If u need my advise donot believe the quran because the quran and Alah was came now may be their age is 1440 only
But queen Sheba or our Ethiopian Queen has more than 3000 years age

First, the ark of covenant is not in the Ethiopian, ready the Bible the book of revelation 11:19.

Second, I don’t believe any other book accept bible, bible is the world and the real word of God , all the things says in the bible is happening, read through new testament, so what Bible says about Queen sheba is true.

First, the ark of covenant is not in the Ethiopian, ready the Bible the book of revelation 11:19.

Second, I don’t believe any other book accept bible is the world, all the things says in bible in happening, read through new testament, so what Bible says about Queen of sheba is true.

As a muslim, I do not believe in the Yemeni story, or that the “Queen was half a goat”, as this is quite offensive and non-sense, it’s clearly an invented tale and in the Quran the name of the Queen of Sheba is not mentioned, so I do not believe it was “Bilqis”.
The Queen of Sheba is mentioned as a queen that used to worship the Sun, and that Prophet Solomon was sent to her to make her know The One God. After that, she and her people Submitted to God.
Then later on, her people went astray again by being ingrateful to God, and He caused them to be scattered to different communities.

Solomon is not a prophet, he is a Prince who later became the wisest king (correction mate)

I REALLY appreciate the information provided about Ethiopian and Qur’an-based beliefs on the topic of Sheba. It’s such a gift to be able to know of this information without learning to read other languages. Thank you so much!

My NIV speaks of “Sheba” in Luke 10 as the ‘Queen of the south,’ while also noting Jonah’s impact on Nineveh in relation to the arrival of ‘one greater that Jonah’ being Jesus, and discusses her visit with King Solomon in 1 Kings verse 10. In 1 Kings 10, the Queen visits King Solomon because she has heard of how wise he was. King Solomon had previously prayed for the gift of wisdom, which God granted him (in short) because of his humility. The Queen was completely impressed by how lavish and happy his kingdom was from the gift his God had given him. As a result, she gifted him and he gifted her aka they traded demographic goods.

An important component of Yemen’s claim on the Queen of Sheba is the name. We know that a great kingdom called Saba existed in Yemen during this period, and historians suggest that Saba is Sheba. Islamic folklore holds that the Sabean queen’s name was Bilqis.
According to Sura 27 of the Qu’ran, Bilqis and the people of Saba worshipped the sun as a god rather than adhering to Abrahamic monotheist beliefs. In this account, King Solomon sent her a letter inviting her to worship his God.
Bilqis perceived this as a threat and, fearing that the Jewish king would invade her country, was unsure how to respond. She decided to visit Solomon in person to find out more about him and his faith.
In the Qu’ran’s version of the story, Solomon enlisted the help of a djinn or genie that transported Bilqis’s throne from her castle to Solomon’s in the blink of an eye. The Queen of Sheba was so impressed with this feat, as well as Solomon’s wisdom, that she decided to convert to his religion.
Unlike the Ethiopian tale, in the Islamic version, there is no suggestion that Solomon and Sheba had an intimate relationship. One interesting facet of the Yemeni story is that Bilqis supposedly had goat hooves rather than human feet, either because her mother had eaten a goat while pregnant with her, or because she was herself a djinn.

People don’t get confused, queen of Sheba is simply Ethiopian. Go and see, u gonna believe it.

the truth will set you free Question: “What does it mean that ‘the truth will set you free’ (John 8:32)?”

Answer: “The truth will set you free” is a common saying in academic circles that want to promote academic freedom and the power of learning. Many universities have this statement emblazoned on a sign near the entrance of a building. But “the truth will set you free” did not originate in academia Jesus said it in John 8:32. In context, Jesus’ statement has nothing to do with classroom learning. In fact, John 8:32 speaks of a higher form of knowledge than is capable of being learned in a classroom.

Jesus had just finished a speech at the temple where He delineated differences between Himself and His listeners. “You are from below I am from above. You are of this world I am not of this world. I told you that you would die in your sins if you do not believe that I am he, you will indeed die in your sins” (John 8:23–24). The result of Jesus’ message was that “even as he spoke, many believed in him” (verse 30). Then, in verse 31, Jesus begins to speak just to those who had believed.

“Jesus said, ‘If you hold to my teaching, you are really my disciples’” (John 8:31). True discipleship is more than intellectual assent those who are “really” followers of Christ will “hold to” His Word. That means they will not only accept His teachings as truth, but they will also obey His teachings. Action is proof of faith (cf. James 2:17).

