Information

History of S-10 SS-115 - History


S-10 SS-115

S—10

(SS-115: dp. 876 (surf.), 1,092 (subm.), 1. 231', b. 21'10"; dr. 13'1"; s. 15 k. (surf.), 11 k. (subm.)cpl. 38; a. 5 21" tt., 1 4"; cl. S - 3)

S-10 (SS-115) was laid down on 11 September 1919 by the Portsmouth (N.H.) Navy Yard; launched on 1 December 1920, sponsored by Miss Marian K. Payne and commissioned on 21 September 1922, Lt. Comdr. Carroll Q. Wright, Jr., in command.

Following duty off the northeast coast, S-l o visited the Panama Canal area, St. Thomas, and Trinidad during early 1924 and completed that year along the northeast coast. Sailing from Boston on 19 February 1925, S-lo voyaged via the Panama Canal and California to Hawaii, arriving on 27 April. She returned to New London on 12 July and completed that year in New England waters In addition to duty out of New London from 1926 through 1928, S-10 operated in the Panama Canal area from February through April 1926, visited Guantanamo Bay and Kingston in March 1927, and served again at the Panama Canal from February into March 1928. From 1929 into 1936, S-10 served almost exclusively in the Panama Canal area although she visited Memphis, Tenn., from 11 to 15 May 1933, and was in reserve, with a partial crew, at Coco Solo from 1 July to 27 November that year.

Departing Coco Solo on 30 March 1936, S-10 was decommissioned on 17 July that year at Philadelphia and struck from the Navy list. She was sold on 13 November for scrapping.


History’s 10 Most Consequential Battles

In 1066, England&rsquos penultimate Anglo-Saxon king, Edward the Confessor, died childless. He had been a weak king, and the real power had been wielded by the Godwin family. Godwin, Earl of Wessex, had secured the throne for Edward, and after the Earl&rsquos death in 1053, his son Harold Godwinson took his place as the power behind the throne.

When Edward died on January 5th, 1066, he granted the kingdom to Harold, who was crowned king, with the backing of the nobility. Harold&rsquos right to the throne was disputed however by his younger brother Tostig, whom Harold had exiled. Tostig&rsquos claim was frivolous, but he secured the support of king Harald Hardrada of Norway, who sought to use him as a puppet king.

A more serious contender was Duke William of Normandy, Edward the Confessor&rsquos cousin on his mother&rsquos side, and his nearest living male relative. Edward had grown up an exile in the Norman court, and had strong bonds of affection to his Norman relatives. Duke William&rsquos claim that Edward had promised him the English throne was thus plausible.

Tostig and Harald Hardrada invaded England first, landing near York in the north of England in September of 1066. King Harold led his Anglo-Saxon army on a forced march, then won a victory at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, in which both Tostig and Harald Hardrada were slain. He did not enjoy the victory for long, however, for word arrived soon thereafter that Duke William had landed with an army in southern England.

Harold gathered his weary army and led it on another forced march to meet the Normans, whom he encountered at Hastings with about 7000 men &ndash only half of England&rsquos trained soldiers. Although advised to wait for reinforcements, Harold opted instead for an immediate battle, to prevent the Normans from devastating the countryside.

On October 14th, 1066, the Anglo-Saxons assembled atop a protected ridge near Hastings, where they formed a shield wall. Unfortunately for them, their tactics and military doctrine, were outdated. Harold&rsquos army was comprised entirely of infantry, without cavalry or archers. The Normans had both, which would prove decisive in the upcoming battle.

Fighting commenced with mounted charges by Norman knights, that failed to break the Anglo-Saxon shield wall. However, feigned retreats drew many of Harold&rsquos men out of formation and into disastrous pursuits, that culminated in the pursuers getting surrounded and destroyed. That thinned the Anglo-Saxon lines, and by late afternoon, the natives were hard pressed, when an arrow struck king Harold in the eye, and killed him. His men broke and scattered soon thereafter.

The victorious William then marched upon and seized London, where he was crowned as King William I on December 25th, 1066. That brought over 600 years of Anglo-Saxon rule, stretching back to Roman times, to an end. In addition to a new dynasty and ruling class, Anglo-Saxon English melded with Norman French to eventually produce modern English. The new rulers also reoriented England from the Scandinavian world, of which it had been a de facto part since the Viking Era, and gave it stronger links to France and continental Europe.


History's 10 Most Accomplished Drunks

While many of us have put back a few on occasion, it takes a special man or woman to hold a drink while holding down a hugely demanding job. OZY takes a look back at history’s 10 most functional boozehounds.

