Map of the Third Intermediate Period

Were there"City States" in Ancient Egypt?

Hi all,
this is my 1st post here.
i have been reading about Ancient Mesopotamia.
i was wondering. was there a period early in Egyptian history of warring city-states?
I can understand perhaps why in ancient Greece - due to the huge number of islands- the City State evolved.
But - why did it occur in Mesopotamia and not Egypt?
.. or did it?


Hi all,
this is my 1st post here.
i have been reading about Ancient Mesopotamia.
i was wondering. was there a period early in Egyptian history of warring city-states?
I can understand perhaps why in ancient Greece - due to the huge number of islands- the City State evolved.
But - why did it occur in Mesopotamia and not Egypt?
.. or did it?

Nomas in intermediate periods functioned as city states to some degree. There were at least few kings who competed and were not able to unite whole Egypt under them. Map of third intermediate period (1069 - 664 bc) resembles a net of city states most because delta of Nile was politicaly very fragmented.


I think that the OP is more focused on the comparison between Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt in their early history.

It's known that KmT [like ancient Egyptians called their own land] was unified under the first proper dynastic King [Narmer, late IV millennium BCE]. Due to the evident structure of the centered administration and to the presence of such a powerful King [the term "Pharaoh" was used well later to indicate the person of the King], the great cities with great temples weren't able [if not in some periods] to play a so preeminent and independent role [like it happened in Sumer] all around the country.

So that, we could wonder if Memphis was a city-state in its early history, but during the Old Kingdom the Kings were just there, so that its centrality wasn't so compatible with the identity of independent [or semi-independent] city-state.



I think that the OP is more focused on the comparison between Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt in their early history.

It's known that KmT [like ancient Egyptians called their own land] was unified under the first proper dynastic King [Narmer, late IV millennium BCE]. Due to the evident structure of the centered administration and to the presence of such a powerful King [the term "Pharaoh" was used well later to indicate the person of the King], the great cities with great temples weren't able [if not in some periods] to play a so preeminent and independent role [like it happened in Sumer] all around the country.

Also, great cities were not needed. In city-state regions like Mesopotamia and Greece, city-states developed in a period of political disunion. To begin with, people in smaller scattered/outlying villages were vulnerable to raiding, while the bigger towns discouraged small raiding parties by the number of people mobilizing for defence even before construction of physical fortifications. Then, as central governments developed in the city, controlled by and for benefit of citizens, the villagers were exploited and discriminated against, also encouraging everyone who could to move into town.

In a country-state region like Egypt, there was some development of cities in Predynastic periods. But as the Pharaohs united the country early on, they enforced King´s Peace, cracked down on raiders, made the outlying farms and villages safe and did justice to townsmen and villagers being equally their subjects. So the people could remain in villages conveniently near their fields and did not have to move to towns.

Table of Contents

A. New fieldwork and new material

B. The Third Intermediate Period

1.2 Theoretical and Methodological Approach



3.1 Description of the site

3.2 History and exploration of the site

3.4 Evidence from Monash University&rsquos excavations

A. Decorated temple blocksB. Ostraka from Trench 38BC. Small finds from Trench 38BD. Clay seal impressions


4.1 Overview of the material

4.3 Presentation and discussion of the material

4.4 The Third Intermediate Period pottery deposits


5.3 Theban Desert Road Survey


6.2 Wheel-made non-containers

7.1 The Temple of Seth at Mut al-Kharab

7.2 The extent and nature of Third Intermediate Period activity throughout the Western Desert

Third Intermediate Period

The Third Intermediate Period begins with the death of Ramesses XI, the last pharaoh of the New Kingdom, and runs until the the beginning of the Late Period. The exact start of the Late Period is much debated, but agreed by many to be the beginning of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty.

The Third Intermediate Period is generally characterised as a period of political instability and economic decline. However, although foreign rulers held sway over the country for much of the time, the period was still relatively stable. There was an influx of immigrants from Asia, Libya, and Nubia which permanently affected social, religious, and funerary practices.

