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Bisbee-PF-46 - History

Bisbee-PF-46 - History


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Bisbee

Bisbee is a city in Arizona.

(PF-46: dp. 1430; 1. 303'11 b. 37'6" ; dr. 13'8" ; s. 19 k.
cpl. 180; a. 3 3"; cl. Tacoma.)

Bisbee (PF-46) was launched 7 September 1943 by Consolidated Steel Co., Ltd., Los Angeles, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. Richard Murphy; and commissioned 15 February 1944, Commander J. P. German, USCG, in command.

Assigned to the Pacific Fleet, the Coast Guard manned Bisbee joined the 7th Fleet at Noumea, New Caledonia, 27 June 1944. She took part in the landings on Biak Island (12-31 August) and then patrolled off the New Guinea coast until October 1944. During the invasion of Leyte she served as a patrol and harbor control vessel until detached for escort duty 22 November. Bisbee returned to Pearl Harbor 15 December.

After undergoing repairs Bisbee departed Pearl Harbor 6 January 1945 for Dutch Harbor, Alaska, arriving on the 13th. From January to July she escorted merchant vessels and Army transports between Dutch Harbor, Adak, Amchitka, and Attu and acted as guardship for Fleet Air Wing 4 in the North Pacific Ocean.

On 6 July 1945 Bisbee, with Escort Division 43, departed Adak for Seattle, Wash., arriving 12 July. After undergoing repairs and conversion, the ship returned to Alaskan waters, arriving at Cold Bay, Alaska, 13 August. On 26 August 1945 Bisbee was placed out of commission at Cold Bay and loaned to the U. S. R. the next day.

Returned by the Russians 1 November 1949, she lay at Yokosuka Navy Yard, Japan, until recommissioned 18 October 1950. Bisbee got underway for Korea 23 November 1950 and served on patrol, escort, and bombardment duty until 20 October 1951, with occasional voyages to the Philippines, Hong Kong, and the Pescadores. After repairs at Yokosuka, she was transferred to Colombia 13 February 1952 under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program.

Bisbee received two battle stars for her World War II service and three for Korea.


Did you Know in 1945, the Navy Secretly Handed Over 150 Warships to Russia for an Invasion of Japan

By late 1944 and early 1945, the defeat of Nazi Germany seemed imminent and Allied attention moved to the East.

Russia and Japan had fought a bloody, undeclared war at Khalkhin-Gol in 1939. By 1941, they had secured a truce that let both powers focus their attention elsewhere. But both sides still kept significant forces in the area.

Stalin and the Soviet General Staff desperately wanted to transfer more forces during the critical period in 1941 and 42, and it wasn’t until 1944 that the Japanese forces in the area assumed a defensive posture.

By late 1944, Japan still had roughly half a million soldiers in China, and they had conducted Operation Ichi-Go. This was comparable in size to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, and was an attempt to consolidate their position in China and secure much-needed supply lines.

The fanatical resistance of Germany and the astounding losses at the Battle of Okinawa convinced the Western Allies that they needed Russian help. At the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, they secured Russian support for a promised invasion of Japanese Far East territories that Stalin kept almost to the day.

Operation Ichigo, IJA invading Henan, 1944

The Russians had performed some small naval operations against Germany in the Crimean peninsula and elsewhere, but they didn’t have the Allied experience gained from island hopping in the Pacific and invading Normandy. So they were short of both men and material to undertake naval invasions.

In the end, a transfer of 180 ships was approved in what the Americans called Project Hula.

The most capable were thirty 1,415-ton Tacoma-class patrol frigates optimized for anti-submarine operations, with three 3-inch guns and multiple flak cannons and depth charge projectors.

USS Bisbee (PF-46), served also in the Soviet Navy as EK-17 (1945-1949)

These were supplemented by 34 similarly armed Admirable-class minesweepers that were under half the displacement.

There were also 92 smaller submarine chasers and wooden-hulled auxiliary motor torpedo boats as well as four hulking floating workshops to administer repairs at sea.

However, the most important donation consisted of 30 Landing Craft Infantry (Large), equipped with ramps that could discharge over 200 soldiers onto a beachhead.

The largest and most successful classes of minesweepers ordered by the United States Navy during World War II – Admirable-class minesweeper

The Soviet delegation arrived in a remote Alaskan camp in March and the ships began transferring in April. Thousands of sailors arrived to train and refit the ships. Language barriers were particularly challenging in regards to the complex radar technology and the manuals were quickly retranslated.

By July 31 st over 100 vessels had been transferred. A mere eight days later the Soviet forces rolled through Manchuria. After their defeat of Nazi Germany, the Russians had honed their operations and some elements of the attack advanced over 450 km (about 280 miles) in three days.

Others faced greater Japanese resistance but they used clever maneuvers to outwit them. In addition, when subordinates showed impressive initiative, this stunned an enemy that had been expecting clumsy Soviet attacks.

Soviet gains in North East Asia, August 1945. Map: Tazadeperla / CC-BY-SA 3.0

By August 11 th the Soviets used the newly acquired ships to attack the North Sakhalin and Kuril islands.

By September 4 th the war was over, and the Soviets began the rather lengthy process of transferring the ships back to America. The Cold War made this a somewhat fraught and difficult process.

By the time most of them were transferred back, they were in such a poor state that the Navy scuttled them immediately or sold them back to the Russians for scrap metal.

Map shows US Lend Lease shipments to USSR in WW2 by route

The Cold War often obscures Russian and American contributions and leads to wildly differing interpretations of Russian actions.

While the Russians did seize a significant amount of spoils in Manchuria and the Far East including rail lines, heavy industry, and disputed islands in the Pacific, they were also true to their word and started a war with Japan that the Allies wanted.

They did this despite the massive logistical difficulties of secretly moving 90 divisions using a limited trans-Siberian rail line after having barely survived four years of life or death struggle against Germany. But they also had significant help from the Allies in the form of Lend Lease, and 150 loaned naval vessels.


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U.S. Navy, World War II, 1944� [ edit | edit source ]

Assigned to the United States Pacific Fleet and manned by the United States Coast Guard, Bisbee joined the United States Seventh Fleet at Noumea, New Caledonia, on 27 June 1944. She took part in the landings on Biak Island of 12–31 August 1944, and then patrolled off the New Guinea coast until October 1944. During the invasion of Leyte in the Philippine Islands, she served as a patrol and harbor control vessel until detached for escort duty on 22 November 1944. Bisbee arrived at Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, on 15 December 1944.

After undergoing repairs, Bisbee departed Pearl Harbor on 6 January 1945 for Dutch Harbor, Territory of Alaska, arriving there on 13 January 1945. From then until July 1945, she escorted merchant ships and United States Army transports between Dutch Harbor, Adak, Amchitka, and Attu, and acted as guard ship for Fleet Air Wing 4 in the North Pacific Ocean.