True disciples of Jesus believe that He speaks the truth about God and the Scriptures. They also know that He is who He claims to be. Back in verse 25, the people asked Jesus who He was, and He responded, “Just what I have been telling you from the beginning.” There may be a tinge of exasperation in His response He had repeatedly made known that He was the Messiah, the one they had anticipated for many years.

Verse 32 begins with, “Then you will know the truth.” “You” refers to those who are true disciples of Jesus. True disciples will know the truth. More than that, their eyes are opened to a greater understanding of the truth (cf. 1 John 5:20).

The truth Jesus’ disciples receive brings with it freedom. Jesus continues, “And the truth will set you free” (verse 32). At that point in history, the Jews were under the rule of the Roman government. Even though Rome gave them an exceptional amount of autonomy, they were keenly aware of the Roman presence around them in the form of soldiers, governors, and empirically appointed kings. When Jesus said the truth would set them free, however, He was not talking about political freedom (though the following verses indicate that’s how the Jews took it). Jesus provides the best commentary for His own statement in verse 34. Jesus explains, “Very truly I tell you, everyone who sins is a slave to sin.” Being a slave to sin is the ultimate bondage.

The freedom Jesus offers is a spiritual freedom from the bondage of sin—that is, release from the lifestyle of habitual lawlessness. He continues with an analogy: “Now a slave has no permanent place in the family, but a son belongs to it forever” (verse 35). The people would have understood Jesus to mean that they were not members of God’s family, despite their biological relationship to Abraham (verse 37), because they were slaves to sin. If they were to become disciples of Jesus, they would know the truth of their condition and the truth about Christ, and Jesus would set them free. Believers would be freed from their bondage and brought into the family of God.

Jesus is the Truth (John 14:6). Knowing the Truth will set one at liberty—free from sin, free from condemnation, and free from death (Romans 6:22 8:1–2). Jesus came to proclaim liberty to the captives (Luke 4:18). “Live as people who are free, not using your freedom as a cover-up for evil, but living as servants of God” (1 Peter 2:16, ESV).

Recommended Resource: True Truth: Defending Absolute Truth in a Relativistic World by Art Lindsley

1 John 5New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Overcoming the World
5 Whoever believes that Jesus is the [a]Christ is [b]born of God, and whoever loves the [c]Father loves the child [d]born of Him. 2 By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God and [e]observe His commandments. 3 For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments and His commandments are not burdensome. 4 For whatever is [f]born of God overcomes the world and this is the victory that has overcome the world—our faith.

5 Who is the one who overcomes the world, but he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God? 6 This is the One who came by water and blood, Jesus Christ not [g]with the water only, but [h]with the water and [i]with the blood. It is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. 7 For there are three that testify: 8 [j]the Spirit and the water and the blood and the three are [k]in agreement. 9 If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater for the testimony of God is this, that He has testified concerning His Son. 10 The one who believes in the Son of God has the testimony in himself the one who does not believe God has made Him a liar, because he has not believed in the testimony that God has given concerning His Son. 11 And the testimony is this, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. 12 He who has the Son has the life he who does not have the Son of God does not have the life.

This Is Written That You May Know
13 These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, so that you may know that you have eternal life. 14 This is the confidence which we have [l]before Him, that, if we ask anything according to His will, He hears us. 15 And if we know that He hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests which we have asked from Him.

16 If anyone sees his brother [m]committing a sin not leading to death, he shall ask and [n]God will for him give life to those who commit sin not leading to death. There is a sin leading to death I do not say that he should make request for this. 17 All unrighteousness is sin, and there is a sin not leading to death.

18 We know that no one who is [o]born of God sins but He who was [p]born of God keeps him, and the evil one does not touch him. 19 We know that we are of God, and that the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. 20 And we know that the Son of God has come, and has given us understanding so that we may know Him who is true and we are in Him who is true, in His Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life.

