Granville S Hall YAG-40 - History

Granville S. Hall

Granville Stanley Hall was born in 1846 at Ashfield, Mass., and graduated from Williams College In 1867. After teaching at Antioch and Harvard and studying psychology in Germany, Hall organized a psychological laboratory at Johns Hopkins in 1882. Soon becoming a leader in his field, he founded the "American Journal of Psychology" in 1887; authored numerous books and articles, and served as first President of Clark University 1889 to 1920. He died in 1924.

(YAG-40: dp. 11,600; 1. 442, b. 57'; dr. 28'; s. 10 k.;
cpl. 8 to 15)

Granville S. Hall (YAG-40), a Liberty ship, was launched under Maritime Commission contract 24 October 1944 by J. A. Jones Construction Co., Inc., Panama City, Fla. sponsored by Mrs. Isabelle Gabriel, and placed in service in October 1944 for Coast-Wise Lines. She operated as a general merchant cargo vessel until entering the National Defense Reserve Fleet, Suisun Bay, Calif., June 1952.

Taken out of reserve in May 1953, Granville S. Hall was transferred to the Navy and designated YAG 40. The ship was fitted out with scientific instruments of all kinds, including nuclear detection and measurement devices. These enabled her to explore fallout areas and carry out ship decontamination tests. Granville S. Hall was also equipped with remote control devices which allowed her to be operated by a small crew in a sealed hold, and thus making her able to explore fallout areas of heavy concentration.

Granville S. Hall operated in an "Inservice" category until 1957, taking part in Operation "Castle," atomic bomb tests March-May 1954 and other radioactivity and remote control tests designed to enrich the Navy's and mankind's knowledge of these scientific areas. She was placed in the San Diego Reserve Fleet in late 1957.

The ship was reactivated in May 1962 and commissioned 20 October 1962, at Triple A Machine Shop, San Francisco, Calif., Lt. Comdr. H. W. Kepler in command . With her sister ship, George Eastman, she arrived Pearl Harbor 24 November for underway training, and following completion resumed her scientific work. Since 1962 she has operated in waters off Hawaii carrying on experiments in ship protection and scientific warfare, and at present continues her vital role.

Granville S Hall YAG-40 - History

Granville Stanley Hall was born in 1846 at Ashfield, Mass. Hall founded the "American Journal of Psychology" in 1887

The photo at top of page is AG-40 underway off the coast of Oahu, HI., 8 November 1965.
Note the big pie plate shape on her forward mast which was a Nuclear Fallout Sampling platform.

Forty-two years ago I was in the Navy and was serving as an officer on the Granville S. Hall (YAG-40). The Granville Hall was home ported at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Granny as we called her not the kind of ship that you picture as a naval vessel. She looked like a tramp freighter. She was a Liberty ship and had begun her life as a freighter during WW2.

One afternoon as I was the Officer of the Deck watch the skipper came on the bridge with the navigator and began looking at our navigation chart which showed where we were and then they marked another point on the chart drew a line between the two points and then the skipper said, “Andy, change course,” and he gave me the new course. That began Granville Hall’s search for “La Balsa.”

“La Balsa” was the name of a 1970 expedition to sail a balsa raft from South America to Australia across the Pacific Ocean. The 8600 mile voyage was, at that time, the longest know raft voyage in history. They began their voyage on the coast of Ecuador and ended it at Mooloolaba, Australia.

The expedition lasted 160 days, starting May 29, 1970 and ending on November 5. The raft was about 46 feet long and 14 feet wide and was made of seven balsa wood logs. They steered with the use of short planks between the logs.

They had grossly overestimated the speed of the currents they were riding and expecting to complete their voyage by the end of August and were very low on food and water. Appraising their situation they had decided to send a distress signal. That radio signal was picked up in Mexico City by the Mexican Navy headquarters who relayed it to the U.S. Navy who in turn radioed us with our instructions and La Balsa’s daily position.

La Balsa’s navigator was using the same primitive navigation instruments that South American sailors would have used 500 years ago. We had the most modern navigation system available at the time. It was capable of determining our position within 50 feet on the earth’s surface.

Daily we would mark La Balsa’s position on our chart and change our course by a degree or two. Hour by hour we drew closer. After four days and 1000 miles of ocean the navigator came to the bridge in the afternoon and marked La Balsa’s position and our position. I again had the watch and was told that we should soon visually sight La Balsa at a certain compass bearing. La Balsa was low to the water and wooden so our radar wasn’t expected to pick it up first. Within 15 minutes of our predicted sighting time one of our lookouts yelled, “There it is!” And sure enough about six miles straight ahead of us we could see the sail of La Balsa. The needle in the haystack had been found!