Stage and film actor Buddy Ebsen served as the Executive Officer aboard Bisbee during this deployment to the Pacific War Zone.

Selected for transfer to the Soviet Navy in Project Hula – a secret program for the transfer of U.S. Navy ships to the Soviet Navy at Cold Bay, Alaska, in anticipation of the Soviet Union joining the war against Japan – Bisbee, with Escort Division 43, departed Adak on 6 July 1945 bound for Seattle, Washington, arriving there on 12 July 1945. After undergoing repairs and conversion in preparation for her transfer, Bisbee steamed to Cold Bay, where she arrived on 13 August 1945. She soon began training her new Soviet crew. ΐ]

Soviet Navy, 1945–1949 [ edit | edit source ]

Following the completion of training for her Soviet crew, Bisbee was decommissioned on 26 August 1945 at Cold Bay and transferred to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease immediately Ώ] along with her sister ships USS Gallup (PF-47), USS Rockford (PF-48), USS Muskogee (PF-49), USS Carson City (PF-50), and USS Burlington (PF-51). Commissioned into the Soviet Navy immediately, Ώ] Bisbee was designated as a storozhevoi korabl ("escort ship") and renamed EK-17 in Soviet service. She soon departed Cold Bay bound for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the Soviet Union, where she served as a patrol vessel in the Soviet Far East. ΐ]

In February 1946, the United States began negotiations for the return of ships loaned to the Soviet Union for use during World War II. On 8 May 1947, United States Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal informed the United States Department of State that the United States Department of the Navy wanted 480 of the 585 combatant ships it had transferred to the Soviet Union for World War II use returned, EK-17 among them. Negotiations for the return of the ships were protracted, but on 1 November 1949 the Soviet Union finally returned EK-17 to the U.S. Navy at Yokosuka, Japan. Α]

U.S. Navy, Korean War, 1950� [ edit | edit source ]

Rveerting to her original name, Bisbee lay idle in the Pacific Reserve Fleet at Yokosuka until being recommissioned on 18 October 1950 for service in the Korean War. She got underway for Korea on 23 November 1950, and served on patrol, escort, and bombardment duty off Korea – also making occasional voyages to the Philippine Islands, Hong Kong, and the Pescadores – until decommissioned on 20 October 1951.

Colombian National Armada, 1952� [ edit | edit source ]

After repairs at Yokosuka, the ship was transferred to Colombia on 13 February 1952 under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program, serving in the Colombian National Armada as ARC Capitán Tono. She relieved her sister ship ARC Almirante Padilla, ex-USS Groton (PF-29), and served on patrol off the east coast of Korea. Exchanges of fire with shore batteries were a frequent occurrence, and her crew suffered some casualties. On 13 January 1953, Capitán Tono ended her tour of duty and was replaced by another of her sister ships, ARC Almirante Brión, ex-USS Burlington (PF-51). Β]

The ship remained in Colombian service after the Korean War and was scrapped in 1963.


Across the Pacific to War

S ince 1950, Colombia has traditionally supported the United Nations collective security initiatives. The Colombian Navy and Army provided combat elements to serve with the UN Command in Korea. Both were “showcase” forces representing the best of each service and the nation . 1 Colombia was the only Latin American country to send military forces to support the UN effort to counter North Korea’s invasion of South Korea on 25 June 1950 . 2 The professionalism developed by Colombian military leaders in Korea enabled them to turn their armed forces into a respected modern military. This transformation also fostered social and political changes in Colombia. The purpose of this article is to show what the Colombian Navy did during the Korean War.

1 Daniel Davison, “The Colombian Army in Korea: A Study of the Integration of the Colombian Battalion into the 31st United States Infantry Regiment Based on the Experience of Major General Lloyd R. Moses,” unpublished Masters Thesis, University of South Dakota, August 1972, 37.

2 Carlos Horacio Urán, Colombia y los Estados Unidos en la Guerra de Corea (Notre Dame, IN: Kellogg Institute, University of Notre Dame, May 1986), 22–24. While military forces were offered by Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, and Ecuador, only Colombia provided them. The contributions from the rest of Latin America amounted to money, foodstuffs, and the use of military bases. Most countries applied economic sanctions.

Just as the U.S. “first response” to Korea was its Pacific Fleet, so it was for Colombia in 1950. Within two days of the invasion, the Security Council had passed two resolutions that committed the UN to halt the aggression. The armed invasion of South Korea was deemed a “breach of peace.” Member states were asked to refrain from assisting North Korea. The second UN Security Council resolution asked the member nations to provide military assistance to South Korea to repel North Korean aggression and to restore international peace and security. The Colombian delegation played a key role in garnering support for the resolutions. It proved most convenient that the Soviet Union delegation was boycotting the Security Council. The Soviet Union had absented itself since January 1950, to protest the seating of Nationalist China while excluding Communist China . 3 Stopping the aggression of North Korea became a test of the UN peacekeeping ability . 4

3 Samuel F. Bemis, A Diplomatic History of the United States (NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), 937 Davison, “The Colombian Army in Korea,” 7–8.

4 Davison, “The Colombian Army in Korea,” 90–91.

Main article

Endnotes

In Bogotá, the editors of the Conservative newspaper, El Siglo, vied with those at El Tiempo in advocating Colombia’s obligation to furnish military forces to the UN . 5 The decision to support the UN fight in Korea had to wait until the inauguration of Laureano Gómez Castro in August 1950. On 6 September 1950, the new president pledged a frigate to the UN Naval Command . 6 This was quite significant because the entire Colombian Navy consisted of two 1932-vintage Portuguese destroyers captured during the war with Peru, a 1944 U.S. Tacoma-class patrol frigate (former USS Groton—renamed Almirante Padilla) purchased in 1947, and ten river gunboats . 7

5 Russell W. Ramsey, “The Colombia Battalion in Korea and Suez,” Journal of Inter-American Studies IX (October 1967), 546.

6 Bradley L. Coleman, “The Colombian Army in Korea, 1950–1954,” The Journal of Military History 69 (January 2005), 1141–42.

7 Mark H. Danley, “Colombian Navy in the Korean War, 1950–1953,” The American Neptune 58 (Spring 1998), 246–47, 252. On 24 July 1823, during the War for Independence, Colombian Admiral José Prudencia Padilla defeated a Spanish squadron in the battle of Lake Maracaibo.

