Information

History of Antona - History


Antona

(ScStr: t. 549, dr. 13'; s. 8 k.; cpl. 56; a. 2 32-pdrs., 1 20-pdr.
P.r., 2 24-pdr. sb.)

On the morning of 6 January 1863, the Union screw steamer Pocahontas sighted a ship in the Gulf of Mexico, steaming westward close to the Alabama shore and headed toward the entrance to Mobile Bay. Soon after the blockader had turned to intercept the stranger lest she reach the protection of the Southern guns at Fort Morgan-then some nine miles away-the unidentified steamer altered her own course in an effort to escape. Both vessels pushed their engines to their limits and broke out all possible sails. Pocahontas slowly gained on her quarry but the sun was close to the horizon before she was near enough to fire a shot at the fleeing ship. The round fell short of its tar et which then hoisted English colors as she continued her flig ight About an hour before midnight, the Union ship had closed to about half a mile and fired two more rounds in quick succession which promptly brought the vessel to about 30 miles south southeast of Cape an Blas, Fla. She proved to be Antona, an ironhulled British screw steamer recently built at Glasgow, Scotland. She had departed Liverpool and had proceeded via St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, to Havana, Cuba. There, she took on a contraband cargo of gunpowder small arms, tea, and brandy before sailing for Mobile on New Year's Day 1863.

After accompanying Pocahontas back to the blockading fleet off Mobile, Antona--manned by a prize crew-sailed for Philadelphia for adjudication. However, while still in the gulf, she sprang a leak which forced her to turn back. While she was undergoing repairs at New Orleans, she was rammed by passing vessels on two separate occasions. These collisions worsened her already leaky condition, caused other significant damage, and necessitated extensive repairs before she could once more put to sea.

When this work had been completed, Antona was placed in commission on 19 March 1863, but litigation against her for violation of the blockade was not concluded for another year. Then, having been condemned, in absentia, by the New York prize court, she was finally purchased by the Navy on 28 March 1864.

Upon commissioning, the steamer began operations on the lower Mississippi as a dis patch vessel, working primarily between New Orleans and Port Hudson, La. This duty was extremely important at this time because Rear Admiral Farragut in Hartford had dashed upstream past the Confederate batteries at Port Hudson and was patrolling the river between that Southern stronghold and Vicksbur to support Rear Admiral Porter's

joint operations with Major General Grant's troops in the first effort to open the complete Mississippi to Union shipping The surrender of Vicksburg on Independence Day 1863 and the occu-
pation of Port Hudson five days later completed this task and freed Antona for other duty.

Late on the evening of 13 July, Antona-commanded by Acting Master Charles T. Chase-departed New Orleans and headed downstream. However, shortly before 4 o'clock the following morning, she collided with Sciota, sinking that screw gunboat in 12 feet of water about eight miles upriver from Quarantine. Since Antona was unharmed, she was able to resume her voyage on the 15th and, upon reentering the gulf, proceeded in a generally southwesterly direction. On the 16th, she captured Cecelia D. and sent that English schooner to New Orleans under a prize crew. Upon her arrival at Galveston, Tex., on the 18th, Chase reported to Commodore Henry H. Bell, who commanded Union blockading forces in the region. Two days later, Bell ordered Antona to patrol the coast between Velasco, Tex., and the mouth of the Rio Grande. The steamer reached the latter on the morn- of the 24th, and Chase immediately went ashore to mail dispatches for the United States consul at Matamoras, Mexico. While the Union officer was returning to his ship in the Mexican boat Margarita, a band of armed men on the Texas shore threatened to open fire on that craft if it did not head for the bank. When Margarita reached Texas soil, the men-who proved to be Southern soldiers-arrested Chase and sent him to Brownsville. Acting Master Spiro V. Bennis, Antona's executive officer learned of Chase's misfortune from a passing English ship and remained in the vicinity until he had verified the report. Antona then headed up the coast and arrived off Galveston on 27 July.