Egypt became more inward looking and suffered a notable reduction in power and influence. It is notoriously difficult to establish a secure historical framework for the period, and records such as the Kings Lists do not cover dynasties 21 to 25, leading Egyptologist to fall back on fragmentary records and excerpts from Manetho.

Pahensy, the Viceroy of Kush, waged a civil war which resulted in the loss of Nubia and the all important gold mines. The pharaohs of the late Twentieth Dynasty were already losing their grip over the powerful city of Thebes and following the death of Ramesses XI the priests of Thebes set themselves up as independent rulers of Upper Egypt.

The Twenty-First Dynasty ruled from the city of Tanis in the delta but only really held sway over Lower Egypt. The division may not have been as marked as it appears now, however, as there were close family ties between the Twenty-First Dynasty kings and the High Priests of Thebes.

The Twenty-Second Dynasty was founded by Sheshonq I, of Libyan origin. He reunited the two lands and for around two centuries there was peace and stability. He is considered by many to be the Biblical Pharaoh Shishak who sacked Jerusalem during the reign of Rehoboam. However, the power of the provincial ruler grew as centralised authority waned.

Harsiese, the High Priest of Thebes, declared himself king and during the rule of Takelot II a separate ruling family, the Twenty-Third dynasty, was established in the eastern delta. The two dynasties ruled concurrently for around ninety years. The two factions continued to vie for power until Osorkon B asserted his control and founded a dynasty of Libyan rulers in Upper Egypt. This dynasty only survived until the death of Rudamun, after which the rulers of powerful city states rose to prominence.

The Twenty-Fourth dynasty kings comprises only two kings Tefnakht and Bakenrenef. They were of Libyan origin and ruled from Sais. However, the Nubian ruler Piye launched an expedition to restrain Tefnakht and seems to have taken Thebes with little difficulty before returning home. His successor Shabata launched a further invasion and this time Egypt was annexed to Kush. He and his successors constituted the twenty-fifth dynasty. They managed a large and powerful empire and built and rebuilt many temples.

When they sought to expand their power in the Levant they challenged the power of the Assyrians who responded by invading Egypt. The first invasion was repelled, but their second attempt was successful and Taharqa was forced to flee Egypt leaving his wife and son in the hands of the enemy.

The Assyrians withdrew leaving vassals to rule in their stead and Tanutamani managed to reassert Nubian control of Egypt. The Assyrians responded in force, sacking Thebes and sending the Nubians packing. Thus ended Nubian control and the Third Intermediate Period.

Psamtik of Sais, founder of the Twenty-sixth dynasty, was one of the regional rulers left in charge by the Assyrians. He would eventually force the invaders out of Egypt and reunite the country, inaugurating the Late Period.


  • Dodson, Aidan Mark. 2001. “Third Intermediate Period.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 3 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford University Press and The American University in Cairo Press. 388–394.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. [1996]. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 3rd ed. Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited.
  • Myśliwiec, Karol. 2000. The Twighlight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • Taylor, John H. 2000. “The Third Intermediate Period (1069–664 BC).” In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 330–368.

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Layman's Abstract

AbstractMummies have been considered as “biologic museums” as they display vital evidence and clues about the life and death of the ancient Egyptian population who lived thousands of years ago. They also hold the secrets of the evolution of disease. The Third Intermediate Period mummies represent the mummification technique at its best. The main aim of this research is to produce a scientific study of the Third Intermediate Period mummies in the British Museum. It attempts to answer some important questions and considers to what extent a detailed radiographic investigation of a group of mummies can provide evidence about disease processes, diet, mummification techniques, funerary and medical practices within that period?Non-invasive techniques were used during this study to investigate a group of seven mummies from the collection of the British Museum. The mummies are encased in cartonnage cases except one mummy which is inside a wooden coffin. The radiological methods (i.e. X-ray radiography and CT scanning) provided new information regarding the manufacturing of cartonnage cases during that period. The detailed radiographs showed aspects of the mummification techniques that were not reported during pervious investigations.A historical account of the Third Intermediate Period was given in chapter one while chapter two provides information regarding the mummification techniques used during this historical period. Chapter three gives information on previous radiological studies and chapter four gives detailed description and photographs of the selected mummies, the subjects of this investigation. Chapter five contains a full description of the methods used during this study and the results and discussions were presented in chapter six.A catalogue with detailed information is attached as an appendix to the thesis to present the physical anthropological data and radiological finds with regards to each mummy from this selected group.