The authority to dispatch the Frigata Almirante Padilla overseas was by Executive Decree No. 3230 (25 October 1950) because the national state of emergency declared by Mariáno Ospina Pérez, the predecessor of Gómez, was still in effect. The suspension of all congressional activities had been imposed to stem La Violencia. 8 On 1 November 1950, the frigate Almirante Padilla, with a crew of 190 (ten officers and 180 seamen), steamed out of Cartagena bound for San Diego Naval Base, California, for combat refitting . 9

8 Coleman, “The Colombian Army in Korea, 1950–1954,” 1141–42 Ramsey, “The Colombia Battalion in Korea and Suez,” 546 Republic of Korea, Ministry of National Defense, History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III (Seoul, War History Compilation Committee, 1974), 173, hereafter History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III.

9 Ramsey, “The Colombia Battalion in Korea and Suez,” 546 Crew numbers vary: 12 officers and 177 men aboard the Almirante Padilla. History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III, 173.

Though the Colombian government hoped the frigate would be in the war zone by the end of the year, the crew left knowing that neither they, nor their frigate was ready for combat. “Much to my surprise, two hours after leaving Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, for San Diego, I asked for fifteen knots. I was speechless when my chief engineer told me that the machinery was too bad and that we could only make ten knots,” recalled Lieutenant Commander (Lt Cdr) Julio Cesar Reyes Canal. When the Korean War began, Lt Cdr Reyes Canal, a navy officer with thirty-two years of service, was in the process of resigning to protest cuts in the naval forces. At the time the entire defense budget amounted to a paltry 1.1 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) . 10

10 Danley, “Colombian Navy in the Korean War, 1950–1953,” 245–46, 247–48.

Ocean Distances from Pusan in Nautical Miles

  • 165 Sasebo
  • 308 Wonsan
  • 356 Kobe
  • 402 Inchon
  • 491 Shanghai
  • 496 Chinnampo
  • 514 Vladivostok
  • 549 Port Arthur
  • 655 Yokosuka
  • 1,144 Hong Kong
  • 1,402 Manila
  • 3,968 Pearl Harbor
  • 4,914 San Francisco
  • 8,086 Panama

When the Almirante Padilla arrived at the San Diego Navy Base on 13 November 1950, it was apparent that the fundamental systems of propulsion, communications, armament, and fire control were inadequate. With assistance from the U.S. Navy, Lt Cdr Reyes Canal contracted repair work at the Long Beach Naval Yard to begin on 12 December 1950. This overhaul made the frigate seaworthy but it was still not ready to fight. New guns and fire control systems were needed. That refit was so expensive that President Gómez had to personally authorize the work. Instead of fighting in Korea, the crew welcomed the New Year in California . 11 Time magazine praised the Colombian effort in its 19 February 1951 issue:

11 Danley, “Colombian Navy in the Korean War, 1950–1953,” 248–49 History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III, 173.

Judged by the acid test of deeds, Colombia (pop. 11 million) understands better than any other Latin American country that the Korean War is also its war. To date, Colombia has been the one Latin American government to promise acceptable fighting help for the U.N. forces. The 1,430-ton frigate Almirante Padilla, best ship in the Colombian navy, will sail from San Diego, Calif. next week a specially-organized battalion (1,080 men) is in training in Korea . 12

12 “Anywhere, Any Time,” Time (19 February 1951) at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/o,9171,814313,00.html .

The specially-organized battalion (1,080 men) was more than double the size of a typical Colombian infantry battalion. In February 1951, the battalion was still training with U.S. Army advisors in Colombia. The Batallón Colombia did not arrive in Korea until June 1951.

On 28 February 1951, the Colombian frigate sailed for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to spend four weeks training with elements of the Pacific Fleet. Practicing the latest antisubmarine patrol tactics, antiaircraft defense, and shore bombardment techniques with U.S. Navy frigates and destroyers got the Colombians ready for Korea. On 5 May 1951, the Almirante Padilla arrived at the U.S. Navy Base, Sasebo, Japan, where it was assigned to the Patrol and Escort Group of Task Force 95.13 operating in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of North and South Korea . 13 At home, President Gómez had increased Colombia’s commitment to the UN by offering a battalion of infantry on 14 November 1950 (Executive Decree No. 3927) . 14 After three-months training with U.S. Army instructors, the Batallón Colombia (1,083 officers and soldiers) boarded USNS Aiken Victory at Buenaventura on 22 May 1951 for Korea, embarking on the Colombian Army’s first overseas military operation . 15 By then, the offensive ground war in Korea was grinding down to a stalemate.

13 Danley, “Colombian Navy in the Korean War, 1950–1953,” 248–49 History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III, 173.

14 Coleman, “The Colombian Army in Korea, 1950–1954,” 1141–42, 1145–46 Ramsey, “The Colombia Battalion in Korea and Suez,” 546.

15 Coleman, “The Colombian Army in Korea, 1950–1954,” 1146 Ramsey, “The Colombia Battalion in Korea and Suez,” 547.

While the Batallón Colombia was sailing across the Pacific, the patrol frigate Almirante Padilla was performing coastal blockade patrols on the west coast of Korea with the British cruisers HMS Ceylon and HMS Kenya, the Canadian destroyer HCMS Sioux, and the U.S. frigate USS Glendale . 16 Since the hydrography along the west coast restricted the movement of heavy warships, the Colombian and American frigates and the South Korean minesweepers conducted the inshore patrols. On 14 June 1951, Almirante Padilla was shifted to the east coast to join the siege of Wonsan initiated by U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Allan E. Smith in February . 17

16 El Tiempo (Bogotá) 17 May 1951, 1, cited in Ramsey, “The Colombia Battalion in Korea and Suez,” 547.

17 History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III, 175–76 Danley, “Colombian Navy in the Korean War, 1950–1953,” 251.

This east coast siege lasted until the armistice. The North Korean cities of Wonsan and Songjin were attacked by aircraft and bombarded daily by UN naval vessels that ranged from rocket launching craft to battleships. The naval blockade extended to the far north, including Chongjin. All road and railroad bridges leading south from Chongjin received naval gunfire regularly. During its three-month patrol, the Almirante Padilla dropped off and retrieved Special Mission Group (SMG) agents and raiding parties offshore of North Korean targets. Yo-do (island) in Wonsan harbor was their forward operating base . 18 In the midst of the fighting, a group of UN veterans were flown to Washington DC to meet President Harry S. Truman and to tour the United States.

18 History of the UN Forces in the Korean War, III, 175–76 Danley, “Colombian Navy in the Korean War, 1950–1953,” 251.

Colombian Navy Gunner Régulo Farfán, a Mariáchi singer from Magdalena, entertained soldiers of Batallón Colombia when they visited the Almirante Padilla in Pusan, South Korea.

46 Moments That Changed the Royal Family Forever

The British royal family is used to navigating tricky situations⁠, from sudden abdications to scrutiny in the press. But through the good and the bad, they've managed to remain one of the most influential monarchies in the world. Here, we take a look back at some of the biggest moments in history that changed the royal family forever.