The steamer remained in that vicinity until getting underway again on 4 August and heading back down the coast. On the 6th, Antona--then under command of Acting Master Lyman Wells-captured Betsy some 16 miles southeast of Corpus Christi, flying English colors and purportedly from Matamoras to New Orleans with a general cargo. Wells sent that schooner to New Orleans under a prize crew for adjudication. Antona arrived off the mouth of the Rio Grande on the 8th and reembarked Chase who had been released by Brigadier General Hamilton P. Bee, CSA-who commanded Confederate troops in Texas-because of his having been captured in neutral waters. She sailed for Galveston two days later and reached the blockade station off that port on the 12th suffering from damage to her boilers, machinery, and propeller. Towed to New Orleans by Bermuda, she remained there under repair until heading downriver on 16 November to return to the coast of Texas. On the 29th, her new commanding officer, Acting Master Alfred L. B. Zerega reported having captured Mani Ann three days before. That Southern schooner of Sabine, Tex., had departed Caleasieu Pass on the 21st and was heading for Tampico, Mexico, with a cargo of cotton. Since the prize was leaking badly, Zerega transferred her cotton to Bermuda for delivery to the Federal prize commissioners at New Orleans and then destroyed the schooner before resuming Antona's voyage southward.

Antona scored again on Christmas Eve 1863 when she took the British schooner Exchange 10 miles east of Velasco, Tex. This ship had departed Veracruz, Mexico, with a widely varied general cargo including a large quantity of liquor and was purportedly heading for New Orleans. Since she was far off course for that port, Zerega seized the schooner, removed her liquor since he'. did not deem it safe to allow it to go in the schooner to New Orleans. " After promising to send it on for adjudication . by the 11th ... he first safe opportunity . Zerega sent prize to New Orleans and resumed Antona's patrol.

The steamer's operations through the remainder of the Civil War were similar to her earlier services. Her last notable action occurred before dawn on 10 February 1865 when a boat from the steamer joined an expedition led by Lt. Charles E. McKay of Princess Royal to destroy the large iron-hulled steamer Will O' The Wisp which had run aground off Galveston. After the end of the war Antona departed Pensacola on 27 July 1865 and proceeded North. She was decommissioned at New York on 12 August 1865 and sold at auction there to G. W. Quintard on 30 November 1865. Redocumented Carlotta on 5 January 1867, the steamer served as a merchantman operating out of New York until destroyed by fire in 1874.


Elizabeth Louise "Betty Lou" Ebo was born in Bloomington, Illinois, [2] the daughter of Daniel Ebo and Louise Teal Ebo. She lived at the McLean County Home for Colored Children with her two older siblings from 1930 to 1942, after her mother's death and her father's unemployment during the Great Depression. [3] She was hospitalized for long periods of her childhood, once for an infected thumb requiring amputation, [3] and later with tuberculosis. [4] [5]

In 1944, she was the first black student to graduate from Holy Trinity High School. She converted to Roman Catholicism in 1942, and trained as a nurse the St. Mary's (Colored) Infirmary School of Nursing in St. Louis. [1] [6]

As a Catholic nun, she pursued further education, earning a bachelor's degree in medical record library science from Saint Louis University in 1962, [7] and two master's degrees, one in hospital executive development (1970) from Saint Louis University, and one in theology of health care (1978) from Aquinas Institute of Theology. From 1979, she held a chaplain's certificate from the National Association of Catholic Chaplains. [8]

Medical and pastoral work Edit

Ebo was one of the first three black women to join the Sisters of St. Mary in 1946, and became Sister Mary Antona when she took her final vows in 1954. She worked in medical records at Firmin Desloge Hospital from 1955 to 1961, [9] and was director of medical records at St. Mary's Infirmary from 1962 to 1967. [8] In 1967, she was named executive director of St. Clare's Hospital in Baraboo, Wisconsin, [10] the first African-American woman to be head of an American Catholic hospital. [4] In 1974 she was named executive director of the Wisconsin Conference of Catholic Hospitals. [11] She worked at Catholic hospitals in Madison, Wisconsin, and at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. [12] From 1992 to 2008, she was a pastoral associate at St. Nicholas Church in St. Louis. [8]

Civil rights activism Edit

With encouragement from her mother superior, [13] [14] Ebo and five other nuns joined the Martin Luther King's march in Selma in 1965, [15] wearing their orders' full habits. [9] [16] [17] Ebo's story was included in the documentary Sisters of Selma: Bearing Witness for Change (2007). [18] In 1968, Ebo was a founder of the National Black Sisters' Conference, and president of the conference from 1980 to 1982. In 1989, she received the conference's Harriet Tubman Award for service and leadership. She served on the Human Rights Commission of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, and was a member of the Missouri Catholic Conference on Social Concerns. [8]

