Information

Attic Lekythos



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Attic Black-Figure Lekythos

Taleides Painter (Greek (Attic)) Amasis (Greek (Attic), active 560 - 520 B.C.) 18.3 cm (7 3/16 in.) 76.AE.48

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Object Details

Title:

Attic Black-Figure Lekythos

Artists/Makers:

and Amasis (Greek (Attic), active 560 - 520 B.C.)

Culture:
Place:

Athens, Greece (Place Created)

Medium:
Object Number:
Dimensions:
Inscription(s):

Inscription: under the foot, circular, facing out, " AMAΣIΣ MEΠOIEΣEN" ("Amasis made me").

Department:
Classification:
Object Type:
Object Description

Black-figure lekythos with figural scenes on the body and shoulder. On the body is a seated bearded man surrounded by a group of six standing figures, a woman and five youths. The man sits facing right on a folded stool and holds a spear in his left hand. He has a fillet in his hair and wears a chiton and a himation with a cross pattern design. A woman dressed in a peplos and wearing a fillet in her hair stands before him with her left arm lowered and her right, raised. Behind her are two nude youths one stands facing the seated man with the same posture as the woman, the other carries a spear and moves to the right, turning his head back towards the group. On the left are three partially preserved male figures: a man in a chiton and himation holding a spear flanked by two nude youths. Added red was used for the hair of the nude youths, the woman's fillet and peplos, and the man's fillet, beard, and himation. On the shoulder are two youths boxing and an onlooker on the right. The boxer on the left is partially preserved, missing his right leg and arm, and there may have been a second observer at the far left. The vase is signed on the underside of the foot with the name of the Amasis potter.

Provenance
Provenance

Bruce McNall, donated to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1976.

Exhibitions
Exhibitions
Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum (January 1 to April 3, 1977)
Paintings on Vases in Ancient Greece (April 11 to September 15, 1980)
Bibliography
Bibliography

Frel, Jiří. "The Kleophrades Painter in Malibu." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 4 (1977). pp. 63-76, p. 75, n. 24, no. 8.

Frel, Jirí. Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum: January 1 to April 3, 1977, exh. cat. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1977), no. 68.

Schreiber, Toby. "Handles of Greek Vases." The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 5 (1977), pp. 133-144, p. 138 figs. 8A-B.

Legakis, Brian. "A New Lekythos by Amasis" (summary of paper delivered at AIA), American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 84, 1980, p. 220.

Legakis, Brian. "A Lekythos Signed by Amasis," Antike Kunst 26 (1983), pp. 73-76, pls. 19-20, ill.

Immerwahr, Henry. Attic Script: A Survey. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), pp. 36 38 49, n.47, no. 165.

Frel, Jiří. "The Portraits of Demetrios Polioketes by Lysippos and Teisikrates." In Studia Varia (Rome: Bretschneider, 1994), "Phrynos, Amasis, Taleides," pp. 13-14.

Isler, Hans Peter. "Der Topfer und der Amasis-Maler," Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts 109 (1994), pp. 93-114, pp. 95, 107, 113.

Shapiro, H.A., Picon, C.A and Scott, G. D. (eds.), Greek Vases in the San Antonio Museum of Art (San Antonio, 1995), p. 90 (entry by Beth Cohen).

Mommsen, Heide. "Amasis Mepoiesen: Beobachtungen zum Töpfer Amasis." In Athenian Potters and Painters: The Conference Proceedings, J. H. Oakley, et al. (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1997), pp. 17-34, pp. 17-18.

Vivliodetis, E. "Black-Figure Lekythos from Merenda (Attika)." Αρχαιογνωσία 10 (1999-2000), 121, pll. 24-25.

Immerwahr, Henry. R. A Corpus of Attic Vase Inscriptions. Preliminary Edition. Part VI: Supplement. 2001, no. 4926.

Heesen, Pieter. Athenian Little-Master Cups (Alkmaar: Drukkerij ter Burg Offset B.V., 2011), footnotes 572, 599, 795, 1284.

Walter, Christine. "Timagoras: An Athenian Potter to be Rediscovered", in Morais, R., Leão, D. Rodríguez-Pérez, D. and Ferreira, D (eds.), Greek Art in Motion. Studies in honour of Sir John Boardman on the occasion of his 90th birthday (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2019), 164-173, 164, 171.