La Balsa had found us and there was much rejoicing. The cooks had been preparing a banquet and a cake for those fellows who had been living quite a Spartan existence on the raft. The entire ship’s company had a party and we all met La Balsa‘s crew. We soon drew close and sent a small boat to Balsa. The crew of four came aboard for about six hours eating, showering, and replenishing water, gasoline, food, and other supplies.

Showered and refreshed they left our ship, returned to La Balsa, hoisted their sail and headed west towards Australia at the mercy of the winds and the currents. I read years later that they attempted and completed the same voyage in 1973 only that time there were four balsa rafts instead of one.

We soon returned to Pearl Harbor and the Granville Hall never went to sea under her own power again. She was decommissioned in May 1971 and sold for scrap shortly thereafter.

A book was written about La Balsa's voyage by the leader of the expedition , Vitak Asar, and is available on line.

G. Stanley Hall

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

G. Stanley Hall, in full Granville Stanley Hall, (born February 1, 1844, Ashfield, Massachusetts, U.S.—died April 24, 1924, Worcester, Massachusetts), psychologist who gave early impetus and direction to the development of psychology in the United States. Frequently regarded as the founder of child psychology and educational psychology, he also did much to direct into the psychological currents of his time the ideas of Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, and others.

Hall graduated from Williams College in 1867. Although he originally intended to enter the ministry, he left Union Theological Seminary in New York City after one year (1867–68) to study philosophy in Germany (1868–71). He became a lecturer at Antioch College in Ohio in 1872. His decision to adopt psychology as his life’s work was inspired by a partial reading of Physiological Psychology (1873–74), by Wilhelm Wundt, generally considered the founder of experimental psychology. Hall resigned his post at Antioch in 1876 and returned to Germany for further study, becoming acquainted with Wundt and the German physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz. There Hall discovered the value of the questionnaire for psychological research. Later he and his students devised more than 190 questionnaires, which were instrumental in stimulating the upsurge of interest in the study of child development.

After returning to the United States, Hall in 1878 earned from Harvard University the first Ph.D. degree in psychology granted in America. He then gave special lectures on education at Harvard, and he used questionnaires from a study of Boston schools to write two significant papers: one dealing with children’s lies (1882) and the other with the contents of children’s minds (1883).

A lectureship in philosophy (1883) and a professorship in psychology and pedagogics (1884) at Johns Hopkins University followed. There Hall was given space for one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States. The philosopher-psychologist-educator John Dewey was one of the first to use it. In 1887 Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology, the first such American journal and the second of any significance outside Germany.

Hall was entering the most influential period of his life. The following year (1888), he helped to establish Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, and, as the university’s president and a professor of psychology, he became a major force in shaping experimental psychology into a science. A great teacher, he inspired research that reached into all areas of psychology. By 1893 he had awarded 11 of the 14 doctorates in psychology granted in the United States. The first journal in the fields of child and educational psychology, the Pedagogical Seminary (later the Journal of Genetic Psychology), was founded by Hall in 1893.

Hall’s theory that mental growth proceeds by evolutionary stages is best expressed in one of his largest and most important works, Adolescence (1904). Despite opposition, Hall, as an early proponent of psychoanalysis, invited Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to the conferences celebrating Clark University’s 20th anniversary (1909). Hall was a leading spirit in the founding of the American Psychological Association and served as its first president (1892). He published 489 works covering most of the major areas of psychology, including Senescence, the Last Half of Life (1922) and Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology (1917). Life and Confessions of a Psychologist (1923) was his autobiography.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

Granville S Hall YAG-40 - History

Operation Wigwam consisted of a single nuclear detonation, (both the operation and test are known as Wigwam), conducted 400-500 miles SW of San Diego, California(about 29 Deg N, 126 Deg W). It was a deep water test (the ocean is 16,000 feet deep at that point) to investigate the vulnerability of submarines to deep nuclear weapons, and the feasibility of using depth bombs in combat (there was considerable concern about problems with surface contamination). The test device was a B-7 (Mk-90) Betty depth bomb that was suspended by a 2000 ft cable from a barge. The dry weight of the bomb was 8250 lb, 5700 lb when submerged.

6800 personnel on 30 ships participated in Wigwam. A 6 mile tow-line connected the fleet tug, Tawasa and the shot barge. Suspended from this line at varying ditances from the barge were three "Squaws" - sub-scale submarine-like pressure hulls equipped with instruments and cameras.