In 1999, she received the Eucharist from Pope John Paul II, in a group of congregants including Rosa Parks, when the pontiff visited St. Louis. In 2013 she attended a commemoration of the 1965 march and cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge with Congressman John Lewis. [9] In 2014, in her nineties, Ebo gave a message at a prayer service in Ferguson following the death of Michael Brown Jr. [1]

Sister Mary Antona Ebo died in 2017, aged 93, at the Sarah Community, [19] a retirement home in Bridgeton, Missouri, [1] after 71 years in religious life. A seminar room at the Cardinal Rigali Center in St. Louis is named for Ebo. [8]


National Nurses Week History

National Nurses Week begins each year on May 6th and ends on May 12th, Florence Nightingale's birthday. These permanent dates enhance planning and position National Nurses Week as an established recognition event. As of 1998, May 8 was designated as National Student Nurses Day, to be celebrated annually. And as of 2003, National School Nurse Day is celebrated on the Wednesday within National Nurses Week (May 6-12) each year.

The nursing profession has been supported and promoted by the American Nurses Association (ANA) since 1896. Each of ANA's state and territorial nurses associations promotes the nursing profession at the state and regional levels. Each conducts celebrations on these dates to recognize the contributions that nurses and nursing make to the community.

The ANA supports and encourages National Nurses Week recognition programs through the state and district nurses associations, other specialty nursing organizations, educational facilities, and independent health care companies and institutions.

A Brief History of National Nurses Week

1953 Dorothy Sutherland of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare sent a proposal to President Eisenhower to proclaim a "Nurse Day" in October of the following year. The proclamation was never made.

1954 National Nurse Week was observed from October 11 - 16. The year of the observance marked the 100th anniversary of Florence Nightingale's mission to Crimea. Representative Frances P. Bolton sponsored the bill for a nurse week. Apparently, a bill for a National Nurse Week was introduced in the 1955 Congress, but no action was taken. Congress discontinued its practice of joint resolutions for national weeks of various kinds.

1972 Again a resolution was presented by the House of Representatives for the President to proclaim "National Registered Nurse Day." It did not occur.

1974 In January of that year, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) proclaimed that May 12 would be "International Nurse Day." (May 12 is the birthday of Florence Nightingale.) Since 1965, the ICN has celebrated "International Nurse Day."

1974 In February of that year, a week was designated by the White House as National Nurse Week, and President Nixon issued a proclamation.

1978 New Jersey Governor Brendon Byrne declared May 6 as "Nurses Day." Edward Scanlan, of Red Bank, N.J., took up the cause to perpetuate the recognition of nurses in his state. Mr. Scanlan had this date listed in Chase's Calendar of Annual Events. He promoted the celebration on his own.

1981 ANA, along with various nursing organizations, rallied to support a resolution initiated by nurses in New Mexico, through their Congressman, Manuel Lujan, to have May 6, 1982, established as "National Recognition Day for Nurses."

1982 In February, the ANA Board of Directors formally acknowledged May 6, 1982 as "National Nurses Day." The action affirmed a joint resolution of the United States Congress designating May 6 as "National Recognition Day for Nurses."

1982 President Ronald Reagan signed a proclamation on March 25, proclaiming "National Recognition Day for Nurses" to be May 6, 1982.

1990 The ANA Board of Directors expanded the recognition of nurses to a week-long celebration, declaring May 6 - 12, 1991, as National Nurses Week.

1993 The ANA Board of Directors designated May 6 - 12 as permanent dates to observe National Nurses Week in 1994 and in all subsequent years.

1996 The ANA initiated "National RN Recognition Day" on May 6, 1996, to honor the nation's indispensable registered nurses for their tireless commitment 365 days a year. The ANA encourages its state and territorial nurses associations and other organizations to acknowledge May 6, 1996 as "National RN Recognition Day."

1997 The ANA Board of Directors, at the request of the National Student Nurses Association, designated May 8 as National Student Nurses Day.