Queen Victoria was fifth in line for the throne, but after her father's death in 1820 when she was eight months old, she became the heir because her uncles had no direct heirs. She became Queen when she turned 18 in 1837 after King William II (the brother and successor of Victoria&rsquos grandfather) died and changed the royal lineage forever. She served as monarch for 63 years and was the longest English reign until her great-great granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II, passed her in 2015.

If you were a fan of Meghan Markle or Kate Middleton&rsquos wedding dresses, you kind of have Queen Victoria to thank. The British monarchy started the tradition of brides wearing white on their wedding day when she married Prince Albert. Before then, women didn't wear one set color.

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert married in 1839 and remained extremely loyal to one another throughout their marriage. When the prince died in 1861, Queen Victoria not only lost her devoted husband, but a strong political advisor. Following his death, the Queen entered into intense mourning&mdashsleeping with a plaster cast of his hand, wearing only black for the remainder of her life, and receding from courtier life, which led to 25 years of seclusion.

In the midst of World War I, the British royal family changed their family name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor in order to tone down their German ancestry. Here, King George V is pictured with his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, in Berlin just before the start of the war.

King George V was the first monarch to deliver a speech to the entire nation by radio broadcast on Christmas. Although the King was hesitant about doing the speech, it was a big deal for people across the empire to hear his voice in their own homes. His short message, written by Rudyard Kipling, was the monarchy's first step at embracing modernization. "I take it as a good omen that wireless should have reached its present perfection at a time when the Empire has been linked in closer union. For it offers us immense possibilities to make that union closer still," the King said in 1932.

The monarchy entered into a constitutional crisis on December 11, 1936 when Edward VIII, who was set to take the throne after his father's death, announced his abdication. In the Prince's speech over radio broadcast, Edward spoke of his inability to carry out his duties without the woman he loved by his side, American divorcée Wallis Simpson. After his abdication, he took the title of Duke of Windsor, married Simpson, and the two lived in exile in France.

Prince Albert of York, who never expected to rule, was suddenly coronated and became King George VI. He and his family moved into Buckingham Palace and Princess Elizabeth II was named heir to the throne at the age of 10.

The entire nation was devoted to the war effort in 1939. While the King and Queen stayed in Buckingham Palace, the princesses were moved to Windsor Castle for safety. Later, Princess Elizabeth served as a mechanic in the war.

Royal advisors weren't too keen on the match between Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, who was a member of the exiled Greek royal family. But the young princess advocated for him and the two were married on November 20, 1947, in which the Princess promised to "love, to cherish, and to obey" her husband&mdashwhich many thought was a bold move for a future monarch to promise.

India was one of the most valuable territories under the British empire's control, so when the country sought independence in 1947 it was a huge loss to the crown. But World War II made the monarchy realize they couldn't maintain a global empire, so they helped India form a new government, which Lord Mountbatten oversaw.

After the death of her father King George VI, Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. The Princess heard of the news while standing in for her ailing father on a royal tour in Africa and had not packed a black dress. She had to change into one on the plane after landing in London and has since created a royal protocol that all members of the royal family must travel with a mourning outfit in case a similar situation arises.

In 1953, Queen Elizabeth&rsquos coronation in Westminster Abbey was the first to air on television. The historic moment was watched by over 27 million people around the world.

When news broke of Princess Margaret&rsquos relationship with Captain Peter Townsend, it was a royal scandal. Not only was Townsend a royal officer who worked as an equerry for the household, but he was married. Townsend divorced his wife, but parliament wouldn't approve of their marriage because the Church of England was against divorce and it was too soon after the Duke of Windsor's abdication scandal. There was nothing for Queen Elizabeth to do, but the press was heavily on the couple&rsquos side and vilified the monarchy&rsquos strict stance.

Princess Margaret&rsquos Westminster Abbey wedding to Antony Armstrong Jones was the first British royal wedding to air on television. Since then, it&rsquos become a tradition to televise royal weddings.

There hadn&rsquot been a divorced member of the royal family since King Henry VIII in the 1500s, until Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon announced their separation in 1976.

Prince Philip&rsquos uncle and close member of the royal family's inner circle, Lord Louis Mountbatten, was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) when they planted a bomb on his boat. Mountbatten, his grandson, and two others were killed in the explosion.

When the Queen's eldest son, and heir apparent, announced his engagement to Lady Diana Spencer, the world became captivated with the couple. Their July wedding at St. Paul&rsquos Cathedral was watched by more than 750 million people and lured a whole new generation of people&mdashincluding Americans&mdashinto the royal fairytale.

The Queen&rsquos grandson, Prince William, was born on June 21, 1982 in the Lindo Wing at St. Mary&rsquos Hospital. The birth of Prince Charles and Princess Diana's first son reordered the line of succession, with the newborn becoming second in line to the throne.

The Queen&rsquos only daughter, Princess Anne, announced her divorce from Captain Mark Phillips in 1989, which was finalized in 1992. The couple had been married since 1973 and shared two children. The Princess married Timothy Laurence shortly after her divorce was finalized.

A leaked telephone conversation between Prince Charles and his married ex-girlfriend, Camilla Parker Bowles, revealed that the Prince of Wales had been cheating on his wife, Princess Diana.

In 1992, Buckingham Palace released a statement that the Prince of Wales planned to divorce his wife, Princess Diana. The couple, who had been plagued by rumors of infidelity for years, expressed their plans to separate before formal divorce proceedings could be drawn up.

A massive fire broke out in Windsor Castle in November 1992. The fire damaged more than 119 rooms in the palace and resulted in extensive renovations.

Another one of the Queen's children, Prince Andrew, announced his separation from wife Sarah Ferguson in 1992. The Queen has since called the year of 1992 "annus horribilus," meaning horrible year in Latin.

Soon after her separation was announced, Ferguson was caught in a compromising position while on vacation with American financier, John Bryan. The images covered every newspaper and was tabloid fodder for a while, causing great embarrassment to the royal household. It resulted in Fergie being removed from the inner circle.

While separated from Prince Charles, Diana decided to give her side of the story and organized an unauthorized interview from her Kensington Palace apartment. In the unprecedented interview, Diana not only revealed the full extent of Prince Charles&rsquos infidelity (it had been going on for a long time), but also described how she struggled to cope with the pressures of royal life.

In August 1997, news broke that Princess Diana had passed away in a tragic car crash in Paris. People all around the world mourned and flooded to Kensington Palace and Buckingham Palace to pay their respects. She was dubbed "the People's Princess" and the royal family&rsquos silence following Diana's death prompted outrage from citizens. so much that Queen Elizabeth addressed the nation in a televised speech, which had never been done before.

Queen Elizabeth faced two tremendous losses within the same year. Her younger sister, Princess Margaret, and her mother passed away within months of one another.