21 Little children, guard yourselves from idols.

1 John 5:1 I.e. Messiah
1 John 5:1 Or begotten
1 John 5:1 Lit one who begets
1 John 5:1 Or begotten
1 John 5:2 Lit do
1 John 5:4 Or begotten
1 John 5:6 Lit in
1 John 5:6 Lit in
1 John 5:6 Lit in
1 John 5:8 A few late mss add …in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one. And there are three that testify on earth, the Spirit
1 John 5:8 Lit for the one thing
1 John 5:14 Lit toward
1 John 5:16 Lit sinning
1 John 5:16 Or God will give him life, that is, to those who…
1 John 5:18 Or begotten
1 John 5:18 Or begotten

Genesis 1New King James Version (NKJV)

The History of Creation
1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was without form, and void and darkness was[a] on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.
this is God said in the old testament. all happened in old testament revealed in new testament
The Eternal Word
1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend[a] it.

New International Version
The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven. Hebrew 1:3

John 14:6 New International Version (NIV)
6 Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.

If you say there is no God then who created you?who created the earth on which you are walking on?Who created the sky that covers us.Who created the sun and the moon?Tell me was it by magic that those things came into existence.Since cars were created by human beings so as human beings were created by THE SUPREME CREATOR

there are so many religions, which one is right – probably none of them. Wake up people. God could have written the message in the stars if they were all powerful. There wouldn’t be diseases, natural disasters, poisonous chemicals, mental illness etc. if they were all loving. There wouldn’t be contradictions in the bible and other religious text, infact there would ATLEAST only be one religious text and no confusion about which god to follow, because if there was a god they would make sure that everyone knows there is ONE god. and they wouldn’t put it in some stupid book, and likeI said, they could write it in the stars with their god powers, I’m sure they would have some imagination being god and all. Logically this boils down to two conclusions – God doesn’t give a shit about us or what we think of him/her/it? OR more likely, there is no god. Don’t worry, its probably best this way, we don’t need a god we just need each other, we need to look out for our fellow man and woman and support each other, we don’t need no magical being because we are strong and we have each other. The end.

This informational website gives a well elaborated & detailed episodes of King Solomon n Queen of Shebas meeting n their life ,which remains little in complete in Bible,well researched,it even gives the most likely location of the ark of the covenant, loved this site,keep it up

Imanuel Velikofsky in his book
“Ages in chaos” shows historically
that the “Queen of Sheba” was none other than the queen pharaoh “Hatshuput”
He substantiates this with many
historical evidences. When she returned to Egypt from her visit with King Solomon
she had erected a temple as never before seen . The architecture was like none other in Egypt before or after. The design
was a facsimile of King Solomons temple
in Jerusalem..stepped design.. terraced
gardens surrounding etc..His discussion
of this topic includes an examination of
a carved stone bas relief cataloging the
booty looted from the temple by one of her successors ..I believe Tutmose III if
my memory serves correctly. If you take
a look at what Velikofsky found…In his book “Ages In Chaos” I hope you will find it interesting as I have. .I am a craftsman
a shipwright in Ballard. Some how I find
ancient history fascinating. .enjoy…M

Well Mel! here is the truth…The English word for “God” has become a source of confusion for Christians since at least the Anglo-Saxon era. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary says that the origin of the word ‘god’ comes from a Germanic word ‘gad,’ pronounced as “gohdt.”

The following information on the origin of the word ‘god’ will help to understand why we use it in our vernacular.

GOD – The English word God is identical with the Anglo-Saxon word for “good,” and therefore it is believed that the name God refers to the divine goodness. (See Oehler’s Theol. of Old Test. Strong’s and Young’s concordances.) (From New Unger’s Bible Dictionary)
Further information on the source of our word for ‘God’ is listed below:

Word origin: God – Our word god goes back via Germanic to Indo-European, in which a corresponding ancestor form meant “invoked one.” The word’s only surviving non-Germanic relative is Sanskrit hu, invoke the gods, a form which appears in the Rig Veda, most ancient of Hindu scriptures: puru-hutas, “much invoked,” epithet of the rain-and-thunder god Indra.

Now if the sources noted above are accurate, then the word that we use for the Supreme Being, God, comes from a very pagan origin. Thus the word god is used generically by many different religions to refer to their deity or “invoked one.”

well here’s a shock for you Mel ,which god are you talking about as you quite rightly say the Qua-ran is of the devil, well so is the word of god you are talking about, as Yahuwah (Yahweh) is not god and his word is only the 5 books of Moses and the book of revelation. those are the only word that came from Yahuwah our father in heaven. it was man that created the the word of god for our father said my name is above all names. not I am the god above all gods. god, lord, are but titles and any thing else we want to call him is a title .FOR HIS NAME IS YAHUWAH. AND THE SONS NAME IS YAHUSHUA. NOT JESUS AS JESUS ONLY CAME INTO THE BIBLE AROUND 1611 HE WAS AN ARAMAIC HEBREW NOT ENGLISH OR ANY OTHER NAME IN ANY OTHER LANGUAGE. So now we do have a problem and that is his word. his word has changed first by the Hebrew nation to Elohim , then by the Catholics which actually created the bible (72 books) in 395 ad and then by Martin Luther in 1611 66 books which all the bibles follow today in his format. SO NOW WHICH WORD ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT.