10. The Queen Mother

The late mother of Queen Elizabeth II is rumored to have consumed a bottle of gin a day, but that did not stop her from performing public duties until the ripe old age of 101. Once, while growing impatient for a gin and tonic, she is reported to have asked the members of her largely gay personal staff, “When one of you old queens has finished, can you bring this old queen a drink?”

9. William Faulkner

The great American writer was fond of saying that “civilization begins with distillation,” a motto he adhered to closely. He was also fond of hot toddies and whiskey. “I usually write at night,” he once said. “I always keep my whiskey within reach.”

8. Bette Davis

One of Hollywood’s greatest leading ladies, Davis enjoyed a career that spanned seven decades. The actress was known for her wit, strong personality and affection for a good drink. And as she got older, the cocktail hour got younger, eventually settling into a comfortable spot right after lunch.

7. W.C. Fields

The legendary comedian and film star of the 1930s was also a legendary drunk. Fields kept a martini-filled flask on hand whenever he was on a film set he referred to it as his “lemonade.” One story goes that someone once poured actual lemonade into the actor’s flask, prompting Fields to holler, “Who put lemonade in my lemonade?”

6. Alexander the Great

Alexander of Macedon managed to conquer most of the known world — either in spite or because of a prodigious appetite for the hard stuff — by his death at age 32 in 323 B.C. Alexander is rumored to have killed one of his own men in a drunken rage, and historians still debate whether he presided over a drunken orgy that ultimately led to the arson of the magnificent Persian palace in Persepolis in 330 B.C.

5. Dorothy Parker

The wisecracking and prolific American writer and poet once remarked that “one more drink and I’d have been under the host.” Parker could famously outdrink her male compatriots in New York’s Algonquin Round Table during the 1920s.

4. Frank Sinatra

Ol’ Blue Eyes enjoyed one of the most productive singing and performing careers of the 20th century, and did so with a tumbler of whiskey in hand at almost all times. “The Bourbon Baritone” was even buried by his children with a bottle of Jack Daniels in his coat pocket.

3. Ernest Hemingway

Like his fellow writer Faulkner, Papa stuck to a motto. His version: “A man does not exist until he is drunk.” After he was ordered by doctors to curb his drinking in 1939, Hemingway tried to limit himself to three Scotches before dinner. He couldn’t pull it off. Nor could he cut out his breakfast tea and gin, or his midday snack of absinthe, vodka and wine.

2. Winston Churchill

The legendary British prime minister was known for imbibing large quantities of alcohol and he openly admitted to relying on it, once observing that “I have taken more out of alcohol than alcohol has taken out of me.” He typically had a glass of whiskey at his desk, and he often drank brandy or Champagne at lunch and dinner.

1. Boris Yeltsin

While it might be unusual to find a Russian leader who wasn’t a heavy drinker, Yeltsin put his predecessors to shame. He often appeared drunk in public, including at high-profile diplomatic events. The late president’s epic drinking is memorialized in a Simpsons episode, in which the highest reading of a Breathalyzer registers as “Yeltsin.”


10 of History’s Worst Weapons


Comprising a pair of 10-foot wheels connected by a drum axle packed with 2 tons of TNT, the rocket-propelled Great Panjandrum would launch from landing craft and blast holes into German shore defenses&mdashin theory anyway. (Conceptual illustration by Wilf Hardy/©Look and Learn/The Bridgeman Art Library)

‘Since the device was totally unguided, anyone could predict disaster if just one rocket failed to fire or simply put out less power than the others’

Once, there was no such thing as a bad weapon. Weapons were simple&mdashclubs, spears, axes, bows and arrows, chariots, lances, pikes&mdashand all were eventually superseded by whatever came along that was incrementally better. For example, though the crossbow lacked the power and range of an English longbow, it wasn&rsquot a bad weapon the longbow was just a better one. Come the Industrial Revolution, however, technology factored in to weapon design and engineering, occasionally with disastrous results. We&rsquove chosen several such military missteps as examples of what can happen when the delicate balance between utility, usability and effectiveness is upset.

Review our nominees for clunkiest combat contraptions, then feel free to suggest your own and debate the merits/demerits of your selections with fellow readers in our online forum.