The ships conducting the test were 5 miles upwind from the barge, with the exception of the USS George Eastman (YAG-39) and USS Granville S. Hall (YAG-40). These two ships were equipped with heavy shielding and were stationed 5 miles downwind. Both ships were contaminated by the base surge, but due to the relatively dilute radioactivity (since the shot was at such a great depth) and the heavy shielding kept exposures within the Operation Wigwam dose limit of 3.9 rems. Nearly all personnel were issued film badges to measure radiation exposure, and some 10,000 badges were processed. Only 3 personnel were measured as having doses exceeding 0.5 rems.

. Project 56 .

Test:Project 56 No. 1
Time:22:10 1 November 1955 (GMT)
1 November 1955 (PST)
Location:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 11a
Test Height and Type:Surface

One-point safety test of an all-oralloy prototype sealed pit weapon that was similar to the Plumbbob Priscilla and Redwing Lacrosse devices (tested at 37 and 40 kt respectively), probably the primary for the TX-15/39 and W-27.

To ensure safety of the deployed design, two changes were made to enhance the nuclear output of this test. More oralloy was used than would be present in the war-reserve model. Also 3 external neutron sources ("zippers") were used to ensure a large neutron population at the moment of criticality. The 37.1 inch diameter device weighed 600 lb.

Test:Project 56 No. 2
Time:21:15 3 November 1955 (GMT)
3 November 1955 (PST)
Location:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 11b
Test Height and Type:Surface

One-point safety test of the plutonium containing W-25 sealed pit weapon. The device was 17.4 inches in diameter, 26.6 inches long, and weighed 218 lb. 3 zippers were used as neutron sources.

Test:Project 56 No. 3
Time:19:55 5 November 1955 (GMT)
1 November 1955 (PST)
Location:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 11c
Test Height and Type:Surface

This was a one-point safety test for the prototype TX/W-28 primary. The 16.8 inch diameter nuclear system weighed 143 lb, the total device weighed 275 lb. 3 zippers were used as neutron sources.

Test:Project 56 No. 4
Time:21:30 18 January 1956 (GMT)
:30 18 January 1956 (PST)
Location:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 11d
Test Height and Type:Surface
Yield:Slight (10-100 tons)

Like shot No. 3 this was a one-point safety test for the prototype TX/W-28 primary. The device was basically identical except that 6 zippers were used as neutron sources.

Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

Granville Stanley Hall, the first president of the American Psychological Association, was born in Ash-field, Massachusetts. Hall was enrolled in Williston Seminary, and then went to Williams College, where he graduated in 1867.

Around 1870 Hall traveled to Germany, where he was influenced by Nature-philosophy, especially by its genetic (i.e., developmental) approach. After obtaining his doctorate at Harvard University under the supervision of William James in 1878, he visited Germany again to study experimental psychology (with Wilhelm Wundt and others) and physiology. In 1883 he founded the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Johns Hopkins University, and became president of Clark University in 1889. There he began to develop a systematic theory of child development. By that time he had been involved in educational theory and practices that were based on progressivism and ancestral recapitulation theory proposed by German biologist Ernst Haeckel.

Hall believed that curricula should be attuned to sequentially emerging children's needs that reflect the evolutional history of humankind. In addition, by studying the natural, normative course of child development, one could construct an evolutionary history of human behavior, mind, and culture, which is the chief concern of present-day evolutionary psychology. Hall encouraged the collection of anecdotal descriptions of individual children's behavior by psychologists as well as by educators and parents. He also introduced a questionnaire method to understand the content of children's minds. These methods, which have been criticized as methodologically weak, have been reappraised by contemporary psychologists like Sheldon White. Hall's most influential work is Adolescence (1904). In it he explained psychological development up to adolescence mainly in terms of the biological theory of recapitulation. Hall believed in the perfectibility of humankind thus adolescents' adaptability might provide the jumping-off point for the fulfillment of human potential and evolutionary advancement.

Hall's influence as a developmentalist and promoter of child study movement was seen in non-Western countries like Japan, especially around the 1900s. That was the period when Japanese educators and psychologists began their effort to collect child development data in Japan as a necessary provision for establishing education suited to the nation. Hall also set a meeting ground for Freudian psychoanalysis and American psychiatry and psychology in 1909, leading to acceptance of psychoanalysis in the United States and stimulating later studies. Toward the end of his life Hall published a book, Senescence (1922), which dealt with various aspects of changes and their problems. Though the biological theories Hall adopted had long been discredited, the last decade of the twentieth century witnessed a reappraisal of Hall's contribution to the developmental sciences.