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Lekythos (Oil Jar)

Athenian cemeteries housed a variety of monuments and offerings to the dead. This terracotta vessel, called a lekythos, is one example that held oil. From the middle until the end of the fifth century B.C., they were usually decorated in a distinctive technique known as white ground, so called after the light slip coating on the body and shoulder of the vase. Atop this, figures were usually drawn in outline and then painted in rich colors, many of which have since faded. Since most of these bottles were made for burial with the dead or to be left at their graves, the scenes on their surfaces typically represent tombs, visitors to tombs, and farewell scenes.

A woman drawn in outline stands beside an empty chair. Presumably it references the absence of a loved one. A basket sits on the ground behind her. There are no remains of color. Unrelated to the scene but of interest in its own right is the inscription extending before the woman. It states that a youth by the name of Euaion is handsome. The subject of this praise is probably the son of the great Athenian dramatist Aeschylus (525–456 BC). Like his father, Euaion became a tragedian.


Athenian cemeteries housed a variety of monuments and offerings to the dead. This terracotta vessel, called a lekythos, is one example that held oil. From the middle until the end of the fifth century B.C., they were usually decorated in a distinctive technique known as white ground, so called after the light slip coating on the body and shoulder of the vase. Atop this, figures were usually drawn in outline and then painted in rich colors, many of which have since faded. Since most of these bottles were made for burial with the dead or to be left at their graves, the scenes on their surfaces typically represent tombs, visitors to tombs, and farewell scenes.

Here two men, perhaps father and son, bid one another farewell. On the left, the young man departs, spear in hand, but he looks back toward an older man with a walking stick, who watches him go. The latter man’s hair and beard are white. He wears a russet-colored mantle that appears sheer, clearly revealing the contours of his body underneath.


Attic White-Ground Lekythos - 1968.25

On the body, in delicate dilute glaze outline, a grave stele with red sashes tied about it, with a boy on the left and a young woman on the right. The boy wears a pale vermilion himation and has a stick in his left hand. Only the head of the girl can be made out. Above the scene is a band of stopped meander. On the shoulder is a palmette design drawn in matt black with alternate leaves of the palmettes red above, at the offset from the neck, a band of egg pattern. The mouth is painted inside and out but the top of the lip is reserved. There are scraped grooves about the fillet between body and foot. The vertical face of the foot and the underside are reserved. All the reserved areas are strongly reddened.

Title: Attic White-Ground Lekythos - 1968.25

Attribution: The Thanatos Painter.

Culture or period: Greek Classical.

Date: c. 430 BC.

Material: Clay - Terracotta

Object type: Lekythos

Acquisition number: 1968.25

Dimensions: 90mm (w) x 280mm (h)

Origin region or location: Greece

Display case or on loan: 3

Keywords: Greek, Classical, Thanatos Painter, Elgin

Burlington Fine Arts Club: Exhibition of Ancient Greek Art (1903) pl. 93, H 31 J.D. Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (2nd ed., Oxford 1963) 1230, 33 J.R. Green with B. Rawson, Catalogue of Antiquities in the Australian National University, A.N.U., Canberra, 1981, 37-38.

Attic White-Ground Lekythos

Purchased formerly in the Elgin collection. Ht 28cm diam. 9cm.

Reconstructed from fragments but without repainting the scene is worn.

On the body, in delicate dilute glaze outline, a grave stele with red sashes tied about it, with a boy on the left and a young woman on the right. The boy wears a pale vermilion himation and has a stick in his left hand. Only the head of the girl can be made out. Above the scene is a band of stopped meander. On the shoulder is a palmette design drawn in matt black with alternate leaves of the palmettes red above, at the offset from the neck, a band of egg pattern. The mouth is painted inside and out but the top of the lip is reserved. There are scraped grooves about the fillet between body and foot. The vertical face of the foot and the underside are reserved. All the reserved areas are strongly reddened.

This lekythos is taller and more cylindrical than the black-figure versions 1965.16 and 1962.02, and it gave the painter a simpler surface to work on. The body of the vase is covered with a slip of white clay (containing no iron oxide) and on this the drawing is done in outline with dilute paint which has fired to a yellowish brown. The red is added afterwards and, as often, the lines of the drawing can be seen running under it. In later lekythoi the drawing was done in matt paint: compare the shoulder decoration here.