The former Duchess of York damaged her relationship with the monarchy once again when she was exposed for exchanging money with an undercover reporter for access to her ex-husband.

Prince William made headlines when he proposed to longtime girlfriend Kate Middleton in 2010, with his late mother's engagement ring. As Middleton did not come from a noble background, she was technically considered a &ldquocommoner&rdquo in British society.

The Queen celebrated her 60-year reign in 2012 with her Diamond Jubilee. Four years later, she passed Queen Victoria as the longest-reigning monarch in British history.


Contents

The variants neger and negar derive from various European languages' words for 'black', including the Spanish and Portuguese word negro (black) and the now-pejorative French nègre, the 'i' entering the spelling "nigger" from those familiar with Latin. Etymologically, negro, noir, nègre, and nigger ultimately derive from nigrum, the stem of the Latin niger ('black'), pronounced [ˈniɡer] , with a trilled r. In every grammatical case, grammatical gender, and grammatical number besides nominative masculine singular, nigr- is followed by a case ending.

In its original English-language usage, nigger (then spelled niger) was a word for a dark-skinned individual. The earliest known published use of the term dates from 1574, in a work alluding to "the Nigers of Aethiop, bearing witnes". [3] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first derogatory usage of the term nigger was recorded two centuries later, in 1775. [4]

In the colonial America of 1619, John Rolfe used negars in describing the African slaves shipped to the Virginia colony. [5] Later American English spellings, neger and neggar, prevailed in New York under the Dutch and in metropolitan Philadelphia's Moravian and Pennsylvania Dutch communities the African Burial Ground in New York City originally was known by the Dutch name Begraafplaats van de Neger (Cemetery of the Negro). An early occurrence of neger in Rhode Island dates from 1625. [6] Lexicographer Noah Webster, whose eponymous dictionary did much to solidify the distinctive spelling of American English, suggested the neger spelling in place of negro in 1806. [7]

During the late 18th and early 19th century, the word "nigger" also described an actual labor category, which African American laborers adopted for themselves as a social identity, and thus white people used the descriptor word as a distancing or derogatory epithet, as if "quoting black people" and their non-standard language. [8] During the early 1800s to the late 1840s fur trade in the Western United States, the word was spelled "niggur", and is often recorded in the literature of the time. George Fredrick Ruxton used it in his "mountain man" lexicon, without pejorative connotation. "Niggur" was evidently similar to the modern use of "dude" or "guy". This passage from Ruxton's Life in the Far West illustrates the word in spoken form—the speaker here referring to himself: "Travler, marm, this niggur's no travler I ar' a trapper, marm, a mountain-man, wagh!" [9] It was not used as a term exclusively for blacks among mountain men during this period, as Indians, Mexicans, and Frenchmen and Anglos alike could be a "niggur". [10] "The noun slipped back and forth from derogatory to endearing." [11]

The term "colored" or "negro" became a respectful alternative. In 1851, the Boston Vigilance Committee, an abolitionist organization, posted warnings to the Colored People of Boston and vicinity. Writing in 1904, journalist Clifton Johnson documented the "opprobrious" character of the word nigger, emphasizing that it was chosen in the South precisely because it was more offensive than "colored" or "negro". [12] By the turn of the century, "colored" had become sufficiently mainstream that it was chosen as the racial self-identifier for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 2008, Carla Sims, its communications director, said "the term 'colored' is not derogatory, [the NAACP] chose the word 'colored' because it was the most positive description commonly used [in 1909, when the association was founded]. It's outdated and antiquated but not offensive." [13]

Nineteenth-century literature features usages of "nigger" without racist connotation. Mark Twain, in the autobiographic book Life on the Mississippi (1883), used the term within quotes, indicating reported speech, but used the term "negro" when writing in his own narrative persona. [14] Joseph Conrad published a novella in Britain with the title The Nigger of the "Narcissus" (1897), but was advised to release it in the United States as The Children of the Sea. A style guide to British English usage, H. W. Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, states in the first edition (1926) that applying the word nigger to "others than full or partial negroes" is "felt as an insult by the person described, & betrays in the speaker, if not deliberate insolence, at least a very arrogant inhumanity" but the second edition (1965) states "N. has been described as 'the term that carries with it all the obloquy and contempt and rejection which whites have inflicted on blacks'". [15] The quoted formula goes back to the writings of the American journalist Harold R. Isaacs, who used it in several writings between 1963 and 1975. [16]

By the late 1960s, the social change brought about by the civil rights movement had legitimized the racial identity word black as mainstream American English usage to denote black-skinned Americans of African ancestry. President Thomas Jefferson had used this word of his slaves in his Notes on the State of Virginia (1785), but "black" had not been widely used until the later 20th century. (See Black Pride, and, in the context of worldwide anti-colonialism initiatives, Négritude.)

In the 1980s, the term "African American" was advanced analogously to the terms "German American" and "Irish American", and was adopted by major media outlets. Moreover, as a compound word, African American resembles the vogue word Afro-American, an early-1970s popular usage. Some black Americans continue to use the word nigger, often spelled as nigga and niggah, without irony, either to neutralize the word's impact or as a sign of solidarity. [17]

Surveys from 2006 showed that the American public widely perceived usage of the term to be wrong or unacceptable, but that nearly half of whites and two-thirds of blacks knew someone personally who referred to blacks by the term. [18] Nearly one-third of whites and two-thirds of blacks said they had personally used the term within the last five years. [18]

In names of people, places and things

Political use

"Niggers in the White House" [19] was written in reaction to an October 1901 White House dinner hosted by Republican President Theodore Roosevelt, who had invited Booker T. Washington—an African-American presidential adviser—as a guest. The poem reappeared in 1929 after First Lady Lou Hoover, wife of President Herbert Hoover, invited Jessie De Priest, the wife of African-American congressman Oscar De Priest, to a tea for congressmen's wives at the White House. [20] The identity of the author—who used the byline "unchained poet"—remains unknown.

In explaining his refusal to be conscripted to fight the Vietnam War (1965–75), professional boxer Muhammad Ali said, "No Vietcong [Communist Vietnamese] ever called me nigger" [21] later, his modified answer was the title of a documentary, No Vietnamese Ever Called Me Nigger (1968), about the front-line lot of the U.S. Army Black soldier in combat in Vietnam. [22] An Ali biographer reports that, when interviewed by Robert Lipsyte in 1966, the boxer actually said, "I ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong." [23]

On February 28, 2007, the New York City Council symbolically banned the use of the word nigger however, there is no penalty for using it. This formal resolution also requests excluding from Grammy Award consideration every song whose lyrics contain the word however, Ron Roecker, vice president of communication for the Recording Academy, doubted it will have any effect on actual nominations. [24] [25]

The word can be invoked politically for effect. When Detroit mayor Kwame Kilpatrick came under intense scrutiny for his conduct in 2008, he deviated from an address to the city council, saying, "In the past 30 days, I've been called a nigger more than any time in my entire life." Opponents accused him of "playing the race card" to save his political life. [26]

Cultural use

The implied racism of the word nigger has rendered its use taboo. Magazines and newspapers generally do not use the word but instead print censored versions such as "n*gg*r", "n**ger", "n——" or "the N-word" [27] see below.