1 GREAT PANJANDRUM
Nevil Shute, author of On the Beach, A Town Like Alice and other popular novels, was also an aeronautical engineer who was unfortunately responsible for designing one of the silliest weapons of World War II&mdashthe Great Panjandrum. Developed under the aegis of the British Admiralty&rsquos Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons Development, it comprised a pair of 10-foot wooden wheels, the axle between them containing a 2-ton drum of TNT. The Panjandrum was to be launched from the ramp of a landing craft just off a Normandy beachhead, from which (in theory anyway) it would roar up the beach at 60 mph and smash into the Atlantic Wall defenses, blowing a tank-size hole in the fortifications, as depicted above. Propelling it were 70 solid-fuel rockets around the rim of each wheel, spinning the entire affair like a crazed Catherine wheel firework.

Since the device was totally unguided, anyone could predict disaster if just one rocket failed to fire or simply put out less power than the others. And what might be the effect of a perversely sloping beach or of an errant rock in Panjandrum&rsquos path? Film survives of a test that provides the answer: On-screen a veering, tipping, tilting runaway wheel scatters generals, admirals and stray dogs as it shoots sparks, sheds rockets and careens across an English beach, finally coming to rest on its side, where it explodes and disintegrates.

2 HEINKEL He 177 GREIF
Adolf Hitler himself unflatteringly compared the He 177 long-range heavy bomber to the Panther tank, which at the time was facing its own mechanical problems. &ldquoThis garbage plane is, of course, the biggest piece of junk that was probably ever produced,&rdquo he said of the 177. &ldquoIt&rsquos the flying Panther, and the Panther is the crawling Heinkel.&rdquo Though the Panther developed into an excellent tank, the Heinkel&rsquos problems plagued it for four years before it was finally declared barely fit for production, and by then there was no need for a long-range, four-engine Luftwaffe bomber. Nazi Germany&rsquos sole heavy bomber was its aircraft industry&rsquos most dismal failure. Factories rolled out more than 1,100 He 177s, and the entire fleet was a waste of time and material.

Much of the blame goes to Ernst Udet, the World War I German ace who championed dive-bombing. The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was Udet&rsquos favorite plane for that task, and he wanted the He 177 to dive-bomb, too. Unfortunately, pulling out from a 60-degree dive in an airplane with 3-ton engines on each wing requires enormous structural demands. Little surprise, then, that many He 177s fell apart in flight. The ones that did stay in one piece often caught fire. Their tightly cowled power plants&mdashside-by-side V-12s driving a single prop through a common gearbox&mdashleaked oil and fuel and ran as hot as blast furnaces. As a weight-saving measure they didn&rsquot even have firewalls to protect the wing spar from the resulting 2,950-hp blowtorch.

3 (a tie) SOVIET ANTI-TANK DOGS AND U.S. BAT BOMBS
The idea to strap explosives to a dog&rsquos back and teach it to crawl beneath a German tank was not just inhumane&mdashit wasn&rsquot very bright. During World War II the Soviets developed such &ldquodog mines,&rdquo which exploded when a detonating rod hit the tank&rsquos belly. Problem was the Soviets used their own T-34s to train the dogs, teaching them to seek treats beneath the tanks. T-34s had diesel engines that stank of kerosene. German tanks, however, were gasoline-fueled and smelled quite different. Amid the noise and confusion of battle, the dogs often sniffed out the familiar-smelling Soviet tanks, with predictable results. The dogs also refused to run beneath moving tanks and were often frightened off by German gunfire, only to flee back to their own trenches and foxholes, where the mines obediently detonated.

Another bizarre animal-based weapon that seemed like a good idea at the time was the &ldquobat bomb&rdquo the United States developed for use against Japan. Each bomb&mdasha perforated sheet metal canister&mdashheld 1,000 bats, each carrying a tiny time-delayed napalm incendiary device. Slowed by a parachute, the canister would open as it neared the ground and, presumably, the bats would swarm away, finding nesting places in the eaves of paper-and-wood Japanese houses. The bats were never used against the Japanese, but during testing they did burn to the ground a large part of New Mexico&rsquos Carlsbad Army Airfield.

4 MARK 14 TORPEDO
It&rsquos hard to imagine anyone deliberately designing a submarine torpedo as bad as the Mark 14, but the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, R.I., managed to pull it off. This U.S. fleetwide standard torpedo ran 10 to 12 feet below what it had been set for, thanks to a misaligned depth sensor. It also failed to explode when it passed beneath a ship&rsquos keel, as its complex Mark 6 magnetic-influence exploder had been tested in New England waters that were magnetically very different from the South Pacific. Even when the Mark 14 did manage to hit a ship, the result was often just a loud clang, as the contact-exploder would break when the 3,280-pound torpedo hit a steel hull at 46 knots.