Anything written in the qaran cannot be trusted as it is satanic in nature..only that written in the Holy Bible as word of God can be trusted..there is NO allah, another name for satan,the liar

The story of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba as told in the Koran
Prophet-King David’s son, Solomon, was destined for great things than his father. He succeeded his father as a king and a prophet, and was given, like his father, sound judgment and lore. Solomon was taught the languages of animals, and Allah subjected for Solomon the wind, blowing by his order towards the land upon which Allah have blessed –– Jerusalem.
From among all humankind, King Solomon was the only king who ruled both human beings and jinn with a strong sway, and his kingdom’s army comprised soldiers of the human, the jinn, and the birds. Under the control of King Solomon worked every builder and diver of the Satan, who constructed to him whatever he wished of chapels, statues, and cooking pots, removable ones and immobile huge others.
While he was one day marching in the vanguard of his amazing army, they approached a valley filled with ants. “O ants,” said an ant to its fellow ants, “enter your houses, lest Solomon and his soldiers crush you unconsciously!” The magnificent king smiled at her saying, and said in prayer, “My Lord! Inspire me to give thanks for the boon You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents and inspire me to do a good deed that make You content of me and regard me, by Your Bless, as one of Your benevolent slaves.”
Once, on inspecting the condition of his army, King Solomon noticed that the hoopoe was absent, and the matter stirred his anger. “What about the hoopoe? Why I do not see it? Is it absent? I will put it to torture, or will slaughter it, except it could introduce an accepted reason of his absence.”
Before long, the hoopoe came and reasoned its absence. “I have come acquainted with what you knew not and brought forth to you from Sheba true news. I have found that their kingdom is ruled by a woman, who has been given of every kind of regalia and found them worshiping the sun instead of Allah.”
“We will find out whether you are truthful or being of the liars,” retorted the just monarch, who ordered that a message should be written to that queen, calling her to submit peacefully to him. “Go with this writing of mine and cast it to them” dictated the king to his messenger, the hoopoe, “then turn away and watch what they will decide!”
The hoopoe duly acted on the orders. It travelled back to Sheba, cast the message onto the throne, and lurked to hear the decision. When the queen entered the hall and found Solomon’s message, she read it and at once called out to their chancellors. She was indeed a democratic one, and so she did not issue any orders before listening to their opinions.
“We are of great power, and of a great experience of warfare,” said the majority of her chancellors, “and the procedures are to you see what your decision is.”
“When kings enter a town, they turn the nobles of it into humiliated citizens,” replied the astute queen, after a short while of thinking. “I shall send to them a gift, and shall wait for their reply to our legate.”
The hoopoe carried this to King Solomon, and when the queen’s messengers arrived they were reproached for such a bribe, and were also informed that, if they would not submit, the king would certainly march against them with soldiers that they could not match with. The legate returned with this decision, and the queen could do nothing but comply.
When the arrangements for the delegation of Sheba were made, a magnificent procession, headed by the queen herself, started off to Jerusalem. King Solomon was informed of the news, and ordered that the Queen of Sheba’s throne should be brought from her land before her arrival. He investigated who among his courtiers could accomplish this mission as soon as possible.
“I can bring it to you before you break up this meeting,” said a demon of the jinn, but another one, who had had lore of the Book, said that he could brought it in a trice. The King consented, and the demon dully accomplished his promise. When Solomon found the throne settles before him, he prayed: “That is of my Lord God’s Favor to test me whether I shall thank or deny.”
The throne was disguised to see whether the queen would be guided or would she be of those who never be guided, and on her arrival it was shown to her.
“Is your throne like this?” she was asked.
“it was almost like it,” she replied.
King Solomon smiled and then invited her to enter the edifice, whose ground was made up of mirrors. The queen thought that she was going to ford through a water pool, and so she tucked up her dress. When the king revealed to her the fact of the edifice’s ground, she announced: “My Lord God! I had wronged myself and now I am submitted with Solomon to Allah, the Lord of existence.”


you didn’t finish your report…. look at the book of REVELATIONS 11 : 19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ARK OF HIS TESTAMENT: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

fact [noun]: a thing that is indisputably the case. THESE AREN’T FACTS. They are apocryphal descriptions and speculation, nothing more.