The use of nigger in older literature has become controversial because of the word's modern meaning as a racist insult. One of the most enduring controversies has been the word's use in Mark Twain's novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885). Huckleberry Finn was the fifth most challenged book during the 1990s, according to the American Library Association. [28] The novel is written from the point of view, and largely in the language, of an uneducated white boy, who is drifting down the Mississippi River on a raft with an adult escaped slave, Jim. The word "nigger" is used (mostly about Jim) over 200 times. [29] [30] Twain's advocates [ who? ] note that the novel is composed in then-contemporary vernacular usage, not racist stereotype, because Jim, the black man, is a sympathetic character.

In 2011, a new edition published by NewSouth Books replaced the word "nigger" with "slave" and also removed the word "injun". The change was spearheaded by Twain scholar Alan Gribben in the hope of "countering the 'pre-emptive censorship ' " that results from the book's being removed from school curricula over language concerns. [31] [32] The changes sparked outrage from critics Elon James, Alexandra Petrie and Chris Meadows. [33]

In his 1999 memoir, All Souls, Irish-American Michael Patrick MacDonald describes how many white residents of the Old Colony Housing Project in South Boston used this meaning to degrade the people considered to be of lower status, whether white or black. [34]

Of course, no one considered himself a nigger. It was always something you called someone who could be considered anything less than you. I soon found out there were a few black families living in Old Colony. They'd lived there for years and everyone said that they were okay, that they weren't niggers but just black. It felt good to all of us to not be as bad as the hopeless people in D Street or, God forbid, the ones in Columbia Point, who were both black and niggers. But now I was jealous of the kids in Old Harbor Project down the road, which seemed like a step up from Old Colony .

In an academic setting

The word's usage in literature has led to it being a point of discussion in university lectures as well. In 2008, Arizona State University English professor Neal A. Lester created what has been called "the first ever college-level class designed to explore the word 'nigger ' ". [35] Starting in the following decade, colleges struggled with attempts to teach material about the slur in a sensitive manner. In 2012, a sixth grade Chicago teacher filed a wrongful dismissal lawsuit resulting from an incident in which he repeated the contents of a racially charged note being passed in class. [36] A New Orleans high school also experienced controversy in 2017. [37] Such increased attention prompted Elizabeth Stordeur Pryor, the daughter of Richard Pryor and a professor at Smith College, to give a talk opining that the word was leading to a "social crisis" in higher education. [38]

In addition to Smith College, Emory University, Augsburg University, Southern Connecticut State University, and Simpson College all suspended professors in 2019 over referring to the word "nigger" by name in classroom settings. [39] [40] [41] In two other cases, a professor at Princeton decided to stop teaching a course on hate speech after students protested his utterance of "nigger" and a professor at DePaul had his law course cancelled after 80% of the enrolled students transferred out. [42] [43] Instead of pursuing disciplinary action, a student at the College of the Desert challenged his professor in a viral class presentation which argued that her use of the word in a lecture was not justified. [44]

In the workplace

In 2018, the head of the media company Netflix, Reed Hastings, fired his chief communications officer for using the word twice during internal discussions about sensitive words. [45] In explaining why, Hastings wrote:

[The word's use] in popular media like music and film have created some confusion as to whether or not there is ever a time when the use of the N-word is acceptable. For non-Black people, the word should not be spoken as there is almost no context in which it is appropriate or constructive (even when singing a song or reading a script). There is not a way to neutralize the emotion and history behind the word in any context. The use of the phrase 'N-word' was created as a euphemism, and the norm, with the intention of providing an acceptable replacement and moving people away from using the specific word. When a person violates this norm, it creates resentment, intense frustration, and great offense for many. [46]

The following year, screenwriter Walter Mosley turned down a job after his human resources department took issue with him using the word to describe racism that he experienced as a black man. [47]

While defending Laurie Sheck, a professor who was cleared of ethical violations for quoting I Am Not Your Negro by James Baldwin, John McWhorter wrote that efforts to condemn racist language by white Americans had undergone mission creep. [48] Similar controversies outside the United States have occurred at the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Madrid campus of the University of Syracuse. [49] [50] In June 2020, Canadian news host Wendy Mesley was suspended and replaced with a guest host after she attended a meeting on racial justice and, in the process of quoting a journalist, used "a word that no-one like [her] should ever use". [51] In August 2020, BBC news, with the agreement of victim and family, mentioned the slur when reporting on a physical and verbal assault on the black NHS worker and musician K-Dogg. Within the week the BBC received over 18,600 complaints, the black radio host David Whitely resigned in protest, and the BBC apologised. [52]

Intra-group versus intergroup usage

Black listeners often react to the term differently, depending on whether it is used by white speakers or by black speakers. In the former case, it is regularly understood as insensitive or insulting in the latter, it may carry notes of in-group disparagement, and is often understood as neutral or affectionate, a possible instance of reappropriation. [53]

In the black community, nigger is often rendered as nigga, representing the non-rhotic pronunciation of the word in African-American English. This usage has been popularized by the rap and hip-hop music cultures and is used as part of an in-group lexicon and speech. It is not necessarily derogatory and is often used to mean homie or friend. [54]

Acceptance of intra-group usage of the word nigga is still debated, [54] although it has established a foothold amongst younger generations. The NAACP denounces the use of both "nigga" and "nigger". Mixed-race usage of "nigga" is still considered taboo, particularly if the speaker is white. However, trends indicate that usage of the term in intragroup settings is increasing even amongst white youth, due to the popularity of rap and hip hop culture. [55] Linguist Keith Allan rejects the view that nigger is always a slur, arguing that it is also used as a marker of camaraderie and friendship, comparable to the British and Australian term "mate" or the American "buddy". [56]

According to Arthur K. Spears in Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 2006:

In many African-American neighborhoods, nigga is simply the most common term used to refer to any male, of any race or ethnicity. Increasingly, the term has been applied to any person, male or female. "Where y'all niggas goin?" is said with no self-consciousness or animosity to a group of women, for the routine purpose of obtaining information. The point: Nigga is evaluatively neutral in terms of its inherent meaning it may express positive, neutral, or negative attitudes [57]

Kevin Cato, meanwhile, observes:

