Colonel on the verge of retirement at the start of the Great War, Philippe Pétain was one of the great architects of the French victory in 1914-1918, notably because of his role in the Battle of Verdun. Yet he was one of the few actors in the Great War who did not leave writings and testimonies about his intense years in command, until the release of "The World War, 1914-1918" , by Editions Privat.
The Great War saw successive battles, each more deadly than the next: the Marne, the Somme, the Chemin des Dames ... However, the name of Verdun retains a particular resonance. The Battle of Verdun is hell, an endless struggle, which resulted in a victory achieved at the cost of unimaginable sacrifices.
In 1861, the state of Virginia was one of the largest and most prosperous in the Union. Nicknamed “the Mother of Presidents” because of the number of her sons having ascended to the supreme office (starting with the first of them, George Washington), Virginia was also the first English-speaking colony founded on the North American continent. , in 1607.
When we talk about archeology, we think especially of ancient or even medieval sites. For the general public, archeology is mainly used to discover past civilizations which are little known today. However, in recent decades, this discipline is no longer limited to "very old" remains: in 1978, the CILAC association (Information and Liaison Committee for Archeology, Study and Development) of industrial heritage) is founded to take into account this singular heritage and largely neglected until then.
What do we know about the Roman woman? The female population nevertheless represents half of the inhabitants of ancient rome, but we know little about their condition and their way of life. The statuary and the mural are two important archaeological sources, but for the hygiene of the body and the cosmetics, one should especially refer to the ancient texts, written by men.
At the Battle of Hattin on July 4, 1187, Saladin defeated the army of the King of Jerusalem, Guy de Lusignan, and his turbulent ally Renaud de Châtillon at the place called the Horns of Hattin, near Lake Tiberias. This is the last step in Saladin's recapture of Jerusalem since he succeeded in unifying Muslims under the banner of jihad.
A surprise fall 2011 success on Canal Plus, the Borgia series, co-produced by the French channel and created by Tom Fontana, faces competition from The Borgias by Neil Jordan and produced by the American Showtime. Let’s compare the two series, their way of telling this fascinating period at the crossroads between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and especially their approach to this mythical family that has become the Borgias.
In 1894 the biggest affair of the Third Republic broke out, the one that would tear apart the deputies, but also the whole of France, which was passionate about this story relayed as never before by the press: the Dreyfus Affair! Articles, speeches, debates, caricatures, all weapons are good to support his theses and discredit the opponent.
Mary, the mother of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the great figures of Christianity and Islam. Some, like Catholics and Orthodox, consider Mary a privileged intercessor between men and God. Since the origins of Christianity, Mary has fascinated and is the subject of an important apocryphal literature to lift the veil on the very many shadowy areas of her existence.
By the end of July 1862, the withdrawal of the Northern fleets from Vicksburg and the evacuation of Natchez had left the Confederacy in control of a sizeable portion of the course of the Mississippi, when the river was on the verge of being entirely in the hands of the Northerners barely a month earlier.
Since October 20, 2009, an exhibition in honor of the Sun King: "Louis XIV: the man and the King", has been held at the Palace of Versailles. Until February 7, 2010, it presents more than 300 works never collected until now, such as furniture, paintings, sculptures and other objects of art.
The term "Grande Armée" is given by Napoleon I Emperor to the army which he united in 1805 at the Boulogne camp to invade the United Kingdom. It was this army which was redirected towards Austria at the end of the year and which won the meteoric victories of Ulm and Austerlitz. From then on, the term “Grand Army” was associated with the imperial army until 1815, this army considered to be the best in the world which entered Madrid, Berlin, Rome, Vienna, Moscow… The infantry, queen of battles , forms the backbone of this war machine.
The Treaty of Versailles (1919) imposed limits on the size of line ships on Germany. Even if Nazi Germany ended up bypassing the construction of the Bismarck, it began by cleverly circumventing these prohibitions by inventing a new class, "pocket battleships", with an artillery superior to that of heavy cruisers (6x 280 mm). and a cuirass capable of withstanding their 203mm rounds, while having limited tonnage.
Five centuries after Christopher Columbus, between 1961 and 1981, man embarked on a new conquest, the greatest ever: that of Space. Mysterious, cold and still very little known to this day, Space fascinates. From the first orbit of a manned capsule to the launch of the first real spacecraft, 20 years of feats have made an entire generation dream.
Discovered around 1901 in Mesopotamia, the Hammurabi code stele is today one of the pride of the Department of Oriental Antiquities at the Louvre museum. This block of black diorite more than two meters high represents on its upper part, Shamash, the sun god, presenting to Hammurabi a ring symbolizing the legislative power.
The goal of the crusade launched on November 27, 1095 by Urban II was accomplished: Jerusalem and the tomb of Christ were freed from the ungodly hands of Muslims, and at the same time purified in a bloodbath. The Pope died the same year, in 1099, probably not knowing that the war pilgrimage had been successful.
No ! A courtesan is not a lady of the court to whom one tales a little! She is a prostitute for whom the French language has respect (the royal favorites enjoy a special status). Cocottes, demi-mondaines or & 39; & 39; horizontal & 39;, they escape the obscenity of terms reserved for ordinary whores.
The Stasi. This famous and mysterious word chilled the spines of every East German. This now defunct institution was the political police, the German Democratic Republic's espionage and counter-espionage service, proclaimed in 1949 and disappeared in 1990 with reunification.
The term Septimania is used by Gregory of Tours, biographer of Clovis, to designate Visigothic Gaul. It was annexed in 719 following the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and thereby becomes one of the five provinces of Al Andalus whose capital Narbonne becomes Arbûnah.
Aviation series are very special in the comic book world, and luckily aren't limited to Buck Danny or the Sky Knights. Romain Hugault is one of those cartoonists passionate about aviation (himself a confirmed pilot and whose father was a pilot in the Air Force), and who gives a facelift to the genre, and to whom In particular, the series “Beyond the clouds”, which has won numerous awards and which we will talk about soon.
In June 861, Charles le Chauve (823, † 877) summons the annual general plea in the royal villa of Pîtres, asking the great to come accompanied by workers and tanks. He then gives orders to start the construction of a fortified bridge spanning the courses of the Seine and the Eure in order to block the road to the Viking fleets which infest the valley.