The lekythos became a standard grave offering, and white-ground lekythoi became particularly popular in the latter half of the fifth century (the technique with its fugitive colours was suited to a purpose where it would not have to withstand continual use). This is reflected not only in the subject represented but also in a sly feature of the vase construction. Since the offering of oil was a mark of respect for the dead, the vase had to appear full, but a large vase full of oil was presumably considered a waste or too expensive, and so a small container was concealed inside the body of the lekythos, attached to its neck, and this inner container only held a few spoonsful of oil, enough for a token offering at the grave. Since the inner container sealed off the main part of the inside of the vase, a hole had to be made somewhere to let the air escape during firing and this is often placed, as it is here, unobtrusively on the shoulder near the lower root of the handle.

This lekythos has been attributed to the Thanatos Painter, so called from a vase in the British Museum showing Thanatos (Death) and Hypnos (Sleep) carrying off a dead man (J.D. Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (2nd ed., Oxford 1963) 1228, 12 P. Arias and M. Hirmer (trans. and rev. B. Shefton), A History of Greek Vase Painting (London 1963) pl. 184 D.C. Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi (Oxford 1975) pl. 32, 4 https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_obje. Beazley Archive Pottery Database 216353) with its uncouth and rather frightening representation of Death. It is an usually large lekythos (ht 480.8cm) and one of four pieces by the painter in that collection. He was a pupil of the Achilles Painter and a specialist in such lekythoi. See Beazley, Attic White Lekythoi (Oxford 1938) 18-19 and Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (2nd ed., Oxford 1963) 1228-1231, F. Felten, Thanatos- und Kleophonmaler. Weissgrundige und rot-figurige Vasenmalerei der Parthenonzeit (Munich 1971), D.C. Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi (Oxford 1975) 38-41, M. Robertson, The Art of Vase-Painting in Classical Athens (Cambridge 1992) 203-5, and O.E. Tzachou-Alexandri, “Ο Ζωγράφος του Θανάτου στο Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο”, Το Μουσείο 3, 2002-2003 [2005], 115-158. Close parallels for the drawing of our figures will be found, for instance, on the lekythos Athens 1993, Felten 92 fig. 2, and the lekythos Boston 00.359, Felten 93 figs.3-4, Kurtz pl. 32, 1 where the treatment of the girl’s hair is virtually identical.

J.H. Oakley, The Achilles Painter (Mainz 1997) 106-107, notes that he was active between about 445 and 430 BC (thus roughly coinciding with the construction of the Parthenon) and that he seems to have received his initial training in the workshop of the Achilles Painter, the greatest of all painters of white lekythoi and a direct pupil of the Berlin Painter. He then seems to have set up shop independently. Oakley also regards the Thanatos Painter as one of the great painters of white lekythoi, not unjustly.

There is nowadays a large bibliography on these vases. Old but still useful, especially for the illustrations, are A. Fairbanks, Athenian White Lekythoi, i–ii (New York 1907 and 1914) and W. Riezler, Weissgrundige attische Lekythen (Munich 1914). J.D. Beazley’s Attic White Lekythoi (Oxford 1938) (= D.C. Kurtz [ed.], Greek Vases: Lectures by J.D. Beazley [Oxford 1989] 26–38) remains an outstanding discussion and synthesis. Among more recent work, one may single out D.C. Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi: Patterns and Painters (Oxford 1975) and J.H. Oakley, Picturing Death in Classical Athens: the Evidence of the White Lekythoi (Cambridge 2004) in the last see p. 8 for inner containers, chapter 5, 145-214 for scenes at the grave, with 191ff for the form of the grave monument. On inner containers, see also C.H.E. Haspels, Attic Black-figured Lekythoi (Paris 1936) 176-178 Beazley, Journal of Hellenic Studies 66, 1946, 11 n. 3-4 D. von Bothmer, Ancient Art from New York Private Collections (New York 1961) 60-61, nos 239-240, pl. 88, 92 Boulter, Hesperia 32, 1963, 123-124, fig. 4, pl. 43 J.V. Noble, Techniques of Attic Vase-Painting (London 1988) 24-25.