Worst of all, NTS Newport refused to admit any flaws with its product, and the fixes that did finally correct the Mark 14&rsquos performance were effected in the field by submariners tired of returning from patrols with expended torpedoes and nothing to show for it. The Mark 14&rsquos overall record from the beginning of the Pacific War through August 1943 was seven misses, duds, premature explosions or circular runs (at least one sub was sunk by its own torpedo) for every 10 fired. What came to be known as the &ldquoGreat Torpedo Scandal&rdquo was the result of an incompetent Navy design and development facility run by bureaucrats who refused to listen to the submariners actually using their product.

5 DOUBLE-BARRELED CANNON
This concept dates from 1642 and Florentine gun maker Antonio Petrini. He cast the first cannon intended to fire simultaneously from side-by-side barrels two balls linked by a chain, intended to scythe down enemy soldiers like standing wheat when it reached them. The operative word, however, was &ldquosimultaneously.&rdquo For the rig to work, the powder behind each round shot had to ignite at the same instant, which, of course, rarely happened.

In 1862 Georgia dentist and mechanic John Gilleland raised money from a coterie of Confederate citizens to build the ultimate chain-shot gun. Cast in one piece, the gun featured side-by-side bores, each a little over 3 inches in diameter and splayed slightly outward so the shots would diverge and stretch the chain taut. During tests the Gilleland cannon effectively mowed down trees, tore up a cornfield, knocked down a chimney and killed an unfortunate cow. None of the above were anywhere near the gun&rsquos intended target.

A treatise that describes Antonio Petrini&rsquos cannon survives in the Royal Armories of the Tower of London, while Gilleland&rsquos gun sits on the lawn of the Athens, Ga., city hall.

6 M16 RIFLE
The modern-day M16A4 is probably the deadliest and most accurate assault rifle ever produced, a point arguable perhaps only by AK-47/AKM acolytes. But during the Vietnam War soldiers and Marines faced injury and even death due to flaws in the early model M16s. Defenders of the M16 insist, &ldquoThe problem wasn&rsquot the rifle, it was the ammunition.&rdquo But that&rsquos a little like saying, &ldquoIt was a great airplane, but the engine failed every 10th flight.&rdquo

The rifle did have faults. The M16 was designed to use ammo loaded with extruded powder, a propellant with cylindrical grains. As an economical move the Army Ordnance Corps decreed a change to ball powder, which had spherical grains and included a calcium carbonate additive to keep it from deteriorating. This allowed the Army to recycle propellant from obsolete rifle ammo and artillery rounds for M16 ammo, and since Ordnance didn&rsquot retest the rifle after switching powders, troops in the field became the unfortunate beta testers.

The M16 had been overzealously promoted as a &ldquoself-cleaning rifle,&rdquo and troops were issued insufficient cleaning supplies. Unfortunately, the ball powder additive and other detritus fouled the gun&rsquos chamber. The most grievous result was &ldquofailure to extract,&rdquo in which a spent cartridge case jammed inside the chamber after firing. The only way to remove it without a cleaning rod was to disassemble the weapon. Troops were found dead after firefights, their M16s lying beside them in pieces.

The early M16 also lacked a chrome-lined chamber, so it corroded in humid conditions, and its light rounds were all too easily deflected by foliage. By the late 1960s it had become so unpopular with troops that its reputation has yet to recover, despite numerous improvements to the weapon and to its ammunition.

7 BLUE PEACOCK NUCLEAR MINE
Any device with a nuclear warhead is arguably a candidate for worst weapon, given its inherent risks and often indiscriminate killing power. Nonetheless, we nominate Britain&rsquos Blue Peacock as history&rsquos most benighted nuclear device.

The Blue Peacock project called for the construction of ten 7.2-ton, minivan-size steel casings, each holding a plutonium weapon with a yield of 10 kilotons. The British army would bury the devices at strategic points in Germany through which Soviet tanks might rumble. If forced to retreat, the British would fall back to a distance from which each Blue Peacock could be triggered manually. Otherwise the mines were preloaded with a timer that would blow them in eight days no matter what.

In theory the blasts would not only evaporate the Soviet invaders but also leave a zone of radioactive desolation unfit for occupation. The British intended to tell the Germans the mines were nuclear power plants for use by frontline NATO troops. At least one Blue Peacock was built before the Ministry of Defence decided the weapon was a bad idea.

The buried bombs would have required an independent heat source to keep the circuitry from malfunctioning in winter temps, and the planners&rsquo best idea was to seal a bunch of chickens and ample chickenfeed into the casings. Each hen would give off 1,000 BTU a day of body heat. A key component of that cockamamie proposal was old-fashioned feedstore chicken wire, to keep the clucks from pecking at the wiring.