For instance, a show on Black Entertainment Television, a cable network aimed at a black audience, described the word nigger as a "term of endearment". "In the African American community, the word nigga (not nigger) brings out feelings of pride." (Davis 1). Here the word evokes a sense of community and oneness among black people. Many teens I interviewed felt the word had no power when used amongst friends, but when used among white people the word took on a completely different meaning. In fact, comedian Alex Thomas on BET stated, "I still better not hear no white boy say that to me . I hear a white boy say that to me, it means 'White boy, you gonna get your ass beat. ' " [58]

Addressing the use of nigger by black people, philosopher and public intellectual Cornel West said in 2007:

There's a certain rhythmic seduction to the word. If you speak in a sentence, and you have to say cat, companion, or friend, as opposed to nigger, then the rhythmic presentation is off. That rhythmic language is a form of historical memory for black people . When Richard Pryor came back from Africa, and decided to stop using the word onstage, he would sometimes start to slip up, because he was so used to speaking that way. It was the right word at the moment to keep the rhythm together in his sentence making. [59]

2010s: increase in use and controversy

In the 2010s, "nigger" in its various forms saw use with increasing frequency by African Americans amongst themselves or in self-expression, the most common swear word in hip hop music lyrics. [60] [61] Ta-Nehisi Coates suggested that it continues to be unacceptable for non-blacks to utter while singing or rapping along to hip-hop, and that by being so restrained it gives white Americans (specifically) a taste of what it is like to not be entitled to "do anything they please, anywhere". A concern often raised is whether frequent exposure will inevitably lead to a dilution of the extremely negative perception of the word among the majority of non-black Americans who currently consider its use unacceptable and shocking. [62]

Derivatives

In several English-speaking countries, "Niggerhead" or "nigger head" was used as a name for many sorts of things, including commercial products, places, plants and animals, as a descriptive term (lit. 'black person's head'). It also is or was a colloquial technical term in industry, mining, and seafaring. Nigger as "defect" (a hidden problem), derives from "nigger in the woodpile", a US slave-era phrase denoting escaped slaves hiding in train-transported woodpiles. [63] In the 1840s, the Morning Chronicle newspaper report series London Labour and the London Poor, by Henry Mayhew, records the usages of both "nigger" and the similar-sounding word "niggard" denoting a false bottom for a grate. [64]

In American English, "nigger lover" initially applied to abolitionists, then to white people sympathetic towards black Americans. [65] The portmanteau word wigger ('white' + 'nigger') denotes a white person emulating "street black behavior", hoping to gain acceptance to the hip hop, thug, and gangsta sub-cultures. Norman Mailer wrote of the antecedents of this phenomenon in 1957 in his essay The White Negro.

The N-word euphemism

— Kenneth B. Noble, January 14, 1995 The New York Times [67]

The euphemism the N-word became mainstream American English usage during the racially contentious O. J. Simpson murder case in 1995.

Key prosecution witness Detective Mark Fuhrman, of the Los Angeles Police Department—who denied using racist language on duty—impeached himself with his prolific use of nigger in tape recordings about his police work. The recordings, by screenplay writer Laura McKinney, were from a 1985 research session wherein the detective assisted her with a screenplay about LAPD policewomen. Fuhrman excused his use of the word saying he used nigger in the context of his "bad cop" persona. Media personnel who reported on Fuhrman's testimony substituted the N-word for nigger.

Homophones

Niger (Latin for "black") occurs in Latinate scientific nomenclature and is the root word for some homophones of nigger sellers of niger seed (used as bird feed), sometimes use the spelling Nyjer seed. The classical Latin pronunciation /ˈniɡeɾ/ sounds similar to the English /ˈnɪɡər/ , occurring in biologic and anatomic names, such as Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane), and even for animals that are in fact not black, such as Sciurus niger (fox squirrel).

Nigra is the Latin feminine form of niger (black), used in biologic and anatomic names such as substantia nigra (black substance).

The word niggardly (miserly) is etymologically unrelated to nigger, derived from the Old Norse word nig (stingy) and the Middle English word nigon. In the US, this word has been misinterpreted as related to nigger and taken as offensive. In January 1999, David Howard, a white Washington, D.C., city employee, was compelled to resign after using niggardly—in a financial context—while speaking with black colleagues, who took umbrage. After reviewing the misunderstanding, Mayor Anthony A. Williams offered to reinstate Howard to his former position. Howard refused reinstatement but took a job elsewhere in the mayor's government. [68]

Denotational extension

The denotations of nigger also comprehend non-black/non-white and other disadvantaged people. Some of these terms are self-chosen, to identify with the oppression and resistance of black Americans others are ethnic slurs used by outsiders.

Jerry Farber's 1967 essay, The Student as Nigger, used the word as a metaphor for what he saw as the role forced on students. Farber had been, at the time, frequently arrested as a civil rights activist while beginning his career as a literature professor.

In his 1968 autobiography White Niggers of America: The Precocious Autobiography of a Quebec "Terrorist", Pierre Vallières, a Front de libération du Québec leader, refers to the oppression of the Québécois people in North America.

In 1969, in the course of being interviewed by the British magazine Nova, artist Yoko Ono said "woman is the nigger of the world" three years later, her husband, John Lennon, published the song of the same name—about the worldwide phenomenon of discrimination against women—which was socially and politically controversial to US sensibilities.

Sand nigger, an ethnic slur against Arabs, and timber nigger and prairie nigger, ethnic slurs against Native Americans, are examples of the racist extension of nigger upon other non-white peoples. [69]

In 1978, singer Patti Smith used the word in "Rock N Roll Nigger".

In 1979, English singer Elvis Costello used the phrase white nigger in "Oliver's Army", a song describing the experiences of working-class soldiers in the British military forces on the "murder mile" (Belfast during The Troubles), where white nigger was a common British pejorative for Irish Catholics. Later, [ when? ] the producers of the British talent show Stars in Their Eyes forced a contestant to censor one of its lines, changing "all it takes is one itchy trigger – One more widow, one less white nigger" to "one less white figure". [ citation needed ]

Historian Eugene Genovese, noted for bringing a Marxist perspective to the study of power, class, and relations between planters and slaves in the South, uses the word pointedly in The World the Slaveholders Made (1988).

For reasons common to the slave condition all slave classes displayed a lack of industrial initiative and produced the famous Lazy Nigger, who under Russian serfdom and elsewhere was white. Just as not all blacks, even under the most degrading forms of slavery, consented to become niggers, so by no means all or even most of the niggers in history have been black.

The editor of Green Egg, a magazine described in The Encyclopedia of American Religions as a significant periodical, published an essay entitled "Niggers of the New Age". This argued that Neo-Pagans were treated badly by other parts of the New Age movement. [70]

Other languages

Other languages, particularly Romance languages, have words that sound similar to nigger (are homophones), but do not mean the same. Just because the words are cognate, i.e. from the same Latin stem as explained above, does not mean they have the same denotation (dictionary meaning) or connotation (emotional association). Whether a word is abusive, pejorative, neutral, affectionate, old-fashioned, etc. depends on its cultural context. How a word is used in English does not determine how a similar-sounding word is used in another language. Conversely, many languages have ethnic slurs that disparage "other" people, i.e. words that serve a similar function to nigger, but these usually stem from completely different roots.