University of the Third Age

University of the third age is an international movement whose goal is the education and stimulation of mainly retired members of the community - those in their third age of life. It is commonly referred to as U3A.
There is no universally accepted model for U3A. His original concept in France, the University activity was significantly changed in the United Kingdom, where it was recognized that the majority of people of retirement age contribute and the emphasis was on the exchange, without a formal relationship with traditional universities.
In many English-speaking countries have followed this model geragogic, while the countries of continental Europe mostly follow the French model. For historical reasons, the educational institutions during the entire life-is a term used in the United States for organizations that are similar to the U3A group.
British reports the website of the U3A is about the "Third age" the right of membership: "the membership of the U3A is not associated with a specific age, but a period in a persons life the Third age after the second period of full employment and parental responsibilities. Anybody in their third age can join U3A and this includes people who work part-time. No Lower age for membership."

1.1. History. France. (Франция)
U3A started in France at the faculty of social Sciences in Toulouse in 1973. It was developed by Professor Pierre Vellas. In France, each University of the third age University group, mainly associated with the local University. This academic model is used in many other countries, particularly in continental Europe. The University affiliation creates various opportunities such as highly qualified teaching staff, variety of choice of topic, opportunity for students and faculty to conduct research based on professional, cultural or historical experience of the elderly, etc. U3As do not issue diplomas, and certificates and training in many areas, interest groups, older students, usually 55, such as skills computer, languages, entrepreneurship, inheritance law, religion, politics, etc. Sometimes U3As to provide groups of professional training and formal continuing education.
In 1990-e years, this concept was extended in France the concept of the University of all ages UTA - University Tous ages or University for free FRAGILE time - Universite du hastily. In UFUTA changed its name to Alliance française de University De Tous century, retaining the acronym. Some of the departments of the University took the title Universite du temps Libre.
AIUTA Association Internationale decorative Universite du Troisieme age Is a global international organization and the network of universities of the third age, including such institutions from most continental European countries, Central and Eastern Europe, China, Russia, Latin America, etc. including Mauritius and other destinations. The President of AIUTA is Professor Francois Vellas, University of Toulouse, the son of the founder of the first U3A Pierre.

1.2. History. UK and Commonwealth. (Великобритания и Содружество)
By the beginning of 1980-ies, the concept reached the United Kingdom where its nature was radically changed to be more Self-help organization under the influence of its founders, Peter Laslett, Michael young and Eric Midwinter. This model is also used in Australia, Cyprus, Dominica, New Zealand and South Africa. In the British model of education, it should be recognized that retired people have life experiences and, together, a huge amount of knowledge. It is used to organize the curriculum for each subject, where each meeting is usually led by a member of a group with a strong interest or special knowledge.
Each U3A group pays a membership fee to the national coordinating body, the Third age trust, and has access to a wide range of resources, including multi-media library with special interest emails and contacts with other groups with similar interests. Summer schools are conducted by special interest groups. Most importantly, each group is completely Autonomous entity, self-financing and self-sufficiency. In 2016 the British U3A was reported by a member of her 1.000 th, in Churchdown, Gloucestershire, which has 26 groups, after accounting 950 in 2015, running courses for 36.000 350.000 people.
Most groups are regional in nature, which led to the creation, in some countries, variations on the U3A. For example, in Cyprus there is a U3A, an organisation called С3А Cyprus third age, which is affiliated to the UK U3A, and P3A Paphos third age.

1.3. History. Central and Eastern Europe. (Центральной и Восточной Европы)
Some countries in Central and Eastern Europe was presented to the U3A quite early: Poland, Czech Republic, formerly part of Czechoslovakia and Slovenia. The Slovenian third age University was founded by two professors from the University in 1984 and became a network of 40 universities across the country.
There is online third age University in Russia.