On the scenes on white-ground lekythoi, see also S. Schmidt, “Zur Funktion der Bilder auf weissgrundigen Lekythen”, in: Bernhard Schmaltz and Magdalene Söldner (eds), Griechische Keramik im kulturellen Kontext. Akten des Internationalen Vasen-Symposions in Kiel vom 24.-28.9.2001 (Münster 2003) 179-181, and his Rhetorische Bilder auf attischen Vasen: Visuelle Kommunikation im 5. Jahrhundert v.Chr. (Berlin 2005) 29–79 (‘Lekythen und ihre Verwendung bei Begräbnissen’) together with a list of key burials at 293–299 N.T. Arrington, “Fallen Vessels and Risen Spirits: Conveying the Presence of the Dead on White-Ground Lekythoi”, in: J.H. Oakley (ed.), Athenian Potters and Painters III (Oxford 2014) 1-10 (Thanatos Painter at page 5 and colour-plate 2a).

There is a fine publication of the white-ground lekythoi in the Berlin collection in Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum Berlin 12 (where pl. 25, 1-4, is a piece by the Thanatos Painter). Other usefully published collections include R. Olmos Romera, Catalogo de los vasos griegos en el Museo arqeologico nacional. I. Los lecitos aticos de fondo bianco (Madrid 1980), and Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum Munich 15 (Thanatos Painter in the latter at pl. 40, 1-3, pl. 42, 1-5, pl. 42, 6-8 (colour).


Harvard Art Museums / Fogg Museum | Bush-Reisinger Museum | Arthur M. Sackler Museum

Identification and Creation Object Number 1960.338 People Group of Athens 1834
Title Lekythos (oil flask): Charon Classification Vessels Work Type vessel Date 450-400 BCE Places Creation Place: Ancient & Byzantine World, Europe, Attica Period Classical period, High Culture Greek Persistent Link https://hvrd.art/o/290776 Physical Descriptions Medium Terracotta Technique White-ground Dimensions 38.6 x 11 cm (15 3/16 x 4 5/16 in.) State, Edition, Standard Reference Number Standard Reference Number Beazley Archive Database #217890 Acquisition and Rights Credit Line Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Bequest of David M. Robinson Accession Year 1960 Object Number 1960.338 Division Asian and Mediterranean Art Contact [email protected] The Harvard Art Museums encourage the use of images found on this website for personal, noncommercial use, including educational and scholarly purposes. To request a higher resolution file of this image, please submit an online request. Descriptions Description Charon, the ferryman of the dead, punts his boat over the river Styx. He wears a short black tunic and a traveller’s cap. The water beneath the boat is now a purple-red color but would originally have been blue. Tall reeds surround the boat.

Another, very poorly preserved, figure stands at the other edge of the scene. This might be interpreted as a representation of the deceased person that this vase is intended to commemorate, and who might be thought of as waiting for Charon to carry them over the river to the underworld. Commentary This vase is an example of a special type of Athenian vessel, the white-ground lekythos (oil flask). Unlike other Athenian pottery, which was regularly produced for export across the Mediterranean, and especially to Italy, white-ground lekythoi are only rarely found outside of Attica, the region surrounding Athens.

The white-ground decorative technique produces decoration which is much less stable than the red-figure or black-figure technique and is mostly used for vessels with funerary or ritual functions that do not demand heavy use. White ground lekythoi regularly feature decoration only on the front of the vessel, with the back left blank, and even decorative friezes extending only halfway around the vessel.

This type of vase was in common production from around 480 B.C.E. until towards the end of the fifth century. Its popularity in this period may be related to the absence of any private gravestones in Attica from around 490-80 to 430 B.C.E. Exactly why the Athenians stopped producing gravestones for half a century is not entirely clear, but the white-ground lekythos might be thought of as replicating some of the ritual and commemorative functions of a gravestone. A great many examples feature a representation of a grave monument.

These vases were designed to hold oil and seem to have been used in a number of different ways in funerary ritual: burned with the body in cremations, for pouring oil libations on the body or the grave site, and as offerings left at or in a burial. The great majority have been found in and around graves.