8 MAGINOT LINE
Many French insist the Maginot Line worked perfectly during the opening days of World War II, blocking traditional invasion routes into France and forcing the Germans to avoid it. Problem was the Wehrmacht did just that, bypassing it through the Ardennes forest, and Luftwaffe aircrews went over it wherever they wished.

The French developed the Maginot Line in part because in 1918 they had fended off the Germans with fixed defenses&mdashnamely trenches. The Maginot was a far more sophisticated complex of fortifications, obstacles and weapons, and though it was the last gasp of a timeworn concept that dated back to the days of coast artillery, forts under siege and hilltop castles, it was by no means just a fancy World War I super trench. Nor was it just a &ldquoline.&rdquo In places, the fortifications were 16 miles deep, with zone after zone of specialized gunnery, all linked by tunnels and subterranean rail lines.

But the Maginot was solely defensive. Had the Wehrmacht cooperated with the assumption the Ardennes was impassable, the best the line might have accomplished would have been to hold off the Germans long enough for the French to mobilize their smaller army and concentrate forces.

Ultimately, the French built a wall while the Germans built panzers and Stukas, and it cost France an enormous amount of energy plus 3 billion francs that could have been better spent on armored divisions and a more effective air force.

9 NOVGOROD
Like Vasa, the infamous Swedish warship that in 1628 keeled over and sank little over a mile into its maiden voyage, the Russian ironclad monitor Novgorod had a fatal flaw that only became fully apparent once it had been launched and entered combat on the Black Sea in the 1877&ndash78 Russo-Turkish War.

Novgorod has been called the ugliest warship ever built. As round and clumsy as a floating soup dish, the 2,500-ton vessel had six steam engines that drove six screws. The Russians claimed Novgorod was immune to ramming, as its key components lay well inboard of the ship&rsquos 9-inch armored beltline no matter where a rammer hit. Amidships, mounted on swiveling platforms, were two 26-ton, 11-inch muzzle-loaded cannon&mdashbig naval guns for the time. As Novgorod&rsquos circular hull drafted just 12 feet, far less than it would have had the vessel been designed with a conventional hull, the plan was for the monitor to cruise just offshore and bombard land targets.

Unfortunately, when either gun was fired, the ship rotated uncontrollably in the direction of the gun&rsquos recoil. Even when gunners fired simultaneously, the hull pirouetted in response to whichever barrel had even a slightly more powerful charge, and even a partial turn required time-consuming repositioning to fire the next salvo. The shallow draft ship had no stabilizing keel to keep it in line, though it was retrofitted with a parallel array of a dozen mini-keels that didn&rsquot help. The only remedy that did work was to anchor the ship in a fixed firing position. Eventually, Novgorod was relegated to duty not as a shoreline monitor but as a floating fort, moored in a fixed location with its big guns pointing seaward.

10 PANZER VIII MAUS
Who thought a tank that could barely move and presented a target the size of a school bus was a good idea? Adolf Hitler, that&rsquos who. All tanks are compromises between firepower, armor and mobility, and the Führer wanted one that put the gun first and agility last. The tank carried so much armor that enemy rounds would simply bounce off. And its 150mm main gun would presumably make up for the fact that it typically operated at about 8 mph. The result was the 207-ton Maus (&ldquoMouse&rdquo), a white elephant among the 25-ton T-34 and Panzer pygmies.

Ferdinand Porsche designed it, and it&rsquos hard to imagine that the future engineer of lightweight performance sports cars had his heart in the job. Porsche did engineer a drive system that rendered the Maus a virtual off-the-rails diesel locomotive: a 44.5-liter, 1,200-hp inverted V12 aircraft engine drove a huge generator that provided electricity to the two motors that cranked the 3.6-foot-wide tracks. Since the Maus was too heavy for bridge crossings, it was designed to either ford streams or snorkel across rivers. The latter would have been a cumbersome operation, as the engine had to be shut down, allowing the Maus to connect to a second Maus by power cable, providing electricity from the riverbank to run its motors.

Some have suggested the Maus was never intended for combat&mdashthat it was simply a propaganda tool intended to bolster folks on the home front and terrify enemy troops who imagined facing one. None ever had to, however. By war&rsquos end the Germans had built just two prototype Mäuse, one of which never got its turret and gun.


Inside Joe Biden’s history of falsely claiming he predicted 9/11 attacks

Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden for years falsely claimed in interviews that he predicted the 9/11 terror attacks and a possible strike on the White House in a speech delivered the day before terrorists flew planes into the Twin Towers.