Granville Stanley Hall (sitting center) was the first president of American Psychological Association. (Corbis-Bettmann)


Appley, Mortimer Herbert. "G. Stanley Hall: Vow on Mount Owen." In Stewart H. Hulse and Bert F. Green, Jr. eds., One Hundred Years of Psychological Research in America: G. Stanley Hall and the Johns Hopkins Tradition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.

Cairns, Robert B. "The Making of Developmental Psychology." InHandbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 1, 5th edition, edited by Richard M. Lerner. New York: Wiley, 1998.

Dixon, Roger A., and Richard M. Lerner. "A History of Systems inDevelopmental Psychology." InDevelopmental Psychology: An Advanced Textbook, 3rd edition, edited by Marc H. Bornstein and Michael E. Lamb. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1992.

Morss, John R. The Biologizing of Childhood: Developmental Psychology and the Darwinian Myth. Hove, United Kingdom: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990.

Ross, Dorothy G. Stanley Hall: The Psychologist as Prophet. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1972.

White, Sheldon H. "G. Stanley Hall: From Philosophy to Developmental Psychology."Developmental Psychology 28 (1992):25-34.

Publications by Hall

"The Contents of Children's Minds on Entering School." Pedagogical Seminary 1 (1891):139-173.

Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education. New York: Appleton, 1904.

Granville’s 'Town Spring' history encompasses tragic shooting informing hit song


The Town Spring, as it quickly became known by locals, long played a key role in the story of the Granville community. (Photo: Kevin Bennett)

Nestled between Denison University's Cleveland Hall and the Gilman House (now a sorority house on West College Street) is the historic Granville Town Springs.

One of the few remaining landmarks of the Granville community’s early settlement, it is also a reminder of a tragic shooting that put Granville on the national radar.

Readily accessible, it was last extensively restored almost 60 years ago when a local stonemason was hired to repair and arrange the circular dry laid stone wall. After excavation of the dirt and rubble, most of the original stones used by the original settlers to enclose the spring were discovered to be intact and were re-used.

One of the primary considerations in selecting the site of the original Granville colony was the presence of a number of open springs of pure water. This area abounded in springs, especially in the northern range of hills just north of the village center. In addition to the presence of a clean water supply, these springs saved many settlers the trouble and labor of having to dig wells.

Elias Gilman, one of the first settlers of Granville, deeded the Town Spring to the local community in 1806 “for as long as the water should run.” (Photo: Kevin Bennett)

'Key role in community'

The Town Spring, as it quickly became known by locals, long played a key role in the story of the community. It was originally on the plot of land designated to Elias Gilman, one of the first settlers of Granville. Soldier, merchant, constable, and first Clerk of the Licking County Commissioners (as well a lengthy period where he was notorious for being the “Town Drunk”), Gilman constructed the first building in Granville.

This structure still exists as the central portion of what today is the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority house. Recognizing the significance of the spring, Gilman deeded it to the local community in 1806 “for as long as the water should run.” The importance of the Town Spring was further emphasized by the fact that West College Street was originally called Water Street.

Support local journalism. Subscribe to the Newark Advocate today to access all of our content online at

Early accounts frequently speak to the key role that the Town Spring played in the daily life of the community. Dr. Edwin Sinnett recounted that as a young boy hauling water on a horse drawn sled from the spring to the four-story high Granville Female Academy, located at the site of the present-day Granville Inn. He received three cents for every barrel of water.

Others recalled many locals using the Town Spring to collect the cool spring water in various containers not only for drinking but also for washing. The volume of water was presumably substantial in light of the numerous mentions of its use.

Water system displaced spring's use

The Town Springs held this prominence until late 1885, when the village completed its first water system. While this was constructed with a view to establishing a more reliable water source for Granville’s embryonic fire department – Hose Company No. 1 – this system of water piping and pump houses conveniently transmitting water from Raccoon Creek largely spelled the end of the Town Spring as a source of public drinking water.

Falling into disuse, the spring became filled with dirt and rubble and the stream of pure water became an unsanitary trickle.

This consignment to obscurity was abated in 1964, when a legacy gift was left to Denison University by alum Annette Bickford for the purpose of restoring the largely forgotten spring. Local stonemason Lewis Staubus performed the restoration work aided by sorority members of Kappa Alpha Theta who landscaped the surrounding area with flowers, shrubs and trees.

Laura C. Carter (Photo: Submitted)

Also honors tragic death of Denison student

The historic spring now sleepily serves as a beautiful spot of seclusion and quiet reflection. It also is a sad reminder of the tragic death of Denison student Laura C. Carter. Laura was an 18-year-old Denison University freshman and lacrosse player.