1.4. History. Australia. (Австралия)
The first Australian U3A commenced in Melbourne in 1984 and in 2013, increased to 250 U3As with approximately 85.000 members. They are based in urban, regional and rural areas, and to follow the British Self-help model of teaching and learning in a wide range of subject areas, dependent on membership of their own experience, knowledge and skills.
U3As in New South Wales, Victoria, Australian capital territory, South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia formed state networks to support U3As in your state or territory to a variety of resources. Each network has its own website, where local U3As can be located. For example, which also has links to other state networks.
In 1998 U3A online was started to provide cognitively demanding virtual courses for elderly people living alone from any country. Since then, the initiative was expanded to include any person who finds himself in his third age. More than 35 courses, all written and taught by experts from different countries available. In 2009, U3A online has published a document entitled "educational initiatives for the elderly". The article contains contributions from a number of U3A leaders from around the world describing the status of U3A and U3A-like organisations in different countries. That paper and other peer-reviewed scientific studies based on successful aging models, are freely available.

1.5. History. Canada. (Канада)
Third age network tan is very active in Canada, but currently only in the province of Ontario. Headquartered in the school of G. Raymond Chang of continuing education at the University of Ryerson in Toronto, the Network was launched in 2007 and has grown to 21 groups in 2018.
Third age mission:" the assistance of a third study, age and share issues and solutions to common organizational objectives. We do this by creating organizations that provide opportunities for seniors to learn in a friendly, social environment and supporting the organization of adult education in this process by sharing strategies and techniques to achieve this goal.”
The Tang runs the newsletter and the organization of, symposia and forums. It also supports local groups with information on speakers, networking with colleagues, information about member transactions, including fees to speakers, the Commission is the cost of rent available for collective insurance, a regular newsletter, conferences and seminars, guidelines for creating a web site, internal and external communication.
Programs Simon Fraser University SFU seniors
SFU was the first University in North America to create a series of specially designed courses for pensioners at the post-secondary level. Its mandate is to provide educational programs for seniors that meet their unique psychological and physiological characteristics.
To read more on this page on the UBC website.

2. The virtual University of the third age. (Виртуальный Университет третьего возраста)
On January 1, 2009, after four years of experimentation and testing, the virtual University of the third age vU3A was launched with the aim to provide friendship, support and learning enjoyed by the off-line group. vU3A open to all, particularly those who, because of the circumstances of isolation, health problems or other restrictions, cannot get to a U3A group. There is a small fee.
Volunteers run the entire operation, including training, in cyberspace. There is General agreement that not only physical but also intellectual activity enrich and prolong life in the later years. Although primarily for the retired, many U3As open their membership to any people not in full-time employment, thus becoming more inclusive and expanding the age range of composition.

3. Courses. (Курсы)
Typical courses include art, classical music, conversation, computers, crafts, debate, drama, history, languages, literature, music, science, social science, and philosophy. Some research groups did not have a prepared program, but draw on reports of current Affairs in their topic quickly conversation and research. Some groups are designed to cross disciplinary boundaries, for example, combining society, technology and science in fashion not practical in a more formal learning environment.
U3A groups are able to conduct serious research in local history and genealogy. For example, a group in Eyemouth collected and exhibited many photographs of life and work in the area for many years. Some groups aim to bridge the generation gap in information technology, opening up exciting new world to many who would otherwise noticing it. Internet marketing is especially important for members in more remote locations.
There are also a lot less educationally purposeful activities, including games, including the training of bridges and playing duplicate Bridge group, health, fitness and recreation, including countryside walks, theatre / concert clubs, travel clubs, dance in all its forms.

4. Newsletter
Many U3As publish local newsletters as do some of these special interest networks. In the UK the Third age trust, the coordinating body in the UK, publishes a national journal. Questions of the third age publishes five times a year plus an educational Bulletin called sources, for subscribing U3A members three times a year.
In the U3A can also serve as a valuable source in addressing many local and national problems. Membership includes many with experience and knowledge in almost all spheres of life and letters. Although strictly non-political, U3A members have time to reflect in a Mature fashion on such topics as the operation of a public service, crime and punishment, the future of energy supplies, public funding of art, and so forth, and may respond to invitations to participate in public consultations with carefully considered and argued responses.