Accordingly, their painted decoration usually features scenes connected with funerary ritual or the mythology of the afterlife, and can give us some insight into ancient Athenian funerary practices and ideas about death. This vase illustrates a central Greek belief about the afterlife, that the ferryman Charon would escort the souls of the dead over the river Styx to the underworld.

On white-ground lekythoi in general, see:
J. D. Beazley, Greek Vases: Lectures by J. D. Beazley, ed. D. C. Kurtz (Oxford, 1989), pp. 26-38 with pll. 17-24.
John H. Oakley, Picturing Death in Classical Athens: The Evidence of the White Lekythoi (Cambridge, 2004).

This vase, along with another lekythos in Berlin (F2683, BAPD 9022338), has been the subject of a chemical analysis of its purple-red pigmentation. This has demonstrated that the color results from a chemical reaction between a copper-based blue pigment and the white-ground slip, which was probably caused by exposure to fire. The analysis suggests that the vase was most likely ritually burned together with the body of the deceased during the process of cremation. The pattern of the coloration suggests that the vase was probably broken before being put onto the fire.

See further:
Marc S. Walton et al., “Material evidence for the use of Attic white-ground lekythoi ceramics in cremation burials,” Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2010): pp. 936-40 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232393222_Material_Evidence_for_the_use_of_Attic_White-Ground_Lekythoi_Ceramics_in_Cremation_Burials Publication History

Joseph Clark Hoppin and Albert Gallatin, Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, U.S.A.: volume 1, Hoppin and Gallatin Collections, Libraire Ancienne Edouard Champion (Paris, 1926), pll. 43 & 46

J. D. Beazley, Review of Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum: United States of America 4 = The Robinson Collection, Baltimore, Md., 1 by David Moore Robinson, Journal of Hellenic Studies (1934), 54, pp. 89-90, p. 90

J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, The Clarendon Press (Oxford, England, 1963), p. 1388, n. 1

Thomas Carpenter, Thomas Mannack, and Melanie Mendonca, ed., Beazley addenda : additional references to ABV, ARV² & Paralipomena, Oxford University Press (UK) (Oxford, 1989), p. 372

Sarah Jane Rennie, "The Identification of Original Decoration on a Collection of Attic White Ground Lekythoi" (thesis (certificate in conservation), Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, 1994), Unpublished, pp. 1-24 passim

Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC), Artemis (Zürich, Switzerland, 1999), Charon I 44.

[Reproduction Only], Persephone, (Spring 2005).

Marc S. Walton, Marie Svoboda, Apurva Mehta, Sam Webb, and Karen Trentelman, Material evidence for the use of Attic white-ground lekythoi ceramics in cremation burials, Journal of Archaeological Science (2010), vol. 37, no. 5: pp. 936-40

The David Moore Robinson Bequest of Classical Art and Antiquities: A Special Exhibition, Fogg Art Museum, 05/01/1961 - 09/20/1961

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Attic Black Figure Lekythos

ATTIC BLACK-FIGURE LEKYTHOS Shape and Ornament: Echinus mouth, flaring foot. Interior glazed to mid-neck. Band at junction of neck and shoulder, three lines below figures. Subject: Nike in long peplos running right with head turned back, right arm down and left arm up. Flanked on left by nude youth with cloak over his raised left arm, second nude youth on right with cloak over right arm. On shoulder, nude youth running right with cloak over his extended left arm flanked right and left by a cloaked youth facing inward. Accessory Colors: red: band separating neck and shoulders hair, eyes, most of wing, garment of Nike dots on left youth's cloak, hair and cloak of right youth cloaks and hair of shoulder of shoulder figures three ground lines. White: flesh of Nike and dots on left youth's cloak on the body of the vase. Third quarter of the sixth century B.C. -- Wisseman, Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Plate 11, 1-2.

The shape of the vessel represents the transition from the rounded "Deianeira" shape to the shoulder-lekythos (see Haspels, Attic Black-figured Lekythoi, 1936. Pp. 28–36, pl. 11:1–3, Athens 9695 [Beazley, Attic Black-figure Vase-painters, 1956. P. 200, no. 5, by the Wraith Painter], and Athens 414 [Beazley, Attic Black-figure Vase-painters, 1956. P. 177, top, near the Taleides Painter]). Comparable subject on a sub-Deianeira lekythos by "Elbows Out" in Athens, Vlasto Collection (Beazley, Attic Black-figure Vase-painters, 1956. P. 249, no. 14 Haspels, ABL, pl. 7:2)

Wisseman, Sarah U. Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum. Philipp von Zabern: Mainz, 1989. Page 12, Plate 11, 1-2.