On Sept. 10, 2001, the then-senator from Delaware gave a foreign policy speech at Washington, DC’s National Press Club in which he complained about the Bush administration’s spending on a missile defense system, warning that an anthrax or other biological attack was more likely.

“The real threat comes to this country in the hold of a ship, the belly of a plane, or smuggled into a city in the middle of the night in a vial in a backpack,” Biden said.

But when al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four planes the following morning and killed 2,977 Americans, Biden began claiming he predicted the attack.

He did no such thing. During the hour-long speech, Biden mentioned terrorism only three times — twice in reference to biological terrorism.

But in an interview with ABC News just hours after the Twin Towers fell, Biden, then chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said he warned that planes could be hijacked and flown into buildings like the White House.

“Literally as recently as yesterday, I spoke to the National Press Club and talked about the fact that it is just as easy to fly from National Airport into the White House as it is to, you know, do the same thing in New York,” Biden said.

He repeated this claim for years, boasting that he “warned about a massive attack on the United States of America from terrorists,” and that he “wasn’t clairvoyant” but “knew what everybody else knew.”

Joe Biden in 2001 speaking about the 9/11 terror attacks CQ-Roll Call, Inc via Getty Images

“On Sept. 10, the day before the attacks on the towers, I made a speech to the National Press Club where I warned about a massive attack on the United States of America from terrorists, why I thought it would happen and why I thought our priorities were misplaced — the day before 9/11,” Biden said on the Senate floor in 2006.

He repeated this in another appearance at the National Press Club several months later.

“I spoke almost five years ago to the day, the day before 9/11, and indicated what I thought the greatest threat was at that time. To state the obvious, I wasn’t clairvoyant, but I knew what everybody else knew,” the lawmaker said.

The former veep and septuagenarian presidential hopeful has faced intense scrutiny of his foreign policy record since announcing his White House bid last April.


Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984

Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, Section 1 is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 21 June 2021. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations.

Changes to Legislation

Revised legislation carried on this site may not be fully up to date. Changes and effects are recorded by our editorial team in lists which can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area. Where those effects have yet to be applied to the text of the legislation by the editorial team they are also listed alongside the legislation in the affected provisions. Use the ‘more’ link to open the changes and effects relevant to the provision you are viewing.

Changes and effects yet to be applied to Section 1:

Changes and effects yet to be applied to the whole Act associated Parts and Chapters:

Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 1(8AA) (8AB) inserted by 2019 c. 17s. 10(5)
  • s. 17(1)(cza) inserted by 2021 c. 17s. 26(9)
  • s. 61(6BA) inserted by 2008 c. 28s. 10(1) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 63(3D) inserted by 2008 c. 28s. 10(2) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 64(1AA) inserted by 2008 c. 28s. 10(4) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2008 c. 28s. 10(5) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2010 c. 17s. 14(3)(a) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 14 repealed (31.10.2013) without ever being in force by 2012 c. 9, Sch. 9 para. 4(2), Sch. 10 Pt. 1 S.I. 2013/2104, art. 3(c)(d))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2010 c. 17s. 14(3)(b) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 14 repealed (31.10.2013) without ever being in force by 2012 c. 9, Sch. 9 para. 4(2), Sch. 10 Pt. 1 S.I. 2013/2104, art. 3(c)(d))
  • s. 65A(2)(t) inserted by 2018 c. 5Sch. 12para. 6
  • s. 65A(2)(ra) inserted by 2021 c. 17Sch. 2para. 1
  • Sch. 1A para. 21A added by 1995 c. 32, s. 8B(1) (as inserted) by 2006 c. 12Sch. 3para. 13

1 Power of constable to stop and search persons, vehicles etc. E+W

(1) A constable may exercise any power conferred by this section—

(a) in any place to which at the time when he proposes to exercise the power the public or any section of the public has access, on payment or otherwise, as of right or by virtue of express or implied permission or

(b) in any other place to which people have ready access at the time when he proposes to exercise the power but which is not a dwelling.

(2) Subject to subsection (3) to (5) below, a constable—

(ii) anything which is in or on a vehicle,

for stolen or prohibited articles [ F1 , any article to which subsection (8A) below applies or any firework to which subsection (8B) below applies ] and

(b) may detain a person or vehicle for the purpose of such a search.

(3) This section does not give a constable power to search a person or vehicle or anything in or on a vehicle unless he has reasonable grounds for suspecting that he will find stolen or prohibited articles [ F2 , any article to which subsection (8A) below applies or any firework to which subsection (8B) below applies ] .