5. Bibliography. (Библиография)
Kerka, S. 1999. Universities of the third age: learning in retirement. Trends and issues No. 2 alerts.
Beckett, Francis. In the U3A story the PDF. The Third Age Trust. Checked February 24, 2016.
Swindell, R. 2002. "U3A online: a virtual University of the third age for the elderly". International journal of lifelong education 215: 414-429.
Formosa, M., 2007. "A Bourdieusian interpretation of the University of the third age in Malta". Journal of Maltese studies in education, 42: 1-16.
Formosa, M. 2000. "Older adult education in a Maltese University of the third age: a critical perspective". Education and ageing, 153: 315-339.
Szeloch, 2011. "On the science nigdy nie still a joke for later". "Nowe Zycie", 4459: 11-12.
Midwinter, Eric C. 1984, universities, mutual assistance: "help yourself" approach to training the elderly, Routledge, ISBN 0-7099-3523-4.
Formosa, M., 2009. "Renewing universities of the third age: challenges and prospects for the future." Recerca, 9: 171-196.
Swindell, R. And Thompson, J. 1995. "International Outlook of the University of the third age". Educational Gerontology, 215: 429-447.
Formosa, M. 2010. "Learning throughout life in later life: the Universities of the third age." Review Of The Institute Of Learning Throughout Life, 5: 1-12.
Formosa, M. 2005. "Feminism and critical educational gerontology: a programme for good practice." Ageing International, 304: 396-411.
Midwinter, E. 2004 "500 beacons: the U3A story", the Third age press UK. Kindle edition 2014.

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University of the third age murraylands provides affordable education and leisure activities for people over 50 years. University of the Third Age Kilndown Village Hall. The U3A The University of the Third Age is a voluntary community organisation run by its members U3A groups provide a range of activities and opportunities. Four decades of Universities of the Third Age: past, present, future. Universities of the Third Age U3As provide learning opportuni ties for older adults who are largely free of work and family respon sibilities. Worldwide, they. TW U3A Welcome to Tunbridge Wells U3A. The U3A University of the Third Age gives you a chance to share your knowledge, experience and talents with others, in friendly surroundings. Nottinghamshire Network of U3As Home. USDs University of the Third Age U3A is the longest running community outreach program on campus. It is a three week program, held twice per year, that.

The Emergence of the Third Age. by Peter Laslett jstor.

Motto for Albury Wodonga U3A University of the Third Age. Are you a newcomer​, recently retired, looking for new friends? Why not join a voluntary membership. University for the retired going strong Bailiwick Express. Hungerford Arcade had a lovely fun visit from the Tadley U3A Photo Group. The U3A University of the Third Age is a self help organisation offering people who​. U3A Pyrenees Orientales Welcome to University of the Third Age. Directions to Universities Of The Third Age U3A Victorian Network Footscray with public transport. The following transport lines have routes that pass near. U3A Victor Harbor. U3A University of the Third Age is a volunteer, not for profit organisation involved in the sharing of knowledge, skills and interests. It promotes the many benefits. U3A The University of the Third Age K&M Communities. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the. U3A University of the Third Age various countries AcronymFinder. Answer 1 of 3: Would like to know whether there is a branch of the U3A in or near Oudtshoorn for retired people?.

History of Egypt

The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Ancient Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first king of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominantly native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC.

In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, whose first ruler was one of Alexander's former generals, Ptolemy I Soter. The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt's becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire.

Roman rule in Egypt (including Byzantine) lasted from 30 BC to 641 AD, with a brief interlude of control by the Sasanian Empire between 619 and 629, known as Sasanian Egypt. [1] After the Muslim conquest of Egypt, parts of Egypt became provinces of successive Caliphates and other Muslim dynasties: Rashidun Caliphate (632-661), Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), Abbasid Caliphate (750–935), Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171), Ayyubid Sultanate (1171–1260), and the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire.

Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. [2] Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the Anglo-Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of�, the Kingdom of Egypt was established. While a de jure independent state, the United Kingdom retained control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of�.