The Ark of the Covenant is located below the waters of Table Rock Lake Missouri along with many other artifacts

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Ethiopia's Queen of Sheba and the Ark of the Covenant Myth

Very few queens have evoked passionate sentiments the way the mythical Queen of Sheba has. Her legacy transcends nation-states, continents, and even religious affiliation. The exact geographical origin of Queen of Sheba has been highly contested. Even Sheba's exact name is not agreed upon. For Yemenis and Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula, her name was "Bilqis". For Christian Ethiopians, her name was "Makeda", while the ancient Roman historian Josephus styled her as "Nicaule". Despite all these claims and counter-claims as to where her origins lay or as to what her name was, there hasn't been any tangible evidence to her very existence.

The legendary Queen of Sheba has spawned hundreds of films and thousands of books. she is the equal only of the great Egyptian Queen Cleopatra, who died with the aid of a serpent. There are few females in history who have captured mankind's imagination in such a way. And yet, just like King Solomon, Sheba never really existed. Her story has been repeated many times and in many contexts, but there isn't a scrap of evidence for her existence, apart from the religious writings of the Bible, Koran, the Kebra Negast, and a few others. Like Solomon, Sheba's real name is an enigma.

Out of all the nations that claim her, she has the most profound impact upon Ethiopians. For them, this mythical queen is the founder of their Ethiopian civilization and one who's cherished and beloved by their Christian population. Ethiopia's account of the Queen of Sheba is seen as the first ancestor of Ethiopia's imperial kings, known as the "Solomonic Dynasty". The Queen of Sheba is seen as the founding ancestor of this imperial line and the begning of Ethiopia's cherished 3,000 year historical claim. According to Christian Ethiopians, upon visiting Jerusalem, Sheba was seduced by Solomon, and gave birth to their son of Menelik. After Menelik grew older, he would end up journeying back to Jerusalem to visit his father Solomon and subsequently stole the Ark of the Covenant to Aksum, where it resides in St. Mary of Zion Church.


So does Christian Ethiopians' claims hold up? Well for starters, in order for Christian Ethiopians to even begin to claim the mytical figure of queen of Sheba, they would need to have archeological evidence unequivocally demonstrating a settled-civilization or a kingdom taking place in their region around the time Sheba was supposedly to be in existence. Sheba's existence is believed to be around the 10th century BC or 3,000 years ago. Unfortunately for Christian Ethiopians, there isn't any kingdom, village, house, a single structure, or a settled-civilization found within Ethiopia that dates to that time period. We know now that the oldest settled civilization in the horn of Africa is found in the outskirts of the Eritrean capital of Asmara, and that only dates to 2,800 years of age. Even if Ethiopians claimed ancient Ona site of Eritrea as their own, they would still be short by two centuries to even start discussing the Queen of Sheba myth.

Interestingly enough, not a single kingdom of the horn of Africa region that were established much later in history ever mentions Sheba or the Ark of the Covenant in the numerous texts they left behind. So when did these fictional historical claims by Christian Ethiopians of the Amhara and Tigray ethnic groups begin? According to professor Petet Shchmidt, the Queen of Sheba myth first entered what is now known as Ethiopia at the end of the 13th century AD. The inhabitants of that region learned about this fable from Arabia and recreated the story to fit their own political needs so to further strengthen their own political tale and conquest over other regions.

According to the historian and author Harold Marcus, the queen of Sheba myth adopted by Christian Ethiopians was originally created to legitimize Yukuno Amlak's rule of the late 13th century AD who had killed the Zagwa king to obtain power.

Marcus goes on to add that six Tigrayan scribes mixed local and regional oral traditions, with Biblical stories, adding various Jewish and Islamic commentaries and complied it in a self-serving factious book called Kebra Negest.

The historian Edward Ullendroff describes the uninterrupted lines of kings descending from Menelik-I, who was according to Christian Ethiopians, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, as a "historical fiction" that has become a powerful and influential saga among Christian-Ethiopians.