(4) If a person is in a garden or yard occupied with and used for the purposes of a dwelling or on other land so occupied and used, a constable may not search him in the exercise of the power conferred by this section unless the constable has reasonable grounds for believing—

(a) that he does not reside in the dwelling and

(b) that he is not in the place in question with the express or implied permission of a person who resides in the dwelling.

(5) If a vehicle is in a garden or yard occupied with and used for the purposes of a dwelling or on other land so occupied and used, a constable may not search the vehicle or anything in or on it in the exercise of the power conferred by this section unless he has reasonable grounds for believing—

(a) that the person in charge of the vehicle does not reside in the dwelling and

(b) that the vehicle is not in the place in question with the express or implied permission of a person who resides in the dwelling.

(6) If in the course of such a search a constable discovers an article which he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be a stolen or prohibited article [ F3 , an article to which subsection (8A) below applies or a firework to which subsection (8B) below applies ] , he may seize it.

(7) An article is prohibited for the purposes of this Part of this Act if it is—

(i) made or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with an offence to which this sub-paragraph applies or

(ii) intended by the person having it with him for such use by him or by some other person.

(8) The offences to which subsection (7)(b)(i) above applies are—

(c) offences under section 12 of the M1Theft Act 1968 (taking motor vehicle or other conveyance without authority) F4. . .

[ F5 (d) fraud (contrary to section 1 of the Fraud Act 2006) ] [ F6 and

(e) offences under section 1 of the Criminal Damage Act 1971 (destroying or damaging property). ]

[ F7 (8A) This subsection applies to any article in relation to which a person has committed, or is committing or is going to commit an offence under section 139 [ F8 or 139AA ] of the Criminal Justice Act 1988. ]

[ F9 (8B) This subsection applies to any firework which a person possesses in contravention of a prohibition imposed by fireworks regulations.

(a) “ firework ” shall be construed in accordance with the definition of “fireworks” in section 1(1) of the Fireworks Act 2003 and

(b) “ fireworks regulations ” has the same meaning as in that Act. ]

(9) In this Part of this Act “ offensive weapon ” means any article—

(a) made or adapted for use for causing injury to persons or

(b) intended by the person having it with him for such use by him or by some other person.


History's 10 Most Accomplished Drunks

Because for some, being three sheets to the wind is just as good as having the wind at your back.

While many of us have put back a few on occasion, it takes a special man or woman to hold a drink while holding down a hugely demanding job. OZY takes a look back at history’s 10 most functional boozehounds.

10. The Queen Mother

The late mother of Queen Elizabeth II is rumored to have consumed a bottle of gin a day, but that did not stop her from performing public duties until the ripe old age of 101. Once, while growing impatient for a gin and tonic, she is reported to have asked the members of her largely gay personal staff, “When one of you old queens has finished, can you bring this old queen a drink?”

9. William Faulkner

The great American writer was fond of saying that “civilization begins with distillation,” a motto he adhered to closely. He was also fond of hot toddies and whiskey. “I usually write at night,” he once said. “I always keep my whiskey within reach.”

8. Bette Davis

One of Hollywood’s greatest leading ladies, Davis enjoyed a career that spanned seven decades. The actress was known for her wit, strong personality and affection for a good drink. And as she got older, the cocktail hour got younger, eventually settling into a comfortable spot right after lunch.

7. W.C. Fields

The legendary comedian and film star of the 1930s was also a legendary drunk. Fields kept a martini-filled flask on hand whenever he was on a film set he referred to it as his “lemonade.” One story goes that someone once poured actual lemonade into the actor’s flask, prompting Fields to holler, “Who put lemonade in my lemonade?”

6. Alexander the Great

Alexander of Macedon managed to conquer most of the known world — either in spite or because of a prodigious appetite for the hard stuff — by his death at age 32 in 323 B.C. Alexander is rumored to have killed one of his own men in a drunken rage, and historians still debate whether he presided over a drunken orgy that ultimately led to the arson of the magnificent Persian palace in Persepolis in 330 B.C.

5. Dorothy Parker

The wisecracking and prolific American writer and poet once remarked that “one more drink and I’d have been under the host.” Parker could famously outdrink her male compatriots in New York’s Algonquin Round Table during the 1920s.

4. Frank Sinatra

Ol’ Blue Eyes enjoyed one of the most productive singing and performing careers of the 20th century, and did so with a tumbler of whiskey in hand at almost all times. “The Bourbon Baritone” was even buried by his children with a bottle of Jack Daniels in his coat pocket.