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Altona, Germany

ALTONA, major port, suburb of Hamburg, Germany until 1864 part of Denmark. The Portuguese Jews living in Hamburg were prohibited from burying their dead there, and acquired land for a cemetery in Altona in 1611. Thirteen Portuguese families from Hamburg settled in Altona in 1703, augmenting the small Portuguese settlement already in existence. They organized a community known as Bet Yaɺkov ha-Katan (later Neveh Shalom). A synagogue was built in 1770. The Sephardi community, however, remained a branch of the community in Hamburg. Greater importance was attained by the community established by Ashkenazi Jews, who first arrived in Altona around 1600. In 1641, they received a charter from the king of Denmark to found a community and build a synagogue. After the Russian-Polish War of 1654/55, Jewish refugees from Lithuania expelled from Hamburg settled in Altona. At the same time numerous families, while formally remaining Danish subjects and members of the Altona community, had established themselves in Hamburg, where they formed a semi-independent subcommunity. In 1671 the Altona community amalgamated with the community of Hamburg, and afterward with that of Wandsbek, to form a single community, known by the initials AHW (אה״ו), under Chief Rabbi *Hillel b. Naphtali 𞤮vi. The chief rabbinate, as well as the attached yeshivah and bet din, was situated in Altona. It had jurisdiction over the Ashkenazi Jews in all three communities as well as *Schleswig-Holstein . In the 18 th century the community in Altona overshadowed that of Hamburg, in both scholarship (having a series of eminent rabbis and scholars) and affluence. It was in Altona that the acrimonious ʮmden - ʮybeschuetz amulet controversy took place. Altona was also an important center of Hebrew printing (see below). The Chief Rabbinate existed until 1863, its bet din being the last institution of Jewish jurisdiction to function autonomously in Germany.

The three communities remained united until 1811, when Hamburg was occupied by French forces. In 1815 a number of Jews moved from Hamburg to Altona after the emancipation granted by the French was annulled. The Jews in Altona engaged in commerce, some being shareholders of ships employed in the South American trade and, especially in the 18 th century, whaling. Special economic privileges were granted to them by the Danish kings. Hamburg Jews frequently helped to finance these activities. After the annexation of the area to Prussia in 1866, the Hamburg community grew rapidly and eclipsed that of Altona. In 1938 Altona was officially incorporated into Hamburg. Rabbis of the independent community of Altona were Akiva Wertheimer (1816�) the eminent halakhist Jacob ʮttlinger (1835�) Eliezer Loeb (1873�) Meyer *Lerner (1894�) and Joseph Carlebach (1927�). The Jewish population of Altona numbered 2,350 in 1867 (out of a total of 50,000), around 2,000 in 1900, and around 5,000 in 1925 (out of 186,000). (See also *Hamburg .)

Hebrew Printing in Altona

In 1727 Samuel S. Popert of Koblenz established a printing press in Altona, having learned the craft in nearby Hamburg where he had published a few books. He did the printing himself, assisted by the wandering typesetter Moses Maarsen of Amsterdam. Until 1739 Popert published various works in Hebrew and Judeo-German. In 1732 the wealthy Ephraim Heckscher set up a printing house which a year later passed into the hands of his assistant Aaron b. Elijah ha-Kohen, who was called Aaron Setzer ("setter"). He continued printing until 1743, when he became the manager of the press set up by Jacob Emden, where later many of Emden's polemical writings against Jonathan Eybeschuetz were printed. In 1752 they separated, as Aaron had sided with Eybeschuetz. Another assistant in Emden's printing works, Moses Bonn, set out on his own in 1765, and this business was operated for many years by his sons and grandsons as Brothers Bonn.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

E. Duckesz, Ivoh le-Moshav (Heb. and Ger., 1903) idem, 𞉊khmei AHW (Heb. and Ger., 1908) W. Victor, Die Emanzipation der Juden in Schleswig-Holstein (1913) H. Kellenbenz, Sephardim an der unteren Elbe (1958) O. Wolfsberg-Aviad, Die Drei-Gemeinde (1960). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H.M. Graupe, Die Statuten der drei Gemeinden Altona, Hamburg und Wandsbek, 2 vols. (1973) G. Marwedel, Die Privilegien der Juden in Altona (1976). HEBREW PRINTING: Shunami, Bibl, index Steinschneider, in: ZGJD, 1 (1887), 281 ff. Ch. D. Friedberg, Toledot ha-Defus ha-Ivri… be-Augsburg… (1935), 105𠄸. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Brilling, in: Studies in Bibliography and Booklore, 9 (1971), 153� 13 (1980), 26�.

Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.


History of Antona - History

(ScStr: t. 549, dr. 13' s. 8 k. cpl. 56 a. 2 32-pdrs., 1 20-pdr.
P.r., 2 24-pdr. sb.)

On the morning of 6 January 1863, the Union screw steamer Pocahontas sighted a ship in the Gulf of Mexico, steaming westward close to the Alabama shore and headed toward the entrance to Mobile Bay. Soon after the blockader had turned to intercept the stranger lest she reach the protection of the Southern guns at Fort Morgan-then some nine miles away-the unidentified steamer altered her own course in an effort to escape. Both vessels pushed their engines to their limits and broke out all possible sails. Pocahontas slowly gained on her quarry but the sun was close to the horizon before she was near enough to fire a shot at the fleeing ship. The round fell short of its tar et which then hoisted English colors as she continued her flig ight About an hour before midnight, the Union ship had closed to about half a mile and fired two more rounds in quick succession which promptly brought the vessel to about 30 miles south southeast of Cape an Blas, Fla. She proved to be Antona, an ironhulled British screw steamer recently built at Glasgow, Scotland. She had departed Liverpool and had proceeded via St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, to Havana, Cuba. There, she took on a contraband cargo of gunpowder small arms, tea, and brandy before sailing for Mobile on New Year's Day 1863.

After accompanying Pocahontas back to the blockading fleet off Mobile, Antona--manned by a prize crew-sailed for Philadelphia for adjudication. However, while still in the gulf, she sprang a leak which forced her to turn back. While she was undergoing repairs at New Orleans, she was rammed by passing vessels on two separate occasions. These collisions worsened her already leaky condition, caused other significant damage, and necessitated extensive repairs before she could once more put to sea.

When this work had been completed, Antona was placed in commission on 19 March 1863, but litigation against her for violation of the blockade was not concluded for another year. Then, having been condemned, in absentia, by the New York prize court, she was finally purchased by the Navy on 28 March 1864.

Upon commissioning, the steamer began operations on the lower Mississippi as a dis patch vessel, working primarily between New Orleans and Port Hudson, La. This duty was extremely important at this time because Rear Admiral Farragut in Hartford had dashed upstream past the Confederate batteries at Port Hudson and was patrolling the river between that Southern stronghold and Vicksbur to support Rear Admiral Porter's

joint operations with Major General Grant's troops in the first effort to open the complete Mississippi to Union shipping The surrender of Vicksburg on Independence Day 1863 and the occu-
pation of Port Hudson five days later completed this task and freed Antona for other duty.

Late on the evening of 13 July, Antona-commanded by Acting Master Charles T. Chase-departed New Orleans and headed downstream. However, shortly before 4 o'clock the following morning, she collided with Sciota, sinking that screw gunboat in 12 feet of water about eight miles upriver from Quarantine. Since Antona was unharmed, she was able to resume her voyage on the 15th and, upon reentering the gulf, proceeded in a generally southwesterly direction. On the 16th, she captured Cecelia D. and sent that English schooner to New Orleans under a prize crew. Upon her arrival at Galveston, Tex., on the 18th, Chase reported to Commodore Henry H. Bell, who commanded Union blockading forces in the region. Two days later, Bell ordered Antona to patrol the coast between Velasco, Tex., and the mouth of the Rio Grande. The steamer reached the latter on the morn- of the 24th, and Chase immediately went ashore to mail dispatches for the United States consul at Matamoras, Mexico. While the Union officer was returning to his ship in the Mexican boat Margarita, a band of armed men on the Texas shore threatened to open fire on that craft if it did not head for the bank. When Margarita reached Texas soil, the men-who proved to be Southern soldiers-arrested Chase and sent him to Brownsville. Acting Master Spiro V. Bennis, Antona's executive officer learned of Chase's misfortune from a passing English ship and remained in the vicinity until he had verified the report. Antona then headed up the coast and arrived off Galveston on 27 July.