Discussion

A lekythos is a vessel used to store oil used for religious or funerary purposes. This lekythos is the CU Art Museum's only example of a vase decorated in the red-figure technique. The vase is made of a light red clay, while the background of the vase, decorative elements, and details were added in a black slip. The single handle on this vase is decorated with black slip on its top, exposed surface and is left in the color of the clay on its underside. The lip and mouth of the jar are covered in black slip. Short, parallel vertical lines encircle the base of the neck, while another series of longer lines decorates the shoulder of the vessel. A single band of meander wraps around the top of the vessel's body above the figural panel. This same combination of decorative elements -- two rows of parallel vertical lines and a meander -- is seen, also, on a black-figure lekythos in the CU Art Museum's collection.

The body of this vessel features a single human figure, a woman, who stands and faces right. Her thick, black hair is tied into a bun at the back of her head, with her ear placed high on her head. She looks forward with her lips parted, as if speaking. She wears a chiton and a himation, both of which have details such as folds and crinkles added in thick black lines and thinner, lighter lines. One arm is bent, with the hand resting on her hip the other arm is extended and she holds in her hand a shallow bowl or phiale. A wool basket is on the ground in front of the woman, to the right and beneath the hand holding the phiale. No separate groundline is indicated, but the presence of one is suggested by the placement of the basket along the same line as the woman's bare feet. The base of the vessel tapers to a small foot. The exterior of the foot is decorated with two bands, one in the color of the clay on top and one in black slip below.

The woman on the vase is identified by her dress and hairstyle, as well as by the attributes of the phiale and the wool basket, as a housewife or an otherwise generic citizen woman. The phiale in her hand suggests that she is pious, while the wool basket demonstrates her dutiful and resourceful nature.

Women in ancient Greece were relatively constrained in their roles as citizens, non-citizen residents, or slaves. According to much modern scholarship, there was little overlap within the established class structures. Regardless of her status, however, women shared similar duties, the most important of which may have been wool working and weaving. A respectable woman, such as the one on this lekythos, would spend much of her day spinning wool, a task that contributed to the household economy in a variety of ways. Today, four spinners working on wheels create enough wool for one weaver to stay busy, which means that for every one textile created, it takes four times the work to create the yarn for that woven fabric. The spinning wheel, however, was not invented until the 16th century C.E. and it would have taken a Greek woman somewhat longer to spin the same amount of wool using a drop spindle.

Few examples of textiles from ancient Greece survive and much of our evidence for the industry comes from references in texts, as well as representations on vases, stelai, and wall paintings.


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Lot 93: An Attic Red-Figured Lekythos Attributed to The Nikon Painter, circa 460–450 BC

The lekythos’ collecting history (‘Provenance’), as it appears in the Christie’s catalogue, is:

Anonymous sale Münzen und Medaillen AG, Basel, 14 November 1986, lot 213.
Formerly private collection, Japan, acquired privately in 1997.

However, the same lekythos was found and confiscated during the raid of the Swiss and Italian authorities at the warehouse of the Japanese dealer Noriyoshi Horiuchi in the Geneva Freeport in 2008. The Italian authorities could not prove the illicit origin of this lekythos and although Horiuchi did not supply any documentation to prove the licit origin of the lekythos, the vase was returned to Horiuchi. The Italian authorities finally confiscated from Horiuchi 337 antiquities depicted in the Becchina, Medici and Symes-Michaelides confiscated archives. Later, the same lekythos appeared on offer at the ‘Phoenix Ancient Art’ gallery, owned by the Aboutaam brothers, one of whom was convicted in Egypt for antiquities smuggling and the other of whom pleaded guilty to the falsification of at least one customs document. Recently, the lekythos appeared as ‘SOLD’ in the website of the ‘Phoenix Ancient Art’ gallery. Christie’s here fail to state the name of the consigner, although they do so in the case of the other three lots (Professor Heissmeyer).


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