The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, and with the complete withdrawal of British forces from the Suez Canal in 1956, it marked the first time in 2500 years that Egypt was both fully independent and ruled by native Egyptians. President Gamal Abdel Nasser (president from 1956 to 1970) introduced many reforms and created the short-lived United Arab Republic (with Syria). His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of the international Non-Aligned Movement. His successor, Anwar Sadat (president from 1970 to 1981) changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system and launching the Infitah economic policy. He led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.

Recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events following nearly thirty years of rule by the former president Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian revolution of� deposed Mubarak and resulted in the first democratically elected president in Egyptian history, Mohamed Morsi. Unrest after the 2011 revolution and related disputes led to the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.

Map of the Third Intermediate Period - History

People - Ancient Egypt : Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun)

Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun) in Tour Egypt RAMESSES IV, BEGINNING THE EMPIRE'S COLLAPSE BY JIMMY DUNN -- The story of the Ramessid kings following Ramesses III is one of decline and the end of the great empire ruled under the rule of Egyptians. Afterwards, Egypt would mostly be ruled by foreigners of one kind or another. However, Ramesses III's son, probably by either Queen Isis or Queen Titi, did seem to have enjoyed a fairly prosperous, albeit short reign. Of course, we know from many other kings during this period that his birth name, Ramesses, means "Re has Fashioned Him". His throne name, Heqamaatre means "Ruler of Justice like Re. We know that he had a chief wife named Tentopet, who was buried in QV74 in the Valley of the Queens, as little else of his family is known. Ramesses IV became crown prince in the twenty-two of his father's reign. Though only the fifth son of his Ramesses III, his four older brother's predeceased their father. Whether or not he ruled as a co-regent of his father, during the closing years of Ramesses III's life, his son took on increasing responsibilities. For example, as early as year 27 of Ramesses III's reign, he Ramesses IV is depicted as being responsible for the appointment of one Amenemopet as the High Priest of Mut at Karnak. Some scholars maintain that it was Ramesses IV who resided over the court that tried those arrested in the "Harem Conspiracy" involving his father, but this is by no means certain. His father may, or may not have survived that conspiracy, but irregardless, it is clear that the assassination attempt was aimed at eliminating Ramesses IV as the crown prince. Obviously, this did not take place. Though little in the way of military action can be documented during Ramesses IV's reign, there is some slight evidence of a sea action, in Ramesses IV's third year, perhaps with the Sea People that were such a bother to his father. And though we know of the viceroy of Nubia, one Hori II, who's father had served under Siptah at the end of the 19th Dynasty, there is little other evidence for Ramesses IV's activities outside Egypt proper. We do know, from several inscribed stele in the Wadi Hammamat, that he sent large expeditions out to obtain good stone for statues. One of these included 8,368 men, that included some 2,000 soldiers. Prior to this, little activity had taken place at Wadi Hammamat prior to the reign of Seti I. Apparently the soldiers were not sent so much to defend the workmen, but rather to control them. We also find recorded expeditions to the turquoise mines at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, as well as southern campaigns into Nubia as far south as the fort of Buhen, that lies just north of the Second Cataract (rapids) on the Nile River. He was also responsible, together with his father, for major work on enlargement of the temple of Khonsu at Karnak. He also apparently at least began a mortuary temple, intended to be even larger than that of his father's, near the temple of Hatshepsut. There is another, smaller temple associated with him north of Medinet Habu, of which even less is known. It has been suggested that the larger temple was abandoned for the less demanding size of the smaller. In addition, he is attested to by a stela at Koptos and from other smaller monuments in the Sinai, as well as a statue from Memphis and an Obelisk from Heliopols. Due to his building actives, he apparently increased, and perhaps even doubled, the work force at Deir el-Medina. However, as at the end of his father's reign, further delays in the delivery of basic commodities needed by these workmen occurred, that, in hindsight at the end of the 20th Dynasty, can be seen to have had a significant impact on the demise of the Egyptian Empire. These problems coincided with the growing influence of the High Priest of Amun. Ramesesnakht, the older of that high office, was soon accompanying the state officials when they went to pay the men their monthly rations, which indicates that probably the temple of Amun, and not the Egyptian state itself, was now at least partially responsible for their wages. In fact, Ramesesnakht controlled a powerful family consisting of many priests in the temple of Amun. His son, Usermaatranakht was "steward of the estate of Amun" and as such, he not only controlled a vast Temple estate, but also a majority of the state owned land in Middle Egypt. The High Priest of Amun was now a hereditary position, and its heirs would become more and more independent of the king so that by the time of Ramesses XI at the end of the 20th Dynasty, the Egypt would finally be divided between the High Priests at Thebes and the Lower Egyptian King, resulting in the Third Intermediate Period. Despite all of the good work for the gods and his prayer to Osiris for a long reign [as my predecessor], recorded on a stele discovered by Mariette at Abydos that dates to year four of Ramesses IV's reign, the king died after only about six years on the throne. He was succeeded on the throne by a brother who continued the line of Ramessid names (Ramesses V). Ramesses IV was buried on the West Bank of ancient Thebes (modern Luxor) just outside the earlier main grouping of tombs in the Eastern Valley of the Kings in KV2, but his body was later discovered in the royal cache unearthed in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35) and is now in the Egyptian Antiquities Museum in Cairo.