Some examples of how other languages refer to a black person in a neutral and in a pejorative way include:


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Product Description

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Gas Price History

What is the highest gas price ever? Keep reading to learn how the cost has changed over the last 100 years.

Average Gas Prices by Year

© CreditDonkey

YearAverage Price of Gas
1929.21
1930.20
1931.17
1932.18
1933.18
1934.19
1935.19
1936.19
1937.20
1938.20
1939.19
1940.18
1941.19
1942.20
1943.21
1944.21
1945.21
1946.21
1947.23
1948.26
1949.27
1950.27
1951.27
1952.27
1953.29
1954.29
1955.29
1956.30
1957.31
1958.30
1959.31
1960.31
1961.31
1962.31
1963.30
1964.30
1965.31
1966.32
1967.33
1968.34
1969.35
1970.36
1971.36
1972.36
1973.39
1974.53
1975.57
1976.59
1977.62
1978.63
1979.86
1980$1.19
1981$1.31
1982$1.22
1983$1.16
1984$1.13
1985$1.12
1986.86
1987.90
1988.90
1989$1.00
1990$1.15
1991$1.14
1992$1.13
1993$1.11
1994$1.11
1995$1.15
1996$1.23
1997$1.23
1998$1.06
1999$1.17
2000$1.51
2001$1.46
2002$1.36
2003$1.59
2004$1.88
2005$2.30
2006$2.59
2007$2.80
2008$3.27
2009$2.35
2010$2.79
2011$3.53
2012$3.64
2013$3.53
2014$3.37
2015$2.45
2016$2.14
2017$2.52
2018$2.75

What is the highest priced gas in history?
The highest average gas price was $3.64 in 2012, which is 167% more expensive than a decade earlier.

What year did gas go over one dollar?
The average price of gas first went over $1 a gallon in 1980, when it went from .86 per gallon to $1.19 per gallon.

When was the last time gas was under $2 a gallon?
The last time the average price of gas was less than $2 was 15 years ago, in 2004. The average price of gas then was $1.88.

How much was gas in the 90s?
The average price of gas in the 1990's was just shy of $1.15.

Gas Prices by State

What are the top five states with the highest average gas prices today?

StateAverage Gas Price
California$4.03
Hawaii$3.58
Washington$3.52
Nevada$3.48
Alaska$3.43

What are the lowest five states with the lowest average gas prices today?

StateAverage Gas Price
Louisiana$2.44
South Carolina$2.44
Mississippi$2.46
Alabama$2.46
Oklahoma$2.50

How much is the federal gas tax?
The federal gas tax is 18.4 cents per gallon. It hasn't changed for the last 25 years.

What is the average state gas tax?
The national average state tax for gasoline is 34.24 cents per gallon.

Which five states have the highest gas tax?

StateAverage Gas Price
Pennsylvania58.7 cents per gallon
California62.05 cents per gallon
Washington49.4 cents per gallon
Hawaii48.41 cents per gallon
Indiana46.62 cents per gallon

Which five states have the lowest gas tax?

StateAverage Gas Price
Missouri17.42 cents per gallon
Mississippi18.79 cents per gallon
New Mexico18.88 cents per gallon
Texas20 cents per gallon
Oklahoma20 cents per gallon

Gas Price Changes

The cost of gas depends on a variety of factors including:

FactorCost Makeup
Cost of crude oil60% of the price of gas
Federal and state taxes16% of the price of gas
Costs of refining13% of the price of gas
Marketing12% of the price of gas

Why do gas prices fluctuate?
Gas prices rise and fall according to supply and demand. If the supply is down and the demand is high, prices increase. If the demand is low and the supply solid, prices tend to fall.

What causes gas prices to change quickly?
Abrupt increases or decreases in gas prices are usually due to a disruption in crude oil supplies, the operations, or delivery of gas pipelines.

In which seasons are gas prices the highest?
Gas prices tend to increase in the spring and summer. People drive more during warmer weather, so the demand is higher.

In addition, during the summer months, gas refineries must use more expensive gasoline components in order to meet federal guidelines.

In which seasons are gas prices the lowest?
Winter months usually have lower gas prices since people tend to drive less due to the poor road conditions. Gas is also cheaper for refiners because they don't have to worry about evaporation.

What is the best day of the week to buy gas?
The best day to buy gas is Monday, according to a Gas Buddy study. The next best day to buy gas is Sunday.

What is the worst day of the week to buy gas?
Fridays are the most expensive day to buy gas. In a Gas Buddy study, 19 states had the highest gas prices at the end of the work week.

What is the best time of day to get gas?
Generally, gas station owners change gas prices in the late morning/early afternoon when they learn that other gas station owners are changing prices.

Diesel Fuel

What is the average price of diesel fuel in 2019?
The average price of diesel fuel is $3.16 in the United States.

What was the average price of diesel fuel in 2018?
The average price of diesel fuel in 2018 was $3.18. This is 0.43 more per gallon than the average price of regular gas.

Bottom Line

In the last five years, the price of gas has remained steady between $2.45 and $2.75 per gallon. Gas prices are based largely on supply and demand.

Typically, gas costs less during the winter months when drivers are less likely to be on the road. Similarly, prices tend to rise during the spring and summer months when more drivers are on the road.


Talking with your health care provider

If you have a family history of breast or other type of cancer, your health care provider can help you understand how this impacts your risk of breast cancer.

Susan G. Komen ® ‘s My Family Health History Tool

My Family Health History tool is a web-based tool that makes it easy for you to record and organize your family health history. It can help you gather information that’s useful as you talk with your doctor or genetic counselor.

People with limited information on family medical history

You may not know your family medical history.

Risk assessment tools such as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (Gail model) can estimate your breast cancer risk without this information. However, it will be less accurate without your family history details.

Talking with your health care provider about other risk factors for breast cancer can help you learn about your risk even if you don’t have information on your family medical history.

1. Know your risk

2. Get screened

  • Talk with a health care provider about which screening tests are right for you if you’re at higher risk
  • Have a mammogram every year starting at age 40 if you’re at average risk
  • Have a clinical breast exam at least every 3 years starting at age 20, and every year starting at age 40
  • Sign up for your screening reminder at komen.org/reminder

3. Know what is normal for you and see a health care provider if you notice any of these breast changes (see images):


Watch the video: Streets of Philadelphia, Kensington Ave Story, Heres What Happened Today, Tuesday, Sept 7, 2021. (May 2022).


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