Although it's claimed by Christian-Ethiopians the Ark is never shown to anyone outside of the priest who guards it, historical fact is, it has been shown. In fact, Professor Edward Ullendroff, an authority on Ethiopian history and religious scholarly had obtained access to see Ethiopia's ark in 1941 and he dismissed it as a "fabrication". He went on to describe the Ethiopian ark as nothing more than a wooden box, that was empty inside, and one that was of middle to late medieval construction. Ullendorff went on to say that the priests and the Ethiopian government keep perpetuating an aura of mystery around the ark "mostly to maintain the idea that it's a venerated object".


. Professor Edward Ullendroff, the first incumbent of the only chair of Ethiopian Studies in Great Britain. His book Ethiopia and the Bible, published by Oxford University Press, is acknowledged as the classic scholarly work in the field on religion in Ethiopia. When Graham Hancok's book on the Ark in Ethiopia, the Sign and the Seal, was first released, the press sought Ullendroff as an expert to give his evaluation of Hancock's theory. In an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Ullendroff, after calling Handcock's book "a sad joke," declared that he had personally seen the object in Axum: "They have a wooden Box, but it's empty. Middle to late medieval construction, when these were fabricated ad hoc." Ullendorff went on to say that the priests and the government perpetuate an aura of mystery around the object "mostly to maintain the idea that it's a venerated object." Yet Hancock and Cornuke, as well as other Westerners who have visited the site, have claimed that no one is permitted to enter the church and view the Ark.

Ullendrof, to the contrary, say this is simply because they were Westerners who had no knowledge of Ethiopian language or customs: "I've seen it. There was no problem getting access when I saw it in 1941. You need to be able to speak their language, classical Ge'ez you need to be able to show that you're serious."Therefore, according to this expert witness, the object in Axum is a medieval relic that can be viewed by anyone who the priests choose to let see it.

Because the Kebra Negast supports the claim of the royal house, it has become the national epic of the country and the possession of its "ark" is essential to maintaining Abyssinian Christian supercession. It is also held to be the Ark by the "faithful" and generally acknowledged as such by the entire population who regard it as part of their national pride. Therefore, regardless what is in the Axum chapel, the Ethiopians still claim it is the Ark.
Searching for the Ark of the Covenant By Randall Price, page, 177.

In reference to the Queen of Sheba and the subsquent claim of the Ark of the Covenant, the historian Smith Hempstone reminds people that historians and archaeologist generally agree the Ethiopian claims are "complete fabrication":

But was there any historical basis to these tales? In Arab folklore the Queen of Sheba is called Bilqis and is associated with the pre-Islamic south Arabian kingdom of Saba. In fact there is no evidence at all that the Queen of Sheba ever existed. However, her alleged union with Solomon generated countless legends throughout the world. In the Ethiopian retelling of these legends, the story and the substance of the Ark had become deformed. At the most it had become a pretty, Christian altar box with crosses on it. It was used to celebrate the Christian sacrament. It had been metamorphosed into something tame, domesticated, safe, and obviously far from the Ark of Moses. It had been transformed into something it was not.


There was not the slightest indication that the object in the chapel of the St. Mary of Zion Church in Aksum had any great antiquity or was connected with the original Ark or with original Arks in any way. Quite the contrary: it has been proved without a shadow of doubt that it did not.

But even conceptually, this fake, Christian Ark described by Abu Salih, and something even more ornate described by later visitors to Aksum, was not the Ark I was seeking. It was not the Ark.
The Lost Ark of the Covenant: Solving the 2,500-Year-Old Mystery of the Fabled Biblical Ark by Professor Tudor Parfitt, page 72-73

All in all, we may never know if Queen of Sheba or King Solomon ever existed outside of the imaginations crafty scripture writers or imaginative oral tradition story tellers. Up till now, there hasn't been any evidence both of them were even real. Furthermore, the Ethiopian claim of Queen of Sheba and the Ark of the covenant being present in Ethiopia is one that holds no merit. This fictional myth clearly started in the 13th century AD to legitimize Yukuno Amlak's rule, who had murdered his way to power. Yet despite the Ethiopian claims being undoubtedly fake, one can not overlook the power it has within Christian Ethiopians. Nevertheless, for many Christian Ethiopians they will continue to believe their oral traditions, even with the fact that their claims have been thoroughly dismissed.


Image of the Ark of the covenant is courtesy of Peter's Scribd publication, 'The Lord of the Harvest'.

Ethiopia's Queen of Sheba and the Ark of the Covenant Myth Reviewed by Admin on 11:28 AM Rating: 5


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