Ramesses IV in Wikipedia Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef. He was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed to the position of crown prince by the twenty-second year of his father's reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him.[2] His promotion to crown prince: 'is suggested by his appearance (suitably entitled) in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, which may have been completed by Year 22 [of his father's reign]. (the date is mentioned in the poem inscribed there)'[3] As his father's chosen successor the Prince employed three distinctive titles: "Hereditary Prince", "Royal scribe" and "Generalissimo" the latter two of his titles are mentioned in a text at Amenhotep III's temple at Soleb[4] and all three royal titles appear on a lintel now in Florence, Italy.[5] As heir-apparent he took on increasing responsibilities for instance, in Year 27 of his father's reign, he is depicted appointing a certain Amenemopet to the important position of Third Prophet of Amun in the latter's TT 148 tomb.[6][7] Amenemope's Theban tomb also accords prince Ramesses all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles.[8] Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV is believed to have been a man in his forties when he took the throne. His rule has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1155 to 1149 BC. Projects At the start of his reign, the pharaoh initiated a substantial building campaign program on the scale of Ramesses II by doubling the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai.[9] The Great Rock stela of Ramesses IV at Wadi Hammamat records that the largest expedition-dated to his Year 3, third month of Shemu day 27- consisted of 8,368 men alone including 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 personnel of the Amun temples, 800 Apiru and 130 stonemasons and quarrymen under the personal command of the High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht.[10] The scribes who composed the text conscientiously noted that this figure excluded 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list."[11] Consequently, once this omitted figure is added to the tally of 8,368 men who survived the Year 3 quarry expedition, a total of 900 men out of an original expedition of 9,268 men perished during this massive endeavour for a mortality rate of almost 10%. This gives an indication of the harshness of life in Egypt's stone quarries. Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more.[12] Other Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances. Part of the king's program included the extensive enlargement of his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the construction of a large mortuary temple near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the turquoise mines the Sinai a total of four expeditions are known prior to his fourth year. The Serabit el- Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "Year 3, third month of Shomu. His Majesty sent his favoured and beloved one, the confident of his lord, the Overseer of the Treasury of Silver and Gold, Chief of the Secrets of the august Palace, Sobekhotep, justified, to bring for him all that his heart desired of turquoise (on) his fourth expedition."[13] This expedition dates to either Ramesses III or IV's reign since Sobekhotep is attested in office until at least the reign of Ramesses V.[14] Ramesses IV's final venture to the turquoise mines of the Sinai is documented by the stela of a senior army scribe named Panufer. Panufer states that this expedition's mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el- Khadim.[15] The stela reads: Year 5, second month of Shomu [ie: summer]. The sending by His Majesty build the Mansion of Millions of Years of Ramesses IV in the temple of Hathor, Lady of Turquoise, by Panefer, the Scribe of the Commands of the Army, son of Pairy, justified.[16] While little is known regarding the route that the mining missions took from Egypt to Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, AJ Peden who wrote a biography of Ramesses IV's reign in 1994 states that there were "two obvious routes" to reach this site: "The first was a straightforward march from a Delta base, such as Memphis, east south-east and then south into Sinai. Surviving a march in this inhospitable land would have presented formidable logistical obstacles, perhaps forcing an alternative route to be adopted. This would involve a departure from the Delta to a site near the modern port of Suez. From here they could have proceeded by boat to the ports of Abu Zenima or El-Markha on the west coast of the Sinai peninsula and from there it is a short journey inland of only a day or two to the actual site of Serabit el-Khadim."[17] Attestations Ramesses IV is attested by his aforementioned building activity at Wadi Hammamat and Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai as well as several papyri and even one obelisk. The creation of a royal cult in the Temple of Hathor is known under his reign at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai while Papyrus Mallet (or P. Louvre 1050) dates to Years 3 and 4 of his reign.[18] Papyrus Mallet is a six column text dealing partly with agricultural affairs its first column lists the prices for various commodities between Year 31 of Ramesses III until Year 3 of Ramesses IV.[19] The final four columns contain a memorandum of 2 letters composed by the Superintendent of Cattle of the Estate of Amen-Re, Bakenkhons, to several mid-level administrators and their subordinates.[19] Meanwhile, surviving monuments of Ramesses IV in the Delta consists of an obelisk recovered in Cairo and a pair of his cartouches found on a pylon gateway both originally from Heliopolis.[18] The most important document to survive from this pharaoh's rule is Papyrus Harris I, which honours the life of his father, Ramesses III, by listing the latter's many accomplishments and gifts to the temples of Egypt, and the Turin papyrus, the earliest known geologic map. Ramesses IV was perhaps the last New Kingdom king to engage in large- scale monumental building after his father as "there was a marked decline in temple building even during the longer reigns of Ramesses IX and VI. The only apparent exception was the attempt of Ramesses V and VI to continue the vast and uncompleted mortuary temple of Ramesses IV at the Assasif."[20] Death Despite Ramesses IV's many endeavours for the gods and his prayer to Osiris-preserved on a Year 4 stela at Abydos- that "thou shalt give me the great age with a long reign [as my predecessor]", the king did not live long enough to accomplish his ambitious goals.[21] After a short reign of about six and a half years, Ramesses IV died and was buried in tomb KV2 in the Valley of the Kings. His mummy was found in the royal cache of Amenhotep II's tomb KV35 in 1898.[21] His chief wife is Queen Duatentopet or Tentopet who was buried in QV74. His son, Ramesses V, would succeed him to the throne.[22]