On April 17, 1982, her out-of-state parents visited and attended a lacrosse game. Afterwards they took Laura and several of her friends to dinner in Columbus when Laura was struck in the chest by a stray bullet from a shoot-out between warring drug gangs.

Her death devastated the Denison and Granville communities and inspired nationally prominent singer Christopher Cross to pen his hit song, “Think of Laura.”

The members of Kappa Alpha Theta installed a simple bronze plaque to the memory of their sorority sister Laura Carter on the wall at the entrance to the Town Spring. (Photo: Kevin Bennett)

At that time Cross was dating Laura Carter’s roommate and fellow sorority sister. Laura was described as “A friend of a friend, a friend to the end.”

The song was a Top-10 hit and later became a theme song associated with General Hospital.

Subsequently the members of Kappa Alpha Theta installed a simple bronze plaque to the memory of their sorority sister on the wall at the entrance to the Town Spring.

That plaque and the historic spring summon up many memories to those who take the time to visit and reflect for a few moments.

Kevin Bennett is a noted local historian and Granville Township Trustee.

Professional Activities¶

Granville Stanley Hall’s first published book particularly focused on German culture. Despite beginning his studies and works on English as well as philosophy, he later became a Professor at John Hopkins University, for psychology and pedagogy. The American Journal of Psychology also became one of his several achievements, launched in 1887.

Johns Hopkins University, Main Building

Adolescence, focuses explicitly on the theory of adolescence, as it is an important “level” of life. Hall refers to the adolescence period (ages 12 - 25) as “strum and drang”, also known as, “storm and stress”. It’s about how easily our actions and emotions can contradict. The main aspect of this stage of life is on reaching a certain level of maturity but still developing after reaching this stage if life. source

His book called Senescence highlights the “last half of life”. Senescence is when you reach the age of 60, and age older and older. It is the time of our life that leads to retirement and ultimately death source. The book and Hall’s theory of senescence concludes that “death is the end of the body and also the soul, which overall gives us the image that death allows a new life of joy, as well as love source.

Career and Accomplishments

When he returned to the U.S. after his time working with Wundt, Hall presented a series of lectures focused on education and then went on to publish his first written work, an analysis of German culture.

While G. Stanley Hall initially began his career teaching English and philosophy, he eventually took a position as Professor of Psychology and Pedagogics at John Hopkins University. Among his many accomplishments was the creation of the American Journal of Psychology in 1887.

During his time at John Hopkins, he also established the first experimental psychology laboratory in the United States.

In 1888, Hall left John Hopkins University and became President of Clark University, where he would remain for the next 32 years.

Hall's approach represented a transitional period in psychological thought. Many of his ideas were still rooted in his conservative, Victorian upbringing, but they were marked by the influence of more modern 20th-century thought.

This was a time of great professional triumph, but the period was marked by personal tragedy. In 1890, his wife and eight-year-old daughter both died of accidental asphyxiation. Later, his second wife was admitted to a mental hospital after years of erratic behavior.

Hall had a wide circle of friends and professional acquaintances throughout the world but also had his critics. He was professionally prolific, writing extensively and also founding a number of journals and associations.

In 1892, Hall was elected as the first president of the American Psychological Association. In 1909, he famously invited a group of psychologists including Sigmund Freud to speak at Clark University. The trip was Freud's first and only visit to the United States.

The Willett House

The Willett House, Granville Ferry
c. 1833

This two-and-a-half storey New England colonial wood frame house was built by Walter Willett, a leading Granville Ferry merchant and son of Loyalist Samuel Willett, cornet in a cavalry regiment during the American War of Independence. Walter Willett, who had married Mary Wheelock in the summer of 1832, bought the eastern part of this lot in 1833 for 175 pounds, and probably built the house shortly thereafter. Situated on a slope overlooking the Annapolis Basin, it has a medium pitched end gable roof with return eaves and two chimneys one quarter inset. The five-bay facade features an enclosed entranceway with sidelights and fanlight transom. The entranceway is reached by railed steps. Members of the Willett family owned the house until 1971.

Interesting Granville Facts

Mr Galbraith opened the new wing of The Granville building and his name is on the stone laid by him on Granville Road to commemorate the build &ndash look out for it.

The names of the people that are currently in the main hall that are remembered are all members of the St John&rsquos Wood Presbyterian Church who died in the First World War.

These are some of the activities that went on in the Mission in 1927 taken from their listings.

Watch the video: NAVY TUGBOATS PHOTOSTORY TRIBUTE (January 2022).