The steamer remained in that vicinity until getting underway again on 4 August and heading back down the coast. On the 6th, Antona--then under command of Acting Master Lyman Wells-captured Betsy some 16 miles southeast of Corpus Christi, flying English colors and purportedly from Matamoras to New Orleans with a general cargo. Wells sent that schooner to New Orleans under a prize crew for adjudication. Antona arrived off the mouth of the Rio Grande on the 8th and reembarked Chase who had been released by Brigadier General Hamilton P. Bee, CSA-who commanded Confederate troops in Texas-because of his having been captured in neutral waters. She sailed for Galveston two days later and reached the blockade station off that port on the 12th suffering from damage to her boilers, machinery, and propeller. Towed to New Orleans by Bermuda, she remained there under repair until heading downriver on 16 November to return to the coast of Texas. On the 29th, her new commanding officer, Acting Master Alfred L. B. Zerega reported having captured Mani Ann three days before. That Southern schooner of Sabine, Tex., had departed Caleasieu Pass on the 21st and was heading for Tampico, Mexico, with a cargo of cotton. Since the prize was leaking badly, Zerega transferred her cotton to Bermuda for delivery to the Federal prize commissioners at New Orleans and then destroyed the schooner before resuming Antona's voyage southward.

Antona scored again on Christmas Eve 1863 when she took the British schooner Exchange 10 miles east of Velasco, Tex. This ship had departed Veracruz, Mexico, with a widely varied general cargo including a large quantity of liquor and was purportedly heading for New Orleans. Since she was far off course for that port, Zerega seized the schooner, removed her liquor since he'. . . did not deem it safe to allow it to go in the schooner to New Orleans. " After promising to send it on for adjudication . by the 11th . he first safe opportunity . Zerega sent prize to New Orleans and resumed Antona's patrol.

The steamer's operations through the remainder of the Civil War were similar to her earlier services. Her last notable action occurred before dawn on 10 February 1865 when a boat from the steamer joined an expedition led by Lt. Charles E. McKay of Princess Royal to destroy the large iron-hulled steamer Will O' The Wisp which had run aground off Galveston. After the end of the war Antona departed Pensacola on 27 July 1865 and proceeded North. She was decommissioned at New York on 12 August 1865 and sold at auction there to G. W. Quintard on 30 November 1865. Redocumented Carlotta on 5 January 1867, the steamer served as a merchantman operating out of New York until destroyed by fire in 1874.


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National Archives History

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History of Antona - History

The Kings and Queens of England

In 1972 Weidenfeld and Nicholson publishers issued the first volume of ‘The Kings and Queens of England’ series which would grow to be a massive 31 book set. These books were aimed to please both the general reader and those who already were informed about the reign of the monarch assessed in each volume.

Most of the volumes were published between 1972 and 1974, with a few being published as late as 1981. There was also a short run of reprints from 1992 to 1994 of some of the titles which extended the life of the series. The name of whoever was responsible for abandoning the attractive original covers for the newer ones has not been discovered!

Each book was written by a different author, with some authors writing more than one. The general editor was Antonia Fraser who in 1972 was already a well known and best selling historian. Her best known work at that stage was the 1969 biography ‘Mary Queen of Scots’ which is still in print today. She also authored the book in this series on King James IV and I.

In 1975, three years after the series commenced in 1972, a British publisher called Cardinal Books was contracted to release paperback versions of five of the series books. Cardinal was an imprint of Sphere/Macdonald Books and was active from 1973 to 1991. The five series books they published, with covers considerably different to the Weidenfeld and Nicholson hardbacks, were Henry V Elizabeth I Charles II George IV and Edward VII. Each book bore an abbreviated series attribution, stating: Kings & Queens, General Editor Antonia Fraser. Of these five Cardinal books it is worth noting that George IV was the only one of the five not published in a paperback version in the 1990s when Weidenfeld and Nicholson reissued fourteen of the titles in that format. No evidence was found that Cardinal published any further Kings and Queens of England series titles after these five in 1975.

At least twenty-five of the books were accompanied by a small 32 page booklet called ‘An illustrated guide to places of interest’. It had black and white photos and descriptions of important landmarks mentioned in the text of the main book. Use the link above to see a list of what was published in this sub-series.

Where possible I’ve added the ISBN for each book. Bear in mind that although an ISBN is a unique identifier the number is used for all printings of the same book, so the 1990s reprints of the hardback books in this series with the new-style dust jackets will have the same ISBN as the original 1970s printing.

Even though the series was published from 1972 to 1981 and 31 titles, several monarchs were omitted. There were no books on the first four Henrys, Henry VI, Edward VI, George II, Edward VIII, or Elizabeth II.

The final book in the series (chronologically) was George VI.

The genesis of the series was an idea from Christopher Falkus (the writer of the Charles II volume) to improve the fortunes of the faltering publisher Weidenfeld and Nicholson. He persuaded Antonia Fraser to be the general editor and the series went into production. It was a success - so much so that it continued for nearly all the kings and queens of England.

This site is the product of having to research the titles for my own satisfaction after finding very little information about the books in print or on the internet. It is also an attempt to interest other readers of English and British history into seeking out these books which now are found only in the inventories of used booksellers around the world. It might help in completing your collection or for identifying that one title you didn’t know existed.


The History of Yosemite National Park

Yosemite National Park is located in the Sierra Nevada in California. The landscape of the Park is the result of glacial interactions between glaciers and rock millions of years ago. The distinct rock formations of Yosemite National Park geography are mostly comprised of granite. The impressive granite formations found throughout the park are some of the most recognizable natural phenomena in the world.

Granite is not the most abundant type of rock to be found in Yosemite. That honor is held by the igneous rock strewn across the park and beyond the boundaries of Yosemite. Igneous rock is created from lava flows and the appearance of this rock in Yosemite dates back to when molten rock flowed under the ground's surface before cooling and hardening, forming quartz and other kinds of crystallized rock.

Yosemite is more than just rock, however. Yosemite is home to magnificent canyons, pristine lakes, breath-taking waterfalls, and awe-inspiring rock formations consisting of peaks, domes, cliffs, and mountains. Three to four million people visit Yosemite each year to share in the wonder and natural beauty of the land. Human interest in Yosemite has only grown over the years, but people and Yosemite National Park history have had a long and lasting relationship.

Early Inhabitants

During to fervor of the California Gold Rush in 1851, the valley was slated to be cleared by the United States Army, resulting in a conflict with the tribe. Chief Tenaya put up a resistance and the fight culminated into the Mariposa Wars. The Native American eventually relented, were captured, and relocated to a reservation, thus ending the tribal habitation of Yosemite Valley and ushering in the era of the settler.

Early Settlers and Pioneers

With the Gold Rush in the 1850s came miners, some of which were killed in the wars with the Army. It was not until after the tribe was relocated that tourists began to slowly trickle into the Valley. Most of the tourists were early photographers and artists seeking to capture the beauty of the wilderness. Journalists wrote articles detailing the majesty of the valley and there were numerous sketches and photographs displayed in exhibits to bring awareness of Yosemite to Americans.

Galen Clark was one of the first settlers to establish a permanent residence within Yosemite. The Mariposa Grove in Wawona Valley is shrouded by the Giant Sequoia trees and was isolated by the Merced River before a bridge was built to ease crossing the water in 1857. Clark erected a Pioneer Village made up of several rustic cabins, a hotel for tourists, and a ranch in the Valley.

Today, the Pioneer Village is a historical landmark and the oldest buildings have been preserved for tourists and posterity. There are around 160 residents that live in Wawona all year round but the population increases during tourist season due to the availability of cabins for rent. Galen Clark saw the potential of the location and the need to preserve the wilderness for future generations. Clark would prove to be one of the frontrunners in the effort to declare Yosemite a National Park.

The Journey To Becoming A National Park

In 1864, Abraham Lincoln was convinced of the threats posed by humans, their animals, and the subsequent development of roads and hotels to Yosemite and signed a bill called The Yosemite Grant, that ceded Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove to the state of California. This measure was used as a first step to protect the land. Galen Clark was appointed the guardian of Yosemite Valley but was met with many challenges.

As Clark worked to make the valley more hospitable to visitors, a new proponent for preservation joined Yosemite's struggle. John Muir was an established naturalist and conservationist in 1890. He had spent years studying and learning all he could about Yosemite Valley. Upon the realization that devastation was continuing to be wrought by farm animals and humans alike, Muir began a campaign to preserve Yosemite as a national park.

The Yosemite Act of 1890 was a partial savior to the land. The act protected the trees, minerals, and natural formations of the newly established national park. However, the park only encompassed the areas outside the valley and the Sequoia Grove. Continuing in his role as guardian, Galen Clark, with the assistance of the Army, attempted to control poaching and other harmful practices within the park. Due to part of the valley is under the regulation of the state of California, many opportunities to fully preserve the valley were missed and Muir continued to fight for Yosemite, this time to unify Yosemite as a single entity under the protection of the United States government.

Muir finally achieved his ultimate goal in 1903 after camping with Theodore Roosevelt in Yosemite and pleading his case to the nature-loving president. The 1906 bill made all of Yosemite the property of the United States government, under the protection and preservation efforts of government stewardship.

Yosemite National Park

Beginning in 1927, Yosemite hosted an artist who would live and work in the Park for the next 50 years. Ansel Adams printed his first photographs of Yosemite in 1927. The photographs were the commencement of a brilliant career that served to bring appreciation to a part of the country Adams loved using a medium he managed to perfect with expertise and an eye for seeing magnificence in the ordinary. The Ansel Adams Gallery resides in Yosemite to this day.

Further protective measures have been made to the park starting with the Wilderness Act of 1964. The Act elevated sections of the park to a "highly protected" status to prevent the development of these areas and allow nature to flourish. These highly protected sections compose 89 percent of the park. Two wilderness areas, named for Ansel Adams and John Muir, respectively, are also protected by this act.

Despite the vast areas that are protected, visitors still flock to the Park. Yosemite is known for spectacular views but is also teeming with wildlife. Grizzly and Black bears are common throughout the park but many animals were hunted and trapped during the early days of the park to near extinction. The Park Service has worked hard in recent years to reintroduce and reestablish many species back into the park. Some of these species include Bighorn Sheep, Peregrine falcons, and great gray owls.

In the next few years, Yosemite National Park will celebrate several impressive milestones. June 2014 will be the 150th anniversary of the original Yosemite Act which began to process of creating the National Park. In October 2015, Yosemite will be 125 years old, making it the third oldest National Park in the United States. Another important anniversary is the 100th year of the under-appreciated National Park Service to be celebrated in August of 2016.

Yosemite National Park has a rich and varied history and is an essential piece of the American landscape. It is a cherished landmark preserved for the present generations and for future generations to come. It is worthwhile to take a moment, when gazing upon the bounty of Yosemite, and thank the men who fought so hard to keep the valley in all her elemental glory and allowing regular citizens the opportunity to bask in the marvel of nature. Yosemite National Park reflects the passage of time and represents the promise of the future within its panoramic views of ageless earth and sky.


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National Parks

Setting aside wilderness areas for people to enjoy the rugged beauty of the United States while protecting the landscape, plants, and animals for future generations sounds like a modern idea, right? But it's not. More than 140 years ago, the United States created the world's first national park.

In 1872, the U.S. Congress set aside 3,400 square miles (8,805 square kilometers) of land in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming to establish Yellowstone National Park. The idea of a national park might have started several years earlier. In 1864, Congress gave Yosemite Valley to the state of California to help protect the unspoiled land. Later that area became part of the larger Yosemite National Park.

Yosemite was the first of 401 national park areas where people can snorkel, ride horses, bike, ski, hike, climb, spelunk, kayak, camp, see geysers blow, relax in hot springs, get close to a volcano, and so much more. About 60 percent include important historical sites like battlefields, memorials, and historical homes, as well as the continent's prehistory: ancient dwellings, petroglyphs, and pictographs from earlier cultures.

Since Yellowstone's creation, the role of the national parks has grown and changed, just as the United States has grown and changed. Better scientific understanding of protecting wildlife, native plants, and natural resources has strengthened the commitment of the role of national parks.

Fun FACTS

• The hottest place on Earth was recorded in a national park. In 1913, temperatures reached 134˚F (56.6˚C) in Death Valley National Park in California and Nevada. It often hits 120˚F (48.8˚C) in Death Valley.

• Only one road winds through the wild lands Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska, which is is 6 million acres (24,281 square kilometers). The park is home to North America's tallest peak, Mount McKinley. It’s 20,320 feet (6,193 meters) tall.

• Animals such as wolves, cougars, deer, eagles, seals, foxes, bobcats, black bears, raccoons, and fish call national parks home. You can even find dinosaurs—their bones anyway.

• The 401 U.S. national parks cover 84 million acres (339,936 square kilometers).

• Only one road winds through the wild lands Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska, which is is 6 million acres (24,281 square kilometers). The park is home to North America's tallest peak, Mount McKinley. It’s 20,320 feet (6,193 meters) tall.


Watch the video: History of the World: Every Year (January 2022).