For over a century our knowledge of Egypt’s Western Desert during the Third Intermediate Period relied almost entirely on the Greater and Smaller Dakhleh Stelae. These two significant documents were purchased by Henry Lyons in 1894 in Dakhleh Oasis and indicated the existence of a substantial temple at Mut al-Kharab dedicated to the god Seth. Apart from these sources, very little information from the Western Desert could be dated to this period. Excavations at Mut al-Kharab began in 2000 and in recent years, evidence from the Third Intermediate Period temple has grown considerably. A range of artefacts has been unearthed, including decorated temple blocks, stelae, ostraka, in situ architectural remains, other small finds, and a large collection of well-dated ceramics. The scale of evidence suggests Mut al-Kharab was probably the most significant Third Intermediate Period site in the Western Desert.

In light of this new material, a re-examination of activity in the Western Desert during this period has been possible. This volume presents all the available evidence relating to the western oases during the Third Intermediate Period, with a particular focus on the ceramics. Occupation appears to have been more widespread than the limited evidence previously suggested, and these oasis communities were closely connected to the populations in the Nile Valley. The Egyptian central administration continued to be interested in the Western Desert, although political control does not seem to have been consistent. Moreover, subtle yet distinct variations in the material record, including aspects of pottery traditions and religious practices, may reveal the existence of an oasis culture. As such, we are developing a much clearer picture of activity in this region.

Watch the video: First Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt - Egypt Ancient Egypt History Archaeology The Past (January 2022).