3. Ernest Hemingway

Like his fellow writer Faulkner, Papa stuck to a motto. His version: “A man does not exist until he is drunk.” After he was ordered by doctors to curb his drinking in 1939, Hemingway tried to limit himself to three Scotches before dinner. He couldn’t pull it off. Nor could he cut out his breakfast tea and gin, or his midday snack of absinthe, vodka and wine.

2. Winston Churchill

The legendary British prime minister was known for imbibing large quantities of alcohol and he openly admitted to relying on it, once observing that “I have taken more out of alcohol than alcohol has taken out of me.” He typically had a glass of whiskey at his desk, and he often drank brandy or Champagne at lunch and dinner.

1. Boris Yeltsin

While it might be unusual to find a Russian leader who wasn’t a heavy drinker, Yeltsin put his predecessors to shame. He often appeared drunk in public, including at high-profile diplomatic events. The late president’s epic drinking is memorialized in a Simpsons episode, in which the highest reading of a Breathalyzer registers as “Yeltsin.”


10. Buzz Aldrin

Wikipedia/NASA

The moon landing of Apollo 11 was perhaps the most significant human accomplishment of the 20th century. While Elvis was singing of suspicious minds and the New York Jets were celebrating their first and only Super Bowl, scores of brave men and women worked tirelessly to put man on the moon.

The USA dealt the killing blow to the USSR in the great 'Space Race' when they successfully sent a crew of three men to land on the surface of Earth's only moon, allowing humans to accomplish the feat for the very first time.

Often overshadowed by his colleague Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin was a vital part of the Apollo 11 mission, serving as the lunar module pilot. While Armstrong's famous words and even more iconic steps usually eclipse the details of the mission itself, the bravery of both Aldrin and Collins are not to be ignored.

The wander around the unknown is perhaps the single most scrutinised detail of our lifetime, with millions believing the whole event was staged. If the feat was true, then the recognition surely should go to all three men, not just Armstrong.


4 Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette

Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, often referred to simply as &ldquoColette,&rdquo was a famous novelist during the early to mid-20th century. Colette&rsquos writing often dealt with sexual themes and other taboo topics. She often wrote about things she had personal experience with, like being raised in a country village or being married to an older, more worldly man. [7]

Colette was married to three men during her life. Her first husband Henri Gauthier-Villars, upon discovering her talent for writing, would lock her into rooms so that she could focus on the task at hand. She wrote four novels while she was with him. The books were published under his name, and he kept all the money they earned. Colette was also rumored to have had several love affairs with women.

She spent her final years writing and being attended to by her third husband.


Chevrolet S-10 Model History

The unveiling of all-new and redesigned cars, trucks and SUVs headed to a dealer near you for 2019. Preview specific new models for a more in-depth look of what's to come or browse the photos to see what will be revamped from each automaker.

In reaction to the trend of vehicle downsizing for better fuel mileage of the early 1980s, Chevrolet created the S-10 compact truck. In 1994, the Chevrolet S-10 underwent a complete redesign consisting of a rounded front end and enhanced performance. A substantial upgrade to the S-10 occurred in 1998 S-10 model of the pickup truck that was available as a regular or extended cab body style. With the extended cab model, a third door was optional providing easier access to the rear seat area. Engine choices for the Chevrolet compact pickup truck consisted of a 120-horsepower 2.2-liter four-cylinder and a 4.3-liter six-cylinder engine generating 180 horsepower.

With the V-6 engine, the S-10 is offered with both two-wheel and four-wheel drivetrain systems. Presenting the S-10 with a lowered suspension, 16-inch wheels and other race-like enhancements, the SS package gave the truck a sportier appearance. For 1998, the Chevrolet S-10 added a passenger-side frontal airbag as standard equipment. In 1999, the SS package was renamed the Xtreme package presenting the same performance-oriented aesthetic appeal. Increasing ground clearance for better off-roading, the Chevrolet S-10&rsquos ZR2 package rode on 31-inch all-terrain tires supported by a suspension featuring Bilstein components.

The 2001 model year introduced the addition of the first Chevrolet S-10 to feature four doors. The 205-inch long 2001 S-10 Crew Cab was exclusively equipped with four-wheel drive powered by the six-cylinder engine. The bed of the Chevrolet S-10 boasted a two-tier loading design and standard tie-downs for optimum load management. For 2004, the Chevrolet S-10 was only offered with the Crew Cab body style. After 22 years on the market, the Chevrolet S-10 pickup truck concluded production after the 2004 model year. The medium-sized Chevrolet Colorado replaced the S-10 